Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. The former Chrysler Corporation acquired the Jeep brand, along with the assets of its owner American Motors. The division is headquartered in Toledo, Jeeps current product range consists solely of sport utility vehicles and off-road vehicles, but has included pickup trucks in the past. The original Jeep was the prototype Bantam BRC, Willys MB Jeeps went into production in 1941 specifically for the military, arguably making them the oldest four-wheel drive mass-production vehicles now known as SUVs. The Jeep became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army, the term became common worldwide in the wake of the war. Doug Stewart notes, The spartan and unstintingly functional jeep became the ubiquitous World War II four-wheeled personification of Yankee ingenuity and cocky, the first civilian models were produced in 1945. It inspired a number of light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover.
Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been designed in other nations, only two companies responded to the request, American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army had set what seemed like an impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype, Willys asked for more time, but was refused. The bankrupt American Bantam Car Company had no engineering staff left on the payroll and solicited Karl Probst, after turning down Bantams initial request, Probst responded to an Army request and commenced work, initially without salary, on July 17,1940. Probst laid out plans for the Bantam prototype, known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissance Car. Bantams bid was submitted, complete with blueprints, on July 22, while much of the vehicle could be assembled from off-the-shelf automotive parts, custom four-wheel drivetrain components were to be supplied by Spicer. The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler and driven to Camp Holabird, the vehicle met all the Armys criteria except engine torque.
The resulting Ford Pygmy and Willys Quad prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC prototype, fifteen hundred of each of the three models were built and extensively field-tested. Delmar Barney Roos, Willys-Overlands chief engineer, made changes to meet a revised weight specification. He was thus able to use the powerful but comparatively heavy Willys Go Devil engine, the Willys version of the car would become the standardized Jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed-metal Jeep grille was actually a Ford design feature, the Army chose Ford as the second supplier, building Jeeps to the Willys design. Willys supplied Ford with a set of plans and specifications
Use of the term is confused, as it is applied to several different, but related, meanings. The purpose of such a gear may not be immediately obvious, the power produced by an engine increases with the engines RPM to a maximum, falls away. The point of power is somewhat lower than the absolute maximum RPM to which the engine is limited. A cars speed is limited by the required to drive it against air resistance. At the maximum speed, the engine is running at its point of maximum power, or power peak. There is therefore one specific gear ratio at which the car can achieve its maximum speed, the one that matches that engine speed with that travel speed. At travel speeds below this maximum, there is a range of ratios that can match engine power to air resistance. Therefore, a car needs one gearing to reach maximum speed, with the early development of cars and the almost universal rear-wheel drive layout, the final drive ratio for fast cars was chosen to give the ratio for maximum speed. The gearbox was designed so that, for efficiency, the fastest ratio would be a direct-drive or straight-through 1,1 ratio, avoiding frictional losses in the gears.
Achieving an overdriven ratio for cruising thus required a gearbox ratio even higher than this, the propeller shaft linking gearbox and rear axle is thus overdriven, and a transmission capable of doing this became termed an overdrive transmission. The device for achieving an overdrive transmission was usually a separate gearbox, attached to the rear of the main gearbox. These were often optional on models of the same car. These had a fourth gear with an overdrive 5th gear. With the popularity of front wheel drive cars, the separate gearbox, there is no longer a propeller shaft and so one meaning of overdrive can no longer be applied. However the fundamental meaning, that of a ratio higher than the ratio for maximum speed. Although the deliberate labelling of an overdrive is now rare, the feature is now found across all cars. The power needed to propel a car at any set of conditions and speed is straightforward to calculate, based primarily on the total weight. These produce two primary forces slowing the car, rolling resistance, and air drag, the former varies roughly with the speed of the vehicle, while the latter varies with the square of the speed
Mazda Motor Corporation, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. In 2011, Mazda was the fifteenth biggest automaker by production worldwide, Mazdas company website states that its name is derived from Ahura Mazda, the Avestan word for God, which is the name of God to Zoroastrians. Specifically, the states that The name was associated with Ahura Mazda. The company website further notes that the name derives from the name of the companys founder. Mazda began as the Toyo Cork Kogyo Co, founded in Hiroshima, Japan,30 January 1920. Toyo Cork Kogyo renamed itself to Toyo Kogyo Co. Ltd. in 1927, in the late 1920s the company had to be saved from bankruptcy by Hiroshima Saving Bank and other business leaders in Hiroshima. In 1931 Toyo Kogyo moved from manufacturing machine tools to vehicles with the introduction of the Mazda-Go autorickshaw, Toyo Kogyo produced weapons for the Japanese military throughout the Second World War, most notably the series 30 through 35 Type 99 rifle.
The company formally adopted the Mazda name in 1984, though every automobile sold from the bore that name. The Mazda R360 was introduced in 1960, followed by the Mazda Carol in 1962, both piston-powered and rotary-powered models made their way around the world. The R100 and the RX series led the companys export efforts, during 1968, Mazda started formal operations in Canada although Mazdas were seen in Canada as early as 1959. In 1970, Mazda formally entered the American market and was successful there. To this day, Mazda remains the only automaker to have produced a Wankel-powered pickup truck, additionally, it is the only marque to have ever offered a rotary-powered bus or station wagon. After nine years of development, Mazda finally launched its new model in the U. S. in 1970, Mazdas rotary success continued until the onset of the 1973 oil crisis. As American buyers quickly turned to vehicles with fuel efficiency. Combined with being the least-efficient automaker in Japan, inability to adjust to excess inventory and over-reliance on the U. S. market, the company suffered a huge loss in 1975.
Fortunately, the company had not totally turned its back on piston engines, the smaller Familia line in particular became very important to Mazdas worldwide sales after 1973, as did the somewhat larger Capella series. Mazda refocused its efforts and made the engine a choice for the sporting motorist rather than a mainstream powerplant. Starting with the lightweight RX-7 in 1978 and continuing with the modern RX-8 and this switch in focus resulted in the development of another lightweight sports car, the piston-powered Mazda Roadster, inspired by the concept jinba ittai
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
FCA US is one of the Big Three American automobile manufacturers. FCA US has its headquarters in Auburn Hills and sells vehicles worldwide under its flagship Chrysler brand, as well as the Dodge, other major divisions include Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its performance automobile division. The Chrysler Corporation was founded by Walter Chrysler in 1925, out of what remained of the Maxwell Motor Company, Chrysler greatly expanded in 1928, when Mr. The brand diversification efforts were inspired by Mr. Chryslers time working for General Motors, in the 1960s the company expanded into Europe, by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies, Chrysler Europe was sold in 1978 to PSA Peugeot Citroën for $1. Chrysler struggled through the 1970s to adapt to changing markets, increased US import competition, the company began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, and began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America.
By the late 1970s, Chrysler was on the verge of bankruptcy, New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created, further expanding the Chrysler-Mitsubishi relationship, in 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was hit hard by the industry crisis of 2008–2010. On June 10,2009, Chrysler emerged from the proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S. p. A. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts, by May 24,2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years Fiat gradually acquired the other parties shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period. On January 1,2014, Fiat S. p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust.
The deal was completed on January 21,2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S. p. A, in May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, NV was established by merging Fiat S. p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014, Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15,2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger. The Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6,1925, Walter Chrysler arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s. He was hired to overhaul the companys troubled operations, in late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile, the Chrysler was a 6-cylinder automobile, designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, but at a more affordable price than they might expect. The original 1924 Chrysler included an air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001, Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world behind General Motors, Volkswagen Group, Hyundai Motor Group, Nissan, and PSA Peugeot Citroën in 2011. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a luxury brand, Acura. Aside from their automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012. Honda has three joint-ventures in China, in 2013, Honda invested about 5. 7% of its revenues in research and development. Also in 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, throughout his life, Hondas founder, Soichiro Honda had an interest in automobiles.
He worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he tuned cars, in 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers. The relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company, with a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines. When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine and this was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound the engine made. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today, at about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, and Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Hondas technical bent.
The close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973, the first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a time to become the worlds largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964. The first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket. The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car and its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Hondas motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its line and expanded operations. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to ground in the luxury vehicle market
Nissan Motor Company Ltd, usually shortened to Nissan, is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. The company sells its cars under the Nissan, since 1999, Nissan has been part of the Renault–Nissan Alliance, a partnership between Nissan and French automaker Renault. As of 2013, Renault holds a 43. 4% voting stake in Nissan, Carlos Ghosn serves as CEO of both companies. Taken together, the Renault–Nissan Alliance would be the fourth largest automaker, however Nissan is the leading Japanese brand in China, Russia. Nissan is the worlds largest electric vehicle manufacturer, with sales of more than 275,000 all-electric vehicles as of mid-December 2016. Masujiro Hashimoto founded the Kaishinsha Motor Car Works 1 July 1911, in 1914, the company produced its first car, called DAT. DAT Motors built trucks in addition to the DAT and Datsun passenger cars, beginning in 1918, the first DAT trucks were produced for the military market. At the same time, Jitsuyo Jidosha Co.
Ltd. produced small trucks using parts, Commercial operations were placed on hold during Japans participation in World War I, and the company contributed to the war effort. In 1926 the Tokyo-based DAT Motors merged with the Osaka-based Jitsuyo Jidosha Co. Ltd. a. k. a, Jitsuyo Jidosha Seizo to become DAT Jidosha Seizo Co. Ltd Automobile Manufacturing Co. Ltd. in Osaka until 1932, from 1923 to 1925, the company produced light cars and trucks under the name of Lila. In 1931, DAT came out with a new car, called the Datsun Type 11. Later in 1933 after Nissan Group zaibatsu took control of DAT Motors, in 1933, the company name was Nipponized to Jidosha-Seizo Co. Ltd. and was moved to Yokohama. In 1928, Yoshisuke Aikawa founded the holding company Nihon Sangyo, the name Nissan originated during the 1930s as an abbreviation used on the Tokyo Stock Exchange for Nihon Sangyo. This company was the famous Nissan Zaibatsu which included Tobata Casting, at this time Nissan controlled foundries and auto parts businesses, but Aikawa did not enter automobile manufacturing until 1933.
The zaibatsu eventually grew to include 74 firms, and became the fourth-largest in Japan during World War II, in 1931, DAT Jidosha Seizo became affiliated with Tobata Casting, and was merged into Tobata Casting in 1933. As Tobata Casting was a Nissan company, this was the beginning of Nissans automobile manufacturing, in 1934, Aikawa separated the expanded automobile parts division of Tobata Casting and incorporated it as a new subsidiary, which he named Nissan Motor Co. Ltd. The shareholders of the new company however were not enthusiastic about the prospects of the automobile in Japan, at this time, Nissan Motor effectively became owned by Nihon Sangyo and Hitachi. In 1935, construction of its Yokohama plant was completed,44 Datsuns were shipped to Asia and South America
Lincoln Motor Company
The Lincoln Motor Company is a division of the U. S. -based Ford Motor Company that sells luxury vehicles under the Lincoln brand. Founded in 1917 by Henry M. Leland, Lincoln has been a subsidiary of Ford since 1922, while currently sold primarily in North America, Ford introduced the Lincoln brand to China in 2014. Lincoln vehicles are sold in the Middle East and South Korea. The current Lincoln model range in North America consists of two sedans, three crossover utility vehicles, and a utility vehicle. Lincoln sells two vehicles specifically for use, both based on the MKT. The Lincoln Motor Company was founded in August 1917 by Henry Leland, an engineer, Henry Leland named his new automobile company after Abraham Lincoln, the first presidential candidate for whom he had cast a vote. Following the end of the war, the Lincoln factory was retooled entirely for automobile production, during the early 1920s, Lincoln suffered severe financial issues, balancing the loss of revenue of Liberty engine production with the obsolete design of the expensive Model L.
For Henry Ford, the purchase of Lincoln was a personal triumph, the company, renamed Cadillac in 1902 was purchased by General Motors in 1909, serving as the chief competitor to Lincoln. While Henry Ford had previously introduced Ford-branded luxury vehicles, the company found little acceptance, with the acquisition of Lincoln, the nameplate became a top-selling rival alongside Pierce-Arrow, Peerless and Packard. Although the chassis itself saw few changes, the body saw significant updates. At the direction of Henrys son Edsel, in 1923 several body styles were introduced, that included two- and three-window, four-door sedans and they offered a two-passenger roadster and a seven-passenger touring sedan and limousine, which was sold for $5,200. A sedan, limo and town car were offered by coachbuilders Fleetwood and Dietrich. Murphy and Waterhouse were added in the 1930s, in 1924 large touring sedans began to be used by police departments around the country. They were known as Police Flyers, which were equipped with four-wheel brakes, Police whistles were coupled to the exhaust system and gun racks were fitted to these vehicles.
Optional equipment was not necessarily an issue with Lincolns sold during the 1920s, however, a nickel-plated radiator shell could be installed for $25, varnished natural wood wheels were $15, or Rudge-Whitworth center-lock wire wheels for another $100. Disteel steel disc wheels were available for $60. Lincoln chose not to make yearly model changes, used as a tool of the time. Lincoln customers of the time were known to more than one Lincoln with different bodywork
A hub gear, internal-gear hub, or just gear hub is a gear ratio changing system commonly used on bicycles that is implemented with planetary or epicyclic gears. The gears and lubricants are sealed within the shell of the hub gear, in contrast with derailleur gears where the gears, changing the gear ratio was traditionally accomplished by a shift lever connected to the hub with a Bowden cable, and twist-grip style shifters have become common. Hub gear systems generally have a long and largely maintenance-free life though some are not suitable for use in competitions or hilly. Many commuter or urban cycles such as European city bikes are now fitted with 7-speed gear-hubs. Older or less costly utility bicycles often use 3-speed gear-hubs, such as in bicycle sharing systems, many folding bicycles use 3-speed gear-hubs. Modern developments with up to 14 gear ratios are available, before epicyclic gears were used in bicycle hubs, they were used on tricycles. Patents for epicyclic hubs date from the mid-1880s, the first patent for a compact epicyclic hub gear was granted in 1895 to the American machinist Seward Thomas Johnson of Noblesville, Indiana, U. S. A.
This was a 2-speed but was not commercially successful, in 1896, William Reilly of Salford, England patented a 2-speed hub which went into production in 1898 as The Hub. It was a success, remaining in production for a decade. It rapidly established the practicality of compact epicyclic hub gears, by 1902, Reilly had designed a 3-speed hub gear. He parted company with the manufacturer of The Hub but had signed away to them the rights to his future gear designs. To circumvent this problem, the patents for Reillys 3-speed were obtained in the name of his colleague, well-known English journalist and inventor Henry Sturmey had invented a 3-speed hub. In 1903, Frank Bowden, head of the Raleigh Bicycle Company, formed The Three-Speed Gear Syndicate, Reillys hub went into production as the first Sturmey Archer 3-speed. In 1902, Mikael Pedersen patented a 3-speed hub gear and this was produced in 1903 and this was said to be based on the counter shaft principle but was arguably an unusual epicyclic gear, in which a second sun was used in place of a ring gear.
In 1904 the Fichtel & Sachs company produced a hub gear under license to Wanderer, by the 1930s, hub gears were used on bicycles all over the world. They were particularly popular in the UK, The Netherlands, the German-speaking countries, the cheaper and stronger derailleur system have now started to appear and offer a wider gear range. By 1987, Sturmey-Archer made only 3- and 5-speed hubs, and Fichtel & Sachs and Shimano made only 2-, in that year, the first book for some 80 years dealing solely with epicyclic bicycle gears was published. Since then, there has been a slow but steady increase in interest in hub gears, in 1995, Sachs introduced the Elan, the first hub gear with 12 speeds, and an overall range of 339%
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford and their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to HRH the Prince of Wales since 1982, headquarters and the main production site are in Gaydon, England, on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martins recent cars was named after the 1950s Vulcan Bomber, Aston Martin has diversified to speed boats, and real estate development. Aston Martin had a troubled history after the quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success. “In the first century we went bankrupt seven times, ” incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe, “The second century is about making sure that is not the case. ”Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK, Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles.
The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini and they acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of World War I, all machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company. After the war found new premises at Abingdon Road, Kensington. Bamford left in 1920 and Aston Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski, in 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations, long chassis and short chassis, Aston Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Aston Martin failed again in 1925 and the closed in 1926. Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business and they renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham.
The only Renwick and Bertelli motor car made, it was known as Buzzbox, between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as Bertelli cars. They included the 1½-litre T-type, International, Le Mans, MKII and its derivative, the Ulster, and the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative. Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertellis brother Enrico, with a number of long-chassis four-seater tourers, dropheads. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers, the LM team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans and the Mille Miglia
Bicycle gearing is the aspect of a bicycle drivetrain that determines the relation between the cadence, the rate at which the rider pedals, and the rate at which the drive wheel turns. On some bicycles, there is only one gear and the ratio is fixed. Many contemporary bicycles have multiple gears and thus multiple gear ratios, different gear ratios and gear ranges are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. A cyclists legs produce power optimally within a narrow pedalling speed range, gearing can be optimized to use this narrow range as efficiently as possible. As in other types of transmissions, the ratio is closely related to the mechanical advantage of the drivetrain of the bicycle. On single-speed bicycles and multi-speed bicycles using derailleur gears, the ratio depends on the ratio of the number of teeth on the chainring to the number of teeth on the rear sprocket. For bicycles equipped with hub gears, the gear ratio depends on the internal planetary gears within the hub.
For a shaft-driven bicycle the gear ratio depends on the bevel gears used at end of the shaft. For a bicycle to travel at the speed, using a lower gear requires the rider to pedal at a faster cadence. Conversely, a higher gear provides a speed for a given cadence. Different cyclists may have different preferences for cadence and pedaling force, there are at least four different methods for measuring gear ratios, gear inches, metres of development, gain ratio, and quoting the number of teeth on the front and rear sprockets respectively. The fourth method uses two numbers and is useful in comparing bicycles with the same drive wheel diameter. In the case of road bikes, this is usually around 670 mm, a 700c standard wheel has a 622mm rim diameter. The final wheel diameter depends on the tire but will be approximately 622mm plus twice the tire width. Front/rear measurement only considers the sizes of a chainring and a rear sprocket, gear inches and metres of development take the size of the rear wheel into account.
Gain ratio goes further and takes the length of a pedal crankarm into account, gear inches and metres of development are closely related, to convert from gear inches to metres of development, multiply by 0.08. The methods of calculation which follow assume that any hub gear is in direct drive, multiplication by a further factor is needed to allow for any other selected hub gear ratio. Gear inches = Diameter of drive wheel in inches ×, normally rounded to nearest whole number
Jaguars business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922, originally making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S, Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co many bearing Jaguar as a model name. The companys name was changed from S. S, Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. Jaguar was de-merged from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles, the carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014. The Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley, in 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and Lyons formed S. S. Cars Limited funding the replacement of Walmsleys investment by issuing shares to the public, the SS Jaguar name first appeared in September 1935 on a 2. 5-litre saloon, sports models of which were the SS90 and SS100.
On 23 March 1945 the S. S, Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the companys name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said Chairman William Lyons Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive, Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, and Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons mantra of value for money. The sports cars were successful in motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the companys products. Jaguars sales slogan for years was Grace, Pace, during the time this slogan was used, but the exact text varied. It had a hemispherical cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical, originally at 30 degrees and 45 degrees. As fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered, domed and dished. The main designer, William Bill Heynes, assisted by Walter Wally Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit, Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan.
It was risky to take what had previously considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling. The subsequent engine was the powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would achieve 200,000 miles of useful life, Two of the proudest moments in Jaguars long history in motor sport involved winning the Le Mans 24 hours race, firstly in 1951 and again in 1953