Many-worlds interpretation

The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts that the universal wavefunction is objectively real, that there is no wavefunction collapse. This implies that all possible outcomes of quantum measurements are physically realized in some "world" or universe. In contrast to some other interpretations, such as the Copenhagen interpretation, the evolution of reality as a whole in MWI is rigidly deterministic. Many-worlds is referred to as the relative state formulation or the Everett interpretation, after the physicist Hugh Everett who first proposed it in 1957; the formulation was named many-worlds by Bryce DeWitt in the 1960s and 1970s. In many-worlds, the subjective appearance of wavefunction collapse is explained by the mechanism of quantum decoherence. Decoherence approaches to interpreting quantum theory have been explored and developed since the 1970s, have become quite popular. MWI is considered a mainstream interpretation along with the other decoherence interpretations, collapse theories, hidden variable theories such as Bohmian mechanics.

The many-worlds interpretation implies that there is a large—perhaps infinite—number of universes. It is one of many multiverse hypotheses in philosophy. MWI views time as a many-branched tree; this is intended to resolve some paradoxes of quantum theory, such as the EPR paradox and Schrödinger's cat, since every possible outcome of a quantum event exists in its own universe. In 1952 Erwin Schrödinger gave a lecture in Dublin in which at one point he jocularly warned his audience that what he was about to say might "seem lunatic", he went on to assert that what the equation that won him a Nobel prize seems to be describing is several different histories, they are "not alternatives but all happen simultaneously". This is the earliest known reference to the many-worlds; the idea of MWI originated in Everett's Princeton Ph. D. thesis "The Theory of the Universal Wavefunction", developed under his thesis advisor John Archibald Wheeler, a shorter summary of, published in 1957 entitled "Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics".

The phrase "many-worlds" is due to Bryce DeWitt, responsible for the wider popularisation of Everett's theory, ignored for the first decade after publication. DeWitt's phrase "many-worlds" has become so much more popular than Everett's "Universal Wavefunction" or Everett–Wheeler's "Relative State Formulation" that many forget that this is only a difference of terminology, it was claimed that Everett himself was not clear as to what he believed. Additionally, recent biographical sources make it clear that Everett believed in the literal reality of the other quantum worlds. Everett's son reported that Hugh Everett "never wavered in his belief over his many-worlds theory". Although several versions of many-worlds have been proposed since Hugh Everett's original work, they all contain one key idea: the equations of physics that model the time evolution of systems without embedded observers are sufficient for modelling systems which do contain observers. Provided the theory is linear with respect to the wavefunction, the exact form of the quantum dynamics modelled, be it the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation, relativistic quantum field theory or some form of quantum gravity or string theory, does not alter the validity of MWI since MWI is a metatheory applicable to all linear quantum theories, there is no experimental evidence for any non-linearity of the wavefunction in physics.

MWI's main conclusion is that the universe is composed of a quantum superposition of many even non-denumerably infinitely many divergent, non-communicating parallel universes or quantum worlds. The many-worlds interpretation shares many similarities with other "post-Everett" interpretations of quantum mechanics which use decoherence to explain the process of measurement or wavefunction collapse. MWI treats the other histories or worlds as real since it regards the universal wavefunction as the "basic physical entity" or "the fundamental entity, obeying at all times a deterministic wave equation"; the other decoherent interpretations, such as consistent histories, the Existential Interpretation etc. either regard the extra quantum worlds as metaphorical in some sense, or are agnostic about their reality. MWI is distinguished by two qualities: it assumes realism, which it assigns to the wavefunction, it has the minimal formal structure possible, rejecting any hidden variables, quantum potential, any form of a collapse postulate or mental postulates.

Decoherent interpretations of many-worlds using einselection to explain how a small number of classical pointer states can emerge from the enormous Hilbert space of superpositions have been proposed by Wojciech H. Zurek. "Under scrutiny of the environment, only pointer states remain unchanged. Other states decohere into mixtures of stable pointer states that can persist, and, in this sense, exist

Tümay Ertek

Tümay Ertek was born in Silifke, Turkey, in 1938. He received his high school degree from Tarsus American College in 1958 and his bachelor's degree from Middle East Technical University in 1962, he received his master and Ph. D. from University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States. He served as a professor at Middle East Technical University and Boğaziçi University for many years. During 1971–1972, he served as the Head of Department at the Economics Department at Middle East Technical University. In the meanwhile, he visited Khartoum University in Sudan, Pahlavi University in Iran, Boise State University in Idaho, United States, as a visiting professor. Ertek became Associate Professor in 1981, full Professor in 1988, retired from Boğaziçi University in 1995. Following his retirement, Ertek served at Eastern Mediterranean University in the Turkish Republic of Cyprus, at various private universities in Turkey. Ertek died in 2011. In his final years, he contributed to the development of the field of economics in Turkey by doing research regarding the Turkish economy and writing numerous textbooks for university students.

"Meslek Yüksekokulları için Makro İktisat by Tümay Ertek "Meslek Yüksekokulları için İktisata Giriş by Tümay Ertek "Temel Ekonomi by Tümay Ertek "Temel Ekonomi için Alıştırmalar by Tümay Ertek "Mikroekonomi Teorisi by Tümay Ertek "Mikroekonomi Teorisi için Alıştırmalar by Tümay Ertek "Makroekonomiye Giriş by Tümay Ertek "Mikroekonomiye Giriş by Tümay Ertek Prof. Tümay Ertek's home page

Mad, Bad, and Dangerous to Know (Dead or Alive album)

Mad and Dangerous to Know is the third studio album by British pop band Dead or Alive, released on 21 November 1986 on Epic Records. Continuing their association with the Stock Aitken Waterman production team, Dead or Alive scored several hit singles from this album, including "Brand New Lover", "Something in My House", "Hooked on Love" and "I'll Save You All My Kisses"; the video for "Something in My House" was an homage in part to Jean Cocteau's film La Belle et La Bete. In addition to an image of singer Pete Burns, the cover features one of the game walls at the Chateau de Raray, where some of the scenes for La Belle et La Bete were filmed; the cover photographer is Bob Carlos Clarke. The phrase "Mad and Dangerous to Know" itself comes from a statement by Lady Caroline Lamb describing controversial English literary figure Lord Byron. All tracks written by Alive. Side One "Brand New Lover" – 5:18 "I'll Save You All My Kisses" – 3:35 "Son of a Gun" – 4:15 "Then There Was You" – 3:45 "Come Inside" – 4:28Side Two "Something in My House" – 7:20 "Hooked on Love" – 3:55 "I Want You" – 4:12 "Special Star" – 4:10 Dead or Alive Pete Burns – vocals Mike Percy – bass guitar, guitars Tim Lever – keyboards Steve Coy – drumsAdditional personnel Mike Stock – producer Pete Waterman – producer Matt Aitken – producer Mark McGuire – engineer Burni Adams – tape operator