The Kuma–Manych Depression, is a geological depression in southwestern Russia that separates the Russian Plain to the north from Ciscaucasia to the south. It is named after the Manych rivers, it is sometimes regarded as a definition for the natural boundary between Europe and Asia, although some modern sources use the Greater Caucasus watershed instead. The Rostovsky Biosphere Reserve is located within the Depression. Eurasia Canal Manych Ship Canal
The Don is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, the Oka basin to the north; the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh southwest to its mouth; the main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the Volga-Don river region was the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans c. 4000BC. The Don river functioned as a fertile cradle of civilization where the Neolithic farmer culture of the Near East fused with the hunter-gatherer culture of Siberian groups, resulting in the nomadic pastoralism of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.
During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs and has been a major trading route since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes. Pliny gives the Scythian name of the Tanais as Silys. According to Plutarch, the Don River was home to the legendary Amazons of Greek mythology; the area around the estuary is speculated to be the source of the Black Death. While the lower Don was well known to ancient geographers, its middle and upper reaches were not mapped with any accuracy before the gradual conquest of the area by Muscovy in the 16th century; the Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. The fort of Donkov was founded by the princes of Ryazan in the late 14th century; the fort stood on the left bank of the Don, about 34 kilometers from the modern town of Dankov, until 1568, when it was destroyed by the Crimean Tatars, but soon restored at a better fortified location.
It is shown as Donko in Mercator's Atlas, Donkov was again relocated in 1618, appearing as Donkagorod in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Both Blaeu and Mercator follow the 16th-century cartographic tradition of letting the Don originate in a great lake, labelled Resanskoy ozera by Blaeu. Mercator still follows Giacomo Gastaldo in showing a waterway connecting this lake to Ryazan and the Oka River. Mercator shows Mtsensk as a great city on this waterway, suggesting a system of canals connecting the Don with the Zusha and Upa centered on a settlement Odoium, reported as Odoium lacum in the map made by Baron Augustin von Mayerberg, leader of an embassy to Muscovy in 1661. In modern literature, the Don region was featured in the work And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a Nobel-prize winning writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya. At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, connecting the two rivers, is a major waterway; the water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.
For the next 130 kilometres below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock, Konstantinovsk Ship Lock, the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock. The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is 7.5 kilometres below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, 131 kilometres upstream of Rostov-on-Don, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets; this is presently the last lock on the Don. In order to improve shipping conditions in the lower reaches of the Don, the waterway authorities support the proposals for the construction of one or two more low dams with locks, in Bagayevsky District and also in Aksaysky District. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Krasivaya Mecha Bystraya Sosna Veduga Voronezh Tikhaya Sosna Bityug Black Kalitva Khopyor – 1,010 kilometres Medveditsa Ilovlya Chir Seversky Donets – 1,053 kilometres Aidar – 264 kilometres Sal Manych Aksay Temernik Don goat And Quiet Flows The Don Rostov railway drawbridge Don at GEOnet Names Server
The Terek River, a major river in the Northern Caucasus, flows through South Ossetia and Russia into the Caspian Sea. It rises in South Ossetia near the juncture of the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range and the Khokh Range, to the southwest of Mount Kazbek, winding north in a white torrent between the town of Stepantsminda and the village of Gergeti toward the Russian region North Ossetia and the city of Vladikavkaz, it turns east to flow through Chechnya and Dagestan before dividing into two branches which empty into the Caspian Sea. Below the city of Kizlyar it forms a swampy river delta around 100 kilometres wide; the river is a key natural asset in the region, providing irrigation and hydroelectric power in its upper reaches. The main cities on the Terek include Vladikavkaz and Kizlyar. Several minor hydroelectric power stations dam the Terek: Dzau electrostation and Pavlodolskaya. Construction has started of the Dariali Hydropower Plant, with a planned installed capacity of 108 MW, on the territory of Kazbegi municipality near the Russia–Georgia border.
Leo Tolstoy's novel The Cossacks is set amongst its Cossacks. The Terek drains most of the northeast Caucasus east into the Caspian just as its sister, the Kuban River, drains the northwest Caucasus west into the Black Sea, its major tributaries are the following. In the west a fan of rivers flows northeast into the Terek; these are the east-flowing Malka River, the Baksan River, the Chergem River and the Cherek River with its two branches. These three join the Malka; the Liashen, Urukh River and Duradon flow northeast, the Ardon River and its branch, the Fiagdon River flow north and the Gizeldon River drains the north slope of Mount Kazbek and reaches the Ardon near its mouth. There is the north-flowing part of the Terek with the Darial Pass; the great northwest bend of the Terek is cut off by the northeast-flowing Sunzha River which catches most of the north-flowing rivers. These are the Assa River, the Argun and Khukhulau. East of these are the Aksay River and the Aktash River which dried up in the lowlands between the Sulak and the Terek.
In the east the Sulak River drains most of interior Dagestan and turns east to the Caspian before it reaches the Terek. The capital of Khazaria, may have stood on the banks of the river Terek; the Terek river was the site of the final defeat of the army of Hulagu, khan of the Ilkhanate, at the hands of the army of Berke, khan of the Golden Horde, led by Berke's nephew, Nogai Khan, in the first civil war of the Mongol Empire, the Berke–Hulagu war of 1262. On the river Timur defeated Tokhtamysh in 1395; the Terek Cossack Host had its base in the Terek basin. During the Russian conquest of the Caucasus it was part of the North Caucasus Line. During World War II, German forces at the end of August 1942 reached the Terek near Mozdok – the farthest extent of German conquests in the Soviet Union – but aside from a small bridgehead were unable to forge further toward the oil fields of Baku, Hitler's objective. Terek Cossacks
Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
The Chogray Reservoir is an artificial reservoir on the East Manych River on the border of Stavropol Krai and Kalmykia in southern Russia. The reservoir, 49 km long, was constructed in 1969-1973 to satisfy the demands of local irrigated farming, its area is volume 0.7 cubic km. Besides capturing water brought by the tributaries of the East Manych River, the reservoir receives water from the Terek River and the Kuma River over the Kuma-Manych Canal, completed a few years before the reservoir. On, another irrigation canal – the Chernyye Zemli Main Canal was built, taking water from the Chogray Reservoir further east and north, into Kalmykia. In 2008, after 40 years of operation, the reservoir was reported as in dire need of maintenance, as were many other reservoirs of its age in the area. Under certain conditions the waters are polluted by blooms of toxic cyanobacteria; as the East Manych is not connected in a navigable way with any other body of water, delivering a boat, or any other large floating installation to the Chogray Reservoir would be a non-trivial task.
Such an operation was undertaken in 1976, when two large floating pumping units, weighing 320 and 280 metric tons had to be delivered to the reservoir for use by the local irrigators. They were taken by boat from the Don up the West Manych River waterway to Lake Manych-Gudilo – the end of the existing navigable waterway, – from where they were transported 85 km overland using special heavy trailers. Thirty years that story was still remembered locally
River bifurcation occurs when a river flowing in a single stream separates into two or more separate streams which continue downstream. Some rivers form complex networks of distributaries in their deltas. If the streams merge again or empty into the same body of water the bifurcation forms a river island. River bifurcation may be temporary or semi-permanent, depending on the strength of the material which separates the distributaries. For example, a mid-stream island of soil or silt in a delta is most temporary. A location where a river divides around a rock fin, e.g. a volcanically formed dike, or a mountain, may be more lasting. A bifurcation may be man-made, for example when two streams are separated by a long bridge pier; the Casiquiare canal, which provides a navigable channel between the Amazon and the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Canada's aptly-named Divide Creek splits into two branches near Kicking Horse Pass on the Alberta-British Columbia border. One branch flows west to the Pacific Ocean.
At Two Ocean Pass in Wyoming, USA, North Two Ocean Creek splits at the Parting of the Waters into Atlantic Creek, which flows east to the Gulf of Mexico via the Yellowstone and Mississippi Rivers and Pacific Creek, which flows west to the Pacific Ocean via the Snake and Columbia Rivers. The Hase River in Melle, Germany divides into Hase river and Else river and has been researched as a natural phenomenon. A bifurcation of the Nerodimka River in the city of Uroševac/Ferizaj, was a hydrological curiosity as separate streams flowed into the Aegean and the Black Sea; the Nerodimka bifurcation was the first hydrological protected object in the former Yugoslavia. The Nerodimka bifurcation is a strict wildlife sanctuary, category I according to IUCN, with an area of 13.0 ha. This bifurcation is considered to be an artificial phenomenon, but created under favorable natural conditions. In the past, the small Kalaus River in south-western Russia, when reaching the thalweg of the Kuma-Manych Depression at 45°43′N 44°06′E, would split, the two distributaries becoming the headwaters of the West and East Manych Rivers.
The former flows west into the Don River and into the Sea of Azov, while the latter flows east, is lost in the steppe before reaching the Caspian Sea. However a dam was built; the Bahr Yussef is a channel which splits off the west side of the Nile and drains into the Birket Qarun, an inland sea in the Fayum Depression. A natural bifurcation for flood waters, its flow was increased by canalisation in the 12th Dynasty. Around 230BC, the channel of the Nile from which it came dried up, but has since been fed by a new canal to allow water again to make it from the Nile to Al Fayyum; the entire waterway is over 300 km long, consisting of modern canals taking Nile water from Asyut to Dairut, the old Nile channel runs alongside the Nile for over 150 km to Lahun the Ancient Egyptian canal carries the water into the Fayum Depression. In Suriname, the Wayombo and Arrawarra split, the first flowing into the Coppename, the second into the Nickerie; the Swedish side of Torne River has a distributary called the Tärendö River, which on average transports 57% of the water of the Torne River into the Kalix River.
The Barak River in splits into two major rivers at the India-Bangladesh border. The Karnali River bifurcates in Nepal and the two parts rejoin after flowing into India for 80 kilometers. Bifurcation lake Distributary List of unusual drainage systems Interbasin transfer Notes: References
The Kuban River is a river in the Northwest Caucasus region of European Russia. It flows through Krasnodar Krai for 660 kilometres but in the Karachay–Cherkess Republic, Stavropol Krai and the Republic of Adygea; the Kuban flows 870 kilometres north and west from its source near Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains reaching Temryuk Bay in the Sea of Azov. It is navigable up to Krasnodar. Major cities along the Kuban are Karachayevsk, Nevinnomyssk, Ust-Labinsk and Temryuk. Despite its name, Slavyansk-na-Kubani lies not on the Kuban River, but on its distributary the Protoka; the river originates on the slopes of Mount Elbrus and forms at the merger of its two tributaries and Uchkulam. Between the source and Nevinnomyssk the river flows in the deep and narrow gorge, has many thresholds and changes its elevation. Near Nevinnomyssk a dam supplies water to the Nevinnomyssk channel. In its central part, until the confluence of the Bolshaya Laba River, the Kuban River flows in a wide flat valley with terraced slopes.
It bends to the west and develops a left-bank floodplain, 4 kilometres wide near Ust-Labinsk. There it has many shoals and rapids. Below the mouth of Laba the river widens up to 20 kilometres. Between the mouths of the rivers Laba and Afips the Adyghe marshes cover an area of about 300 square kilometres, below the river Afips, about 800 square kilometres is occupied by the Zakubanskie marshes. At 116 kilometres from the mouth, the Kuban converges with a major tributary, the Protoka, 130 kilometres long. Near its mouth the Kuban narrows to 3 to 4 kilometres and forms a delta covering about 4,300 square kilometres; the delta contains numerous limans, some of which have separated from the river. Until the 19th century the Kuban River discharged into both the Azov seas; however the rising grounds redirected the river to the Azov Sea. In the upper stream the river is fed by glaciers and high-mountain snow. Near Krasnodar, this contribution drops to 32%; the river does not freeze over because of a warm climate and rapid flow in the upper part.
The Kuban River is characterized by numerous floods due to rains and thaws, both in the winter and summer. The water level used to fluctuate by up to 5 metres, with the maximum in July and the minimum in February; the amplitude of these fluctuations was reduced by construction of the Nevinnomyssk channel and the Tschikskoe and Shapsug reservoirs. These measures provided water for fish farming and rice fields; the average discharge of the Kuban River is at its maximum near Krasnodar at about 425 cubic metres per second. It was higher by some 30 cubic metres per second but was lowered by the reservoir construction; the average discharge near Armavir is 163 cubic metres per second, it varied between 0.95 and 1,160 cubic metres per second before the filling of the Krasnodar Reservoir in the 1980s. The annual outflow to the Azov Sea is about 12 to 13 cubic kilometres of water, 8 million tonnes of sediments and 4 million tonnes of dissolved salts; the average turbidity is 682 g/m3. Water salinity increases toward the delta.
All major tributaries originate in the Caucasus Mountains. Those tributaries include the Bolshoi Zelenchuk, Malyi Zelenchuk, Laba and Pshish; the river flows through three types of landscape: mixed forests of the Caucasus in the south, Crimean Submediterranean forests in the central part, steppe in the north. The Caucasus mixed forests are rich in tree species. Higher forests consist of fir and spruce; the Crimean Submediterranean forests are coniferous, dominated by fir and spruce. The vegetation of the delta consists of thickets of reeds, sedges, bur-reed and cattail. Less frequent are tape-grasses, grass rush and other water-hungry plants; the estuaries have rich underwater vegetation in the form of stoneworts algae, hornworts and other species. The total area of such vegetation is 40,000 to 50,000 hectares; some estuaries contain thickets of lotus, brought to the area from Africa. The wide delta of Kuban, with its abundant estuaries, is rich in plankton and benthos. There are about 400 species of zooplankton, including rotifers, cladocerans, worms, etc. providing abundant food for fish.
The fish fauna of the Kuban differs from that of the nearby Don and Volga rivers and contains more than 65 species from 16 families. They are dominated by the genera Gobio, Romanogobio and Chondrostoma and contain species and genera such as carp, Prussian carp, bream, silver bream, perch, Chalcalburnus, Sprattus and others; some species such as silver carp and grass carp were acclimatized in the last decade. End