Chinese characters are logograms developed for the writing of Chinese. They have been adapted to write a number of other Asian languages, they remain a key component of the Japanese writing system and are used in the writing of Korean. They were used in Vietnamese and Zhuang. Collectively, they are known as CJK characters. Vietnamese is sometimes included, making the abbreviation CJKV. Chinese characters constitute. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most adopted writing systems in the world by number of users. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Studies in China have shown that functional literacy in written Chinese requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. In Japan, 2,136 are taught through secondary school. Due to post-WWII simplifications of Kanji in Japan as well as the post-WWII simplifications of characters in China, the Chinese characters used in Japan today are distinct from those used in China in several respects.
There are various national standard lists of characters and pronunciations. Simplified forms of certain characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia. In Japan, common characters are written in post-WWII Japan-specific simplified forms, while uncommon characters are written in Japanese traditional forms, which are identical to Chinese traditional forms. In South Korea, when Chinese characters are used, they are in traditional form identical to those used in Taiwan and Hong Kong where the official writing system is traditional Chinese. Teaching of Chinese characters in South Korea starts in the 7th grade and continues until the 12th grade. In Old Chinese including Classical Chinese, most words were monosyllabic and there was a close correspondence between characters and words. In modern Chinese, the majority of Chinese words today consist of two or more characters. Rather, a character always corresponds to a single syllable, a morpheme. However, there are a few exceptions to this general correspondence, including bisyllabic morphemes, bimorphemic syllables and cases where a single character represents a polysyllabic word or phrase.
Modern Chinese has many homophones. A single character may have a range of meanings, or sometimes quite distinct meanings. Cognates in the several varieties of Chinese are written with the same character, they have similar meanings, but quite different pronunciations. In other languages, most today in Japanese and sometimes in Korean, characters are used to represent Chinese loanwords, to represent native words independently of the Chinese pronunciation, as purely phonetic elements based on their pronunciation in the historical variety of Chinese from which they were acquired; these foreign adaptations of Chinese pronunciation are known as Sino-Xenic pronunciations and have been useful in the reconstruction of Middle Chinese. When the script was first used in the late 2nd millennium BC, words of Old Chinese were monosyllabic, each character denoted a single word. Increasing numbers of polysyllabic words have entered the language from the Western Zhou period to the present day, it is estimated that about 25–30% of the vocabulary of classic texts from the Warring States period was polysyllabic, though these words were used far less than monosyllables, which accounted for 80–90% of occurrences in these texts.
The process has accelerated over the centuries as phonetic change has increased the number of homophones. It has been estimated that over two thirds of the 3,000 most common words in modern Standard Chinese are polysyllables, the vast majority of those being disyllables; the most common process has been to form compounds of existing words, written with the characters of the constituent words. Words have been created by adding affixes and borrowing from other languages. Polysyllabic words are written with one character per syllable. In most cases the character denotes. Many characters have multiple readings, with instances denoting different morphemes, sometimes with different pronunciations. In modern Standard Chinese, one fifth of the 2,400 most common characters have multiple pronunciations. For the 500 most common characters, the proportion rises to 30%; these readings are similar in sound and related in meaning. In the Old Chinese period, affixes could be added to a word to form a new word, written with the same character.
In many cases the pronunciations diverged due to subsequent sound change. For example, many additional readings have the Middle Chinese departing tone, the major sour
A business magnate or industrialist is an entrepreneur of great influence, importance, or standing in a particular enterprise or field of business. The term characteristically refers to a wealthy entrepreneur or investor who controls, through personal business ownership or dominant shareholding position, a firm or industry whose goods or services are consumed; such individuals may be called czars, proprietors, taipans, barons, or oligarchs. The word magnate derives from the Latin magnates, meaning "a great man" or "great nobleman"; the word tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means "great lord", used as a title for the shōgun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay; the term spread to the business community, where it has been used since. The word mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for "Mongol".
It alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in the Medieval India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence such as the Taj Mahal. Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses; some are known in connection with these entrepreneurial activities, others through highly-visible secondary pursuits such as philanthropy, political fundraising and campaign financing, sports team ownership or sponsorship. The terms mogul and baron were applied to late 19th and early 20th century North American business magnates in extractive industries such as mining and petroleum, transportation fields such as shipping and railroads, manufacturing such as automaking and steelmaking, in banking, as well as newspaper publishing, their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era. Examples of well-known business magnates in the western world include historical figures such as oilman John D. Rockefeller, automobile pioneer Henry Ford and railroad veterans Aristotle Onassis, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Jay Gould, James J. Hill, steel innovator Andrew Carnegie, newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, retail merchant Sam Walton, banker J. P. Morgan.
Contemporary industrial tycoons include e-commerce entrepreneur Jeff Bezos, investor Warren Buffett, computer programmer Bill Gates, technology innovator Steve Jobs, steel investor Lakshmi Mittal, telecommunications investor Carlos Slim, airline owner Sir Richard Branson, technology entrepreneur Elon Musk, Formula 1 manager Bernie Ecclestone, media entrepreneur Rupert Murdoch, poultry technologist Frank Perdue. Bourgeoisie Oligarchy Business oligarch Businessperson Captain of industry Entrepreneur Financier Investor Magnate Media proprietor Plutocracy Real estate entrepreneur Robber baron ListsThe World's Billionaires Sunday Times Rich List Media related to Business magnate at Wikimedia Commons Lewis, Mark. "The Famous 15: America's Most Fascinating Tycoons". Forbes. "25 Tycoons Who Run the World". Business Pundit. October 6, 2010
Hu Jintao is a retired Chinese politician, the paramount leader of China from 2002 to 2012. He held the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party from 2002 to 2012, President of the People's Republic from 2003 to 2013 and Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 2004 to 2012, he was a member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's de facto top decision-making body, from 1992 to 2012. Hu participated in the Communist Party for most of his career, notably as Party Committee Secretary for Guizhou province and the Tibet Autonomous Region, later First Secretary of the Central Secretariat and Vice-President under former leader Jiang Zemin. Hu is the first leader of the Communist Party without any significant revolutionary credentials. During his term in office, Hu reintroduced state control in some sectors of the economy that were relaxed by the previous administration, was conservative with political reforms. Along with his colleague Premier Wen Jiabao, Hu presided over nearly a decade of consistent economic growth and development that cemented China as a major world power.
He sought to improve socio-economic equality domestically through the Scientific Outlook on Development, which aimed to build a "Harmonious Socialist Society", prosperous and free of social conflict. Under his leadership, the authorities cracked down on social disturbances, ethnic minority protests, dissident figures. In foreign policy, Hu advocated for "China's peaceful development", pursuing soft power in international relations and a corporate approach to diplomacy. Throughout Hu's tenure, China's influence in Africa, Latin America, other developing regions increased. Hu possessed a reserved leadership style, his tenure was characterized by consensus-based rule. These traits made Hu a rather enigmatic figure in the public eye, his administration was known for its focus more on technocratic competence than persona. At the end of his tenure, Hu won praise for retiring voluntarily from all positions, he was succeeded by Xi Jinping. Hu Jintao was born on 21 December 1942 in Jiangsu province, his branch of the family migrated from Jixi County, Anhui to Taizhou during his grandfather's generation.
Though his father owned a small tea trading business in Taizhou, the family was poor. His mother was a teacher and died when he was 7, he was raised by an aunt. Hu's father was denounced during the Cultural Revolution, an event that had a deep effect upon Hu, who diligently tried to clear his father's name, he joined the Communist Party of China in April 1964 and began to work as an engineer in July 1965 after he graduated from the Water Conservancy Engineering Department at Tsinghua University, where he majored in the study of hub hydropower stations. During his time at Tsinghua, he met his wife Liu Yongqing. In 1968, Hu volunteered for his service in Gansu and worked on the construction of Liujiaxia Hydroelectric Station while managing CPC affairs for the local branch of the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power. From 1969 to 1974, he worked for Sinohydro Engineering Bureau as an engineer. In 1973, Hu was transferred to the Construction Department of Gansu as a secretary; the next year he was promoted to vice senior chief.
In 1980, Deng Xiaoping implemented the "Four Transformations" program, which aimed to produce communist leaders who were "more revolutionary, more knowledgeable, more specialized." In response to this nationwide search for young party members, Song Ping, the first secretary of CPC Gansu Committee discovered Hu Jintao and promoted him several ranks to the position of deputy head of the commission. Another protégé of Song, Wen Jiabao became prominent at the same time. In 1982, Hu was promoted to the position of Communist Youth League Gansu Branch Secretary and was appointed as the director of the All-China Youth Federation, his mentor Song Ping was transferred to Beijing as Minister of Organization of the Communist Party of China, was in charge of senior cadres' recommendation and promotion. With the support of Hu Yaobang and Deng Xiaoping, Hu was assured of a bright future in the party. At Song Ping's suggestion, in 1982 central CPC authorities invited Hu to Beijing to study at the Central Party School.
Soon after, he was transferred to Beijing and appointed as secretariat of the Communist Youth League Central Committee. Two years Hu was promoted to First Secretary of CY Central, thus its actual leader. During his term in the Youth League, Hu escorted Hu Yaobang, CPC General Secretary in visits around the country. Hu Yaobang, himself a veteran coming from the Youth League, could reminiscence his youth through Hu's company. In 1985, Communist Party General Secretary Hu Yaobang pushed for Hu Jintao to be transferred to Guizhou as the provincial Committee Secretary of Communist Party of China. Hu attempted to improve the economy of the backwater province, reputedly visited all of its eighty-six counties. While in Guizhou, Hu was careful to follow Beijing's directives and had a reputation of being "airtight". While Hu was seen as an official with integrity and honesty, some locals preferred his predecessor Zhu Houze. In 1987, Hu Jintao handled the local students protest parallel to the Democracy Wall whereas in Beijing similar protests resulted in Hu Yaobang's forced resignation.
Hu Yaobang was purged in the late 1980s, due to his'liberal' tendencies, by Deng Xiaoping, his departure from the political scene was seen as unfavourable toward
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Liu Yongqing, is the wife of Hu Jintao, the former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and President of the People’s Republic of China. Traditionally, Liu Yongqing’s role would be domestic, but this is fast changing as Chinese leaders travel abroad more. Liu had accompanied her husband on his official trips to foreign countries and has made personal appearances at charities and cultural institutions all over the world. Liu Yongqing was born in 1940 in Chongqing, she attended Bashu High School. She met her husband at Tsinghua University in Beijing, she went on to work for Beijing city planning committee. As with her husband, Liu's life and background are not known among observers abroad, she received no public attention before Hu Jintao’s presidency. Hu himself has preferred to stay out of the public eye and has tended to avoid publicity during his political career. Hu Jintao and Liu Yongqing have two grown children – a son named Hu Haifeng and a daughter named Hu Haiqing, both of whom were educated at the Tsinghua University.
Haifeng is a businessman. Haiqing was married in 2003, at the age of 33, to Mao Daolin
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a major research university in Shanghai. Established in 1896 as Nanyang Public School by an imperial edict issued by the Guangxu Emperor, it has been referred to as "The MIT of the East" since the 1930s, it is one of the nine members of the elite C9 League, is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. The word "Jiao Tong" romanized as "Chiao Tung", means transportation or communication, it reflects the university's root — it was founded by the Ministry of Posts and Communications of the late Qing dynasty. In 1896, the Nanyang Public School was founded in Shanghai by the imperial edict of the Guangxu Emperor, under the Business and Telegraphs Office of the Qing imperial government. Four schools were established: a normal school, a school of foreign studies, a middle school, a high school. Sheng Xuanhuai, the mandarin who proposed the idea to the Guangxu Emperor, became the first president and is, along with missionary educator John Calvin Ferguson, regarded as the founder of the university.
The Ministry of Commerce assumed administration of the college in 1904, in 1905 changed the college's name to Imperial Polytechnic College of the Commerce Ministry. In 1906, the college was placed under the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, its name was changed to Shanghai Industrial College of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; when the Republic of China was founded, the college was placed under the Ministry of Communications and its name was once again changed, this time to Government Institute of Technology of the Communications Ministry. In 1918, the Republic of China government founded the School of Management. After a merger with two other colleges in 1920, the name changed to Nan Yang College of Chiao Tung; the college achieved world renown in the 1930s, was referred to as the "Eastern MIT". In 1938, the Ministry of Education assumed administration of the university and renamed it to National Chiao Tung University, the name by which daughter institution National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan, is known to this day.
In 1943, the graduate school was founded. When the Japanese surrendered in 1945, neither the Communist Party of China nor the Kuomintang KMT trusted each other or were cooperating. After American-sponsored attempts to negotiate a coalition government failed in 1946, the Chinese Civil War resumed; the CPC defeated the Nationalists in 1949. During the evacuation, a part of faculty and alumni was taken to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-shek, founding National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan in 1958. After the Chinese Civil War, the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949. Chiao Tung lost its "National" appellation and became Chiao Tung University to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In the 1950s, the pinyin romanization system was developed in Mainland China and Chiao Tung University changed its English name to Jiao Tong University. Shanghai Second Medical University was merged into Shanghai Jiao Tong University on July 18, 2005, under the name Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Since the reform and opening up policy in China, SJTU has grown substantially. It is composed of five campuses, including Xuhui, Luwan and Fahua, taking up an area of about 3,225,833 square meters. In 2013, François Hollande inaugurated the SJTU-ParisTech Elite Institute of Technology, an institution based on the French engineering education system; the four founding member universities are École Polytechnique, ENSTA ParisTech, Mines ParisTech and Télécom ParisTechThe university was producer of the Academic Ranking of World Universities until 2008. Today SJTU has 31 schools, 63 undergraduate programs, 250 masters-degree programs, 203 Ph. D. programs, 28 post-doctorate programs, 11 state key laboratories and national engineering research centers. Its total enrollment of students amounts to 42,881, of which 1,598 are international students. There are 17,766 undergraduates, 24,017 masters and Ph. D. candidates. The university has more than 1,900 professors and associate professors, including 15 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 92 accredited professors and chair professors of the "Cheung Kong Scholars Program".
Internationally, SJTU is ranked among 101–150th globally by ARWU. The institution came sixth in the QS BRICS University Rankings and was 27th in the counterpart conducted by Times Higher Education. Since 2003, Shanghai Jiao Tong University has produced the Academic Ranking of World Universities which analyzes the top universities in the world on quality of faculty, research output, quality of education and performance vs. size. Its ranking is of research universities in the empirical sciences. Department of Plastic Technology Department of Sports Global Executive MBA Program Institute of Aerospace Science and Technology Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology Institute of Energy Diversified genres including Latin, Chinese Folk Dance, Chinese Classical Dance and Yang Go. Awards: Second-class prize on National University Art Competition The previous main campus was located in Xujiahui, in the Xuhui District of Shanghai a Catholic area and a site of several educational institutions.
Most buildings on campus were influenced by American architecture, while the main gate, built in 1935, is of traditional Chinese style reflecting the University's earlier status as the "Imperial Polytechnic College". The approaches to the main gate were via a series of marble