Conondale National Park
Conondale National Park is 130 km north of Brisbane in the Sunshine Coast Hinterland near the town of Conondale in the south east Queensland bioregion. The park covers an area of 35,648 hectares protecting large areas of subtropical rainforest, woodlands and dry sclerophyll forest including Queensland’s tallest tree; the park contains areas of regenerating forest which have been logged. The park is managed by the Department of National Parks, Recreation and Racing under the Nature Conservation Act 1992. Since the 1860s the Conondale region has been impacted by land clearing for agriculture and logging, today the park is a refuge for many species now rare and threatened. Threatened species such as the plumed frogmouth, giant barred frog, Conondale crayfish, spotted-tailed quoll, Gympie nut and richmond birdwing butterfly have been recorded in the park and are targeted for conservation management to mitigate threats to their survival. Species of interest include the southern gastric brooding frog which mysteriously disappeared in 1981 and is presumed extinct.
The landscape has a rugged topography with gorges, valleys and a number of mountains above 700 m with the highest peak being Mount Langley at 868m. Throughout the park there are scenic waterfalls such as Booloumba Creek Falls and numerous boulder strewn creeks; the Conondale range forms a catchment divide between the Brisbane River and Mary River with the southernmost tributaries of the Mary river forming in Booloumba and Yabba creek. The park contains wetlands of national significance; these tributaries are important for the threatened Mary river cod which has declined in these creeks. The region has a sub-tropical climate with a mean annual rainfall of 1,500 mm, the majority of rainfall occurs seasonally in summer with heavy downpours and winters cold and dry with occasional frosts. Major vegetation types include a mix of complex notophyll vine forest, sub-tropical rainforest, bangalow palm forests, wet sclerophyll and dry sclerophyll forest with rainforest occurring at higher altitudes and along watercourses.
The Conondale region served as an important area for both the Jinibara and Kabi Kabi traditional owners, it was an important pathway and resource gathering area for food such as the bunya pine Araucaria bidwillii which occurs in the park and remains culturally significant to Indigenous people today. European settlement occurred from 1860 onwards seeing gold mining and logging occur in the region, timber trees logged included red cedar Toona ciliata, blackbutt Eucalyptus pilularis and tallowood Eucalyptus microcorys. By the early 1900s state forests were declared and logging of remnant forests was replaced with the establishment of hoop pine plantations; the national park was established in 1977 after lobbying by conservationists over proposed logging of pristine areas of the Conondale ranges which would have impacted on catchments and endangered species such as the plumed frogmouth, the park now encompasses over 35,000 ha providing opportunities for recreation such as bushwalking, four wheel driving, horse riding and bird watching Many parts of the region have been re-vegetated by private landowners and Landcare groups.
Two thirds of the original vegetation in the Conondale region has been cleared including large areas of rainforest leaving a mosaic of cattle pastures, remnant forests and hoop pine plantations. Extensive areas of remnant forests remain in gullies and steeper parts of the Conondale ranges including large areas of un-managed regrowth; the national park protects significant areas of remnant vegetation including sub-tropical rainforest and dry sclerophyll forest including remnant stands of bunya pine Araucaria bidwillii, hoop pine Araucaria cunninghamii including tall stands of flooded gum Eucalyptus grandis and brush box Lophostemon confertus. Queensland’s tallest tree a Eucalyptus grandis was discovered in the park in 2013 and stands at 73 meters tall. In total there are thirty one different vegetation types including extensive Palm vine forests, thirteen are listed as ‘of concern’ including gallery rainforests and semi-evergreen vine thickets which are listed as endangered. A total of 796 plant species are recorded in the park, twelve species are listed as endangered, vulnerable or near threatened.
Notable threatened species include the gympie nut Macadamia ternifolia now listed as threatened on the IUCN Red List and listed vulnerable in Queensland and nationally. The brush sophora Sophora fraseri and Bosistoa transversa are listed nationally as Vulnerable and occurs in semi-evergreen vine thickets, it is threatened by changing fire regimes and competition from weeds. Conondale National Park is considered a critical site for the survival of the richmond birdwing butterfly Ornithoptera richmondia, listed as vulnerable in Queensland, the park has significant stands of the richmond birdwing vine Pararistolochia praevenosa a species of critical priority for the butterfly; the vine is crucial in the lifecycle of the butterfly which occurs predominantly in rainforests along waterways, it is a food source for the larval stage of the butterfly’s lifecycle and is the only plant the female butterfly will lay its eggs on. Threats include the exotic dutchmans pipe Aristolochia elegans which the female butterfly is attracted to and will lay her eggs on, however the leaves are fatal to the butterfly larvae.
Extensive public education and conservation programs are underway in Queensland with cultivation, control of weeds and ecological monitoring occurring. Conondale National Park is considered an Important Bird Area by Birdlife Interna
Beenleigh is a town and a suburb in the City of Logan, Australia. At the 2016 Australian Census, Beenleigh recorded a population of 8,252. A government survey for the new town was conducted in 1866; the town is the terminus for the Beenleigh railway line, which first opening in 1885 and a stop on the South Coast railway line, which reached Southport in 1889. Beenleigh was the administrative centre of the former Shire of Albert, it is known for the heritage-listed tourist attraction called the Beenleigh Artisan Distillery. Beenleigh and adjoining suburbs are located near the confluence of the Albert Rivers; the residential and urban suburb lies southwest of the Pacific Motorway after it crosses the Logan River and is crossed by the Gold Coast railway line. Logan River Parklands contain a boat ramp, a picnic area. Whilst it was once a stand-alone town built on sugar and home to Australia's oldest rum distillery built in 1864, increasing development in South East Queensland since the 1980s has seen it enveloped by Brisbane and the Gold Coast.
In the 2011 census, Beenleigh recorded a population of 8,244 people, 50.5 % male. The median age of the Beenleigh population was 34 years, compared to the national median age of 37; the other top responses for country of birth were New Zealand 8.1%, England 3.4%, the Philippines 1.1%, Brazil 0.6%, Germany 0.5%. About 81.5% of people spoke only English at home. This is the Yugambeh People's country, their Yugambeh language and heritage survive and is a testament to the Yugambeh Museum located in the town. Beenleigh was first colonised in the 1860s, with the first permanent European settlement occurring by John Davy and Frank Gooding, who named their sugarcane plantation Beenleigh in memory of their family estate in Devonshire, England; the first sugarcane mill was built in 1867, by 1885, another 29 were operational. Beenleigh Post Office opened on 1 August 1867. Commercial dairying in the area began in 1889. Beenleigh State School was opened on 6 February 1871; the Beenleigh Memorial Park was dedicated on 21 August 1925.
The abattoir was established in 1952 for beef production, is still one of the largest industries in Beenleigh. Beenleigh State High School opened on 29 January 1963. Beenleigh Special School opened on 1 January 1981. Beenleigh was the centre of the Shire of Albert, which included the suburbs of Eagleby, Alberton, Mt Warren Park, Edens Landing, Holmview and Jacobs Well. In 1995, Albert Shire was dissolved and Beenleigh and the surrounding suburbs were amalgamated into City of Gold Coast. In 2008, these suburbs were transferred from Gold Coast City to City of Logan. Beenleigh has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Distillery Road: Beenleigh Rum Distillery Main Street: St George's Anglican Church Still predominately a self-sufficient town with expanding retail and commercial areas close by, Beenleigh is home to three shopping centres with Coles Supermarkets, Big W, a Mitre 10 MEGA. At the heart of Beenleigh stands the Southern District Court complex, first established in 1871. For many years, the court was constituted of three magistrates.
The first presiding district court judge in Beenleigh was Judge O'Brien. The Southern District Court complex has played an integral role in the development of the progressive Drug Court. Beenleigh Mitre 10 MEGA opened in 2004. Day care facilities are available at the Lutheran Beenleigh Family Day Care Scheme. Beenleigh is situated on the Pacific Motorway. Queensland Rail City network provides frequent services to Brisbane and the Gold Coast via the Beenleigh railway line at the centrally located Beenleigh railway station. Three major high schools are within the immediate area of Beenleigh, including Beenleigh State High School, as well as many primary schools; the town has two theatres. The Logan City Council operate a public library at Crete Street; the Beenleigh branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the Beenleigh Neighbourhood Centre at 10 James Street. The Beenleigh Historical Village preserves 20 historic buildings and houses a number of collections of historic material from the region.
The town is home to the Beenleigh Artisan Distillers, Australia's oldest rum distillery, Yugambeh Language and Research Centre, Poppy's Chocolates and Windaroo Organic Cottage just 5 minutes out of town. Social events of note are the annual Rum and Rhumba Festival and Beats Food Trucks, the Beenleigh Show. Sporting facilities that are represented in Beenleigh cover baseball, soccer, BMX, tennis, swimming and roller derby. Beenleigh enjoys access to the Logan River via a boat ramp located near the northern bridge on the Pacific Motorway. University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Beenleigh "BEENLEIGH AND DISTRICT"; the Brisbane Courier. 7 January 1905. P. 12. Retrieved 4 August 2015 – via National Library of Australia. — 1905 description of Beenleigh
Ipswich is an urban region in south-east Queensland, located in the south-west of the Brisbane metropolitan area. Situated on the Bremer River, it is 40 kilometres west of the Brisbane CBD. A local government area, the City of Ipswich has a population of 200,000; the city is renowned for its architectural and cultural heritage. Ipswich preserves and operates from many of its historical buildings, with more than 6000 heritage-listed sites and over 500 parks. Ipswich began in 1827 as a mining settlement. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, what is now called Ipswich was home to many indigenous language groups, including the Warpai tribe and Ugarapul Indigenous Australian groups; the area was first explored by European colonists in 1826, when Captain Patrick Logan, Commandant of the Moreton Bay penal colony, sailed up the Brisbane River and discovered large deposits of limestone and other minerals. The town began in 1827 as a limestone mining settlement and grew as a major inland port. Ipswich was named "The Limestone Hills" and shortened to "Limestone", however in 1843 it was renamed after the town of Ipswich in England.
The population was 932 in 1851 and had risen to 2459 by 1856. It became a municipality in 1858. Ipswich was a prime candidate for becoming the capital of Queensland, but Brisbane was instead chosen in 1859, it was proclaimed a city in 1904. The city became a major coal-mining area in the early 19th Century, contributing to the development of railways in the region as a means of transport; the first recorded coal mines in the central Ipswich area started at Woodend in 1848. From the 1840s onward, Ipswich was becoming an important river port for growing local industries such as coal and wool from the Darling Downs and a regular paddlesteamer service from Brisbane Town, The Experiment, was established in 1846. This, other steamer services, remained the primary form of mass/bulk transport between the two cities until 1876, when the construction of the original Albert Bridge, spanning the Brisbane River at Indooroopilly, completed the railway line begun between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1873. Ipswich was proclaimed a municipality on 2 March 1860 and became a city in 1904.
Several members of the British Royal Family have visited Ipswich. 1868 – Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh1920 – Prince of Wales 1927 – Duke and Duchess of York 1958 – Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother1962 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone2011 – Prince William 2014 – Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Damaging flooding has occurred on numerous occasions in Ipswich, the largest being the 1893 Brisbane flood peaking at 24.5 m, more during the 1974 Brisbane Flood, 2010–11 Queensland floods on 12 January 2011. Around 35 people died in the floods in the 1893 Brisbane flood; the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February of that year and a fourth event several months later. 7 workers were killed at a colliery in north Ipswich. 14 people died in flooding during the Australia Day weekend. Two people were killed in Ipswich. At least 6,700 homes flooded across the region. Thousands of homes in Ipswich and Brisbane could not be recovered; the Bremer River at Ipswich reached a height of 19.5 metres on 12 January, inundating the central business district and thousands of houses.
38 people died as a result of the floods. At Minden, on the border of Ipswich City, a four-year-old boy was swept away by floodwaters when he fell from a rescue boat. A man in his fifties died when he accidentally drove into floodwaters in the Ipswich suburb of Wulkuraka; the worst affected areas of Ipswich were the suburbs of Gailes. The flooding allowed bull sharks to reach the centre of Goodna. A multibillion-dollar class action lawsuit is underway against dam operators Seqwater, SunWater and the State of Queensland. Law firm Maurice Blackburn have lodged the suit on behalf of 5,500 Ipswich and Brisbane residents who lost their homes or businesses during the floods. Modelling released in 2013 claimed flooding of Ipswich CBD would not have been as extreme if Wivenhoe Dam operators had operated the dam correctly; the Ipswich Central Library building opened in 1994. The Ipswich Historical Society was established in 1966 and is located at Cooneana Heritage Centre, 11041 Redbank Plains Rd, New Chum, Ipswich.
The Ipswich branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 84 Limestone Street. Ipswich experiences a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, mild to warm winters with cool overnight temperatures and heavy summer storms, it is cooler than the Brisbane CBD in terms of overnight temperatures, in winter, whilst being warmer in summer. Ipswich was a major mining centre coal mining; the city is the'cradle of coal mining in Queensland'. Other secondary manufacturing industries included earthenware works, sawmills and foundries, while the region is rich agriculturally. Ipswich remains a strong manufacturing region, with more than 14% of workers employed in the manufacturing industry, compared to just 7.6% for regional Queensland. Extensive growth is predicted in Ipswich and the Western Corridor region in years to come, the economy is projected to be worth $12.7 billion by 2026. Global giant General Electric moved its Queensland headquarters into a $72 million building in Springfield in 2015.
Ipswich is the site of RAAF Base Amberley, the Royal Australian Air Force's largest operatio
Logan City is a local government area situated within the south of the Brisbane metropolitan area in South East Queensland, Australia. Situated between the City of Brisbane to the north and the City of Gold Coast to the south, the City borders the Scenic Rim Region, the City of Ipswich, Redland City LGAs. Logan City is divided into 70 suburbs and 12 divisions, for which a councillor is elected to each of the latter. Gaining significant area in 2008 from the amalgamation of parts of the Albert and Beaudesert Shires, Logan City extends north to Priestdale, south to Mundoolun near the Albert River, east to Carbrook at the Logan River, west to Lyons. Logan City is located across parts of the sub-basin of Oxley Creek, the Logan and Albert Rivers; the Daisy Hill Koala Centre serves as an example of Logan's prominent bushland, reminiscent of Karawatha Forest, the Tamborine and Venman Bushland National Parks, that border Logan suburbs. Etymologically, the region is named after Captain Patrick Logan, as is the aforementioned river, alongside the commercial hubs of Logan Central, Shailer Park's Logan Hyperdome, Browns Plains.
Other populous suburbs include Beenleigh, Rochedale South, Springwood, Woodridge and the rural towns of Jimboomba and Logan Village The city facilitates much of the transport between Brisbane and the Gold Coast. Its motorway network is extensive: in the city's north-east, the Logan Motorway joins the Pacific Motorway, while the Mount Lindesay Highway and Sydney–Brisbane rail corridor cross the city along a central north-south axis. New developments are common those being built at Yarrabilba and Greater Flagstone, while Griffith University has established a Logan campus in Meadowbrook, being developed into a specialist area based around health and education. In 2016, Luke Smith was elected mayor of Logan, but Cherie Dalley is the the Acting Mayor of the city after the Minister for Local Government suspended Smith while allegations of serious integrity offences are investigated; the Commandant of the Moreton Bay Penal Settlement, Captain Patrick Logan. Patrick Logan was a compulsive explorer and in 1826 on his first expedition he discovered the Logan River.
Logan noted the river was well suited to large-vessel traffic and was a first-class avenue to access the high-quality arable land along its banks. He named the country Darling, in honour of the Governor; the Governor renamed the river after Logan. The penal settlement based in Brisbane was closed in 1841 and the land was taken up by squatters; the first leases of land in the Logan area were issued from 1849 and immigration was encouraged following the separation from NSW in 1859. The declaration of the Logan and Eight Mile Plains Agricultural Reserves in 1862 led to extensive settlement of the area. German immigrants arrived in batches from the 1864 onwards. Generous land orders for immigrants in Queensland created a drawcard in the possibility of owning their own farm. A cotton gin, converted to a sugar mill, was built at Loganholme in 1867. Cotton growers faced problems with both the weather and a lack of available labour despite the introduction of Kanaka labour. By the 1870s few working cotton plantations remained along the Logan River.
While this crop was marginally successful, between 1866 and 1874, sugar was soon to become the staple industry. Many small sugar mills were started by farmers seeking to avoid processing costs charged by big mills; however these proved to be uneconomic. Many farmers in the area abandoned sugar after a severe frost in 1885 and a catastrophic flood in 1887 which saw crops destroyed and covered with metres of silt. Others continued growing sugar cane to make 1890 one of the best harvests ever; the Wild Water Water Slide Park began operations in October 1982. The site was to become the Logan Hyperdome with the first work on the regional shopping centre beginning in October 1988, it was opened in July 1989. Construction work on the Logan Hospital started in February 1989. In August 2011, the Logan suburb of Slacks Creek was the location for Queensland's worst house fire. In 2017, a water treatment plant at Round Mountain became the first in Australia to be powered off-grid; the Department of Local Government instigated the formation of the new Logan Shire, which included the northern suburbs of both Albert and Beaudesert Shires.
A section in the north belonged to the Shire of Tingalpa. There were about 69,000 people living to the north of the Logan River. On 31 May 1978 Local Government Minister Russ Hinze introduced the Local Government Bill and, approved on 8 June 1978. Logan was declared a city on 1 January 1981 and the administration building on Wembley Road was opened in February 1981; the city was named after Captain Patrick Logan, one of the founders of the Moreton Bay convict settlement. Logan was honoured in the names of many locales in the district, such as the Logan River, the suburbs of Loganlea, Logan Village, Logan Reserve and Logan Central, the Logan Motorway and Logan Road, which connects Logan City with the nearby state capital of Brisbane. With the major changes to local government in Queensland which took effect at 15 March 2008 local elections, Logan more than tripled in area and added 78,400 people to its population; this came about through annexing a large section of the now-dissolved Shire of Beaudesert as well as the Beenleigh-Eagleby suburban area to its southeast, part of the Gold Coast.
In its rationale for the changes, the Local Government Reform Commission argued that the area added brought the South East Queensland urban footprint and future growth areas to 2026 under the one local government, which could plan for
Burleigh Head National Park
Burleigh Head is a small national park at Burleigh Heads in the City of Gold Coast in South East Queensland, Australia. The park is 81 kilometres southeast of Brisbane; the park is tiny. Tallebudgera Creek enters the ocean directly south of the park. No camping is permitted in the park. Access is via the Gold Coast Highway. An information centre is available. Burleigh Head National Park is a popular place for hiking and joggers because it located in a cool climate and provides great views. There are two walking tracks in the national park, one climbing the hill to the summit, about 88 m above sea level, called the Rainforest circuit and another leading around the headland just above sea level called the Ocean view circuit. Watching migrating whales from within the park is another popular activity; the headland is 80 m in height. The formation of the Burleigh headland began between 25 million years ago. At this time the Tweed Volcano was active. Molten basalt lava from the volcano eroded them all; the valleys were covered in hardened sedimentary rocks before reaching what is now the Burleigh headland.
Along Tallebudgera Creek there are sandy beaches. On the seaside part of the park are black boulders at the base of a cliff. Upstream tidal Tallebudgera Creek has a mangrove environment; the headland is an important cultural site for the local Aboriginal tribe known as the Minjungbal people. The park preserves remnant areas of mangrove forests. Western parts are dominated by dry eucalypt forest containing species such as brush box, forest red gum and grey ironbark. On the seaward facing slopes are Swamp she-oak, native hibiscus tree and Pandanus palms. There are areas of heathland and tussock grassland; the Australian brush-turkey, brahminy kites, sea eagles and koalas can be found in the park. There are lace monitors, mountain brushtail possums, common brushtail possums and common ringtail possums. Rainbow lorikeets are seen feeding on blossoms in the park; the park contains a popular walking track, known as the Oceanview Track, which connects Burleigh Heads and Tallebudgera Creek. In December 2014, the track was closed due to boulders smashing into the path as they cascaded down the slopes.
The track was re-opened in mid-2015. Protected areas of Queensland
Sunshine Coast Region
The Sunshine Coast Region is a local government area located in the Sunshine Coast district of South East Queensland, Australia. It was created by the amalgamation in 2008 of the City of Caloundra and the Shires of Maroochy and Noosa, it contains 4,194 kilometres of roads, 211 kilometres of coastline and a population of 295,000 at the 2016 Census. The first budget of the new Council for the 2008–2009 financial year totals A$673 million including $498 million operating expenditure, $168 million capital expenditure and $25.2 million for repayment of loans. On 1 January 2014, the Shire of Noosa was re-established independent of the Sunshine Coast Regional council. Prior to 2008, the new Sunshine Coast Region was an entire area of three previous and distinct local government areas: the City of Caloundra. At the establishment of regional local government in Queensland on 11 November 1879 with the Divisional Boards Act 1879, most of the area was part of the Caboolture Division, while the northernmost part around Noosa was part of the Widgee Division centred on Gympie.
The Maroochy Division split away from Caboolture on 5 July 1890. All three divisions became Shires on 31 July 1903 under the Local Authorities Act 1902. In 1910, the Shire of Noosa split from Widgee, on 22 February 1912 the Shire of Landsborough split from Caboolture; the two new entities together with Maroochy were to remain stable for 100 years. On 19 December 1987, the Shire of Landsborough was granted City status, was renamed the City of Caloundra, reflecting the population boom in the coastal section of the City. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the three local governments amalgamate. While it noted all three were "functioning councils with moderate to strong financial performance", it argued that they covered a self-contained region in a geographic and economic sense and that the advantages of coordinated planning in a high-growth area and the avoidance of duplication of facilities were arguments in favour of amalgamation; the councils opposed the amalgamation, the Commission itself noted that the bulk of statewide individual submissions came from this region reflecting a "depth of feeling" regarding the issue.
On 15 March 2008, the City and two Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect twelve councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. In the 2011 census, the Sunshine Coast Region had the 4th largest population of any local government area in Australia. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Region. On 9 March 2013, Noosa residents voted to de-amalgamate Noosa from the Sunshine Coast Council. On 18 March 2013, the Sunshine Coast Regional Council decided its new planning scheme should not apply to those areas that were part of the former Noosa Shire; the Shire of Noosa Shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each represented by one councillor, plus an elected mayor who represents the entire Region; the council is elected for a four-year term. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016 and will not include the Shire of Noosa's census figures.
The Sunshine Coast economy is dominated by two sectors – Healthcare and Retail, which provide 30% of the regional employment. Other significant areas are Accommodation & Food Services, Construction and Professional Services. Efforts are being made to diversify the regional economy by the Sunshine Coast Regional Council. Local educational institutions and community groups have funded a number of initiatives to encourage entrepreneurial and innovative businesses to the area; the University of the Sunshine Coast's Innovation Centre acts as an incubator startup companies, as does the Spark Bureau. The University site at Sippy Downs is designated as a'Knowledge Hub' as part of the Queensland Government's South East Queensland Regional Infrastructure Plan and is master planned as Australia's first university town based on the UK models with the potential for over 6,000 workers in knowledge-based businesses. Sippy Downs was highlighted as an'Innovation Hotspot' in July 2010, by top European Business magazine CNBC Business, with the potential to be'Australia's no-worries-answer to Silicon Valley'.
The Sunshine Coast's major university is the University of the Sunshine Coast with its main campus at Sippy Downs. Central Queensland University has a campus in Noosa. TAFE Queensland services the Sunshine Coast and Wide Bay regions through TAFE East Coast, with three Sunshine Coast campuses at Mooloolaba, Maroochydore & Nambour as well as a Noosa campus; the Sunshine Coast has many varied denomination and public primary and secondary schools. The Lexis English group, providing English classes to international students, has a campus in Maroochydore, while Lexis TESOL Training Centres provides teacher training programs such as the Cambridge CELTA and TESOL; the Sunshine Coast Regional Council operates libraries at Beerwah, Caloundra, Coolum Beach, Maleny and Nambour. It operates a mobile library service visiting Beerburrum, Bli Bli, Caloundra West, Eudlo, Glass House Mountains, Little Mountain, Mooloolah Valley, Mount Coolum, Mountain Creek, Pacific Paradise, Parklands, Pelican W
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur