Sufism or Taṣawwuf, variously defined as "Islamic mysticism", "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam", is mysticism in Islam, "characterized... values, ritual practices and institutions" which began early in Islamic history and represents "the main manifestation and the most important and central crystallization of" mystical practice in Islam. Practitioners of Sufism have been referred to as "Sufis". Sufis have belonged to different ṭuruq or "orders" – congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a wali who traces a direct chain of successive teachers back to the Islamic prophet, Muhammad; these orders meet for spiritual sessions in meeting places known as khanqahs or tekke. They strive for ihsan, as detailed in a hadith: "Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him. Sufis regard Muhammad as al-Insān al-Kāmil, the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God, see him as their leader and prime spiritual guide. All Sufi orders trace most of their original precepts from Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali, with the notable exception of one.
Although the overwhelming majority of Sufis, both pre-modern and modern and are adherents of Sunni Islam, there developed certain strands of Sufi practice within the ambit of Shia Islam during the late medieval period. Although Sufis were opposed to dry legalism, they observed Islamic law and belonged to various schools of Islamic jurisprudence and theology. Sufis have been characterized by their asceticism by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of remembrance of God performed after prayers, they gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate and have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium expressing their beliefs in Arabic and expanding into Persian and Urdu, among others. Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. According to William Chittick, "In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization, intensification of Islamic faith and practice."Despite a relative decline of Sufi orders in the modern era and criticism of some aspects of Sufism by modernist thinkers and conservative Salafists, Sufism has continued to play an important role in the Islamic world, has influenced various forms of spirituality in the West.
The Arabic word tasawwuf translated as Sufism, is defined by Western authors as Islamic mysticism. The Arabic term sufi has been used in Islamic literature with a wide range of meanings, by both proponents and opponents of Sufism. Classical Sufi texts, which stressed certain teachings and practices of the Quran and the sunnah, gave definitions of tasawwuf that described ethical and spiritual goals and functioned as teaching tools for their attainment. Many other terms that described particular spiritual qualities and roles were used instead in more practical contexts; some modern scholars have used other definitions of Sufism such as "intensification of Islamic faith and practice" and "process of realizing ethical and spiritual ideals". The term Sufism was introduced into European languages in the 18th century by Orientalist scholars, who viewed it as an intellectual doctrine and literary tradition at variance with what they saw as sterile monotheism of Islam. In modern scholarly usage the term serves to describe a wide range of social, cultural and religious phenomena associated with Sufis.
The original meaning of sufi seems to have been "one who wears wool", the Encyclopaedia of Islam calls other etymological hypotheses "untenable". Woollen clothes were traditionally associated with mystics. Al-Qushayri and Ibn Khaldun both rejected all possibilities other than ṣūf on linguistic grounds. Another explanation traces the lexical root of the word to ṣafā, which in Arabic means "purity"; these two explanations were combined by the Sufi al-Rudhabari, who said, "The Sufi is the one who wears wool on top of purity". Others have suggested that the word comes from the term ahl aṣ-ṣuffah, who were a group of impoverished companions of Muhammad who held regular gatherings of dhikr; these men and women who sat at al-Masjid an-Nabawi are considered by some to be the first Sufis. According to Carl W. Ernst the earliest figures of Sufism are Muhammad his companions. Sufi orders are based on the "bay‘ah", given to Muhammad by his Ṣahabah. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God.
Verily, those who give Bai'âh to you they are giving Bai'âh to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm, whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward. — Sufis believe that by giving bayʿah to a legitimate Sufi shaykh, one is pledging allegiance to Muhammad. It is through Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about and connect with God. Ali is regarded as one of the
Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached by Adam, Moses and other prophets, he is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Born 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six, he was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. In years he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; when he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, receiving his first revelation from God. Three years in 610, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life, that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.
The followers of Muhammad were few in number, experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca; the conquest went uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; the revelations, which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are upheld and used as sources of Islamic law.
The name Muhammad appears four times in the Quran. The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations. Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded in Quran 74:1. In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the prophets", or the last of the prophets; the Quran refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy". The name Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, begins with the kunya Abū, which corresponds to the English, father of; the Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe; the Quran, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography. Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era; these include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life.
The earliest surviving written sira is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE. Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi, the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi. Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic. Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muslim scholars on the other hand place a greater emph
Junayd of Baghdad
Junayd of Baghdad was a Persian mystic and one of the most famous of the early Saints of Islam. He is a central figure in the spiritual lineage of many Sufi orders. Junayd taught in Baghdad throughout his lifetime and was an important figure in the development of Sufi doctrine. Junayd, like Hasan of Basra before him, was revered by his students and disciples as well as quoted by other mystics; because of his importance in Sufi theology, Junayd was referred to as the "Sultan". The exact birth date of Abu-l-Qāsim al-Junayd ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Junayd al-Khazzāz al-Qawārīrī is disputed and ranges from 210 to 215 AH according to Abdel-Kader, his death is more certain and ranges from 296 to 298 AH. It is believed that al-Junayd was of Persian ancestry, with his ancestors originating in Nihawand in modern-day Iran. Al-Junayd was raised by his uncle Sirri Saqti after being orphaned as a boy. Al-Junayd's early education included teachings from Abū Thawr, Abū'Ubayd, al-Ḥārith al-Muḥãsibī, Sarī ibn Mughallas.
As to the hagiography by Attar of Nishapur, the Tazkirat al-Awliya, Junayd felt the pain of divine separation since childhood. Regardless of spiritual sorrow, he was known for his quick discipline; when Sirri Saqti accepted him. According to Attar, Junayd was only seven years of age. In al-Masjid an-Nabawi, there were 400 sheikhs discussing the concept of ‘thankfulness’ whereby each expounded his own view; when Sirri Saqti told him to present his definition, Junayd said, "Thankfulness means that should not disobey God by means of the favour which he has bestowed upon you nor make of His favour a source of disobedience." The sheikhs unanimously agreed. Sirri Saqti asked Junayd from. Junayd replied, "From sitting with you." His traditional hagiography continues by stating that Junayd went back to Baghdad and took up selling glasses. However, he spent most of the time in prayer. Hence, he retired to the porch of Sirri Saqti's house and kept himself away from worldly matters devoting his thoughts only to God.
People need to "relinquish natural desires, to wipe out human attributes, to discard selfish motives, to cultivate spiritual qualities, to devote oneself to true knowledge, to do what is best in the context of eternity, to wish good for the entire community, to be faithful to God, to follow the Prophet in the matters of the Shari’a." This starts with the practice of asceticism and continues with withdrawal from society, intensive concentration on devotion and remembrance of God and contemplation respectively. Junayd spend 40 years in his mystic course praying while sacrificing his sleep and any other worldly desires but a conceit in his heart arose that he has achieved his goal. By he inspired by God that "He, not worthy of union, all his good works are but sins." This meant that the prayers which become a source of pride are useless as true prayer makes a person more humble and devoted to God. His name became famous in many parts of the world despite the persecution he faced and the tongues of slander shot at him.
He did not start preaching until 30 of the great saints indicated to him that he should now call men to God. However, he chose not to preach as yet saying, "While the master is there, it is not for the disciple to preach." After witnessing Muhammad in his dream commanding him to preach, he had to listen to Sirri Saqti. The intensity of ishq poured out of speech of Junayd such that out of the 40 people he first preached, 18 died and 22 fainted, his caliph and most dear disciple was Abu Bakr Shibli. Junayd helped establish the "sober" school of Sufi thought, which meant that he was logical and scholarly about his definitions of various virtues, etc. Sober Sufism is characterized by people who "experience fana do not subsist in that state of selfless absorption in God but find themselves returned to their senses by God; such returnees from the experience of selflessness are thus reconstituted as renewed selves," just like an intoxicated person sobering up. For example, Junayd is quoted as saying, "The water takes on the color of the cup."
While this might seem rather confusing at first, ‘Abd al-Hakeem Carney explains it best: "When the water is understood here to refer to the Light of Divine self-disclosure, we are led to the important concept of'capacity,' whereby the Divine epiphany is received by the heart of any person according to that person’s particular receptive capacity and will be'colored' by that person’s nature". According to Sells, "Junayd seems to presuppose that his hearer or reader has had the experience about which he is speaking – or more radically, that the hearer or reader is able to enter that experience, or some re-creation of it – at the moment of encounter with Junaid's words." This statement makes it seem like Junayd was writing to a specific sect of the elite that he described earlier. The elite that he refers to are the elect, or "a tightly-knit group of'brethren' that Junayd designates by such phrases as'the choice of believers' or'the pure ones', they play significant roles in the community of believers."As mentioned, Junayd has always been difficult to read for scholars because most of his writings have been lost to time.
Junayd uses precise words and language specific to try and describe God, the longing for Him, the human condition. His ornate language turns off most people, but Junayd had a reason for writing so cryptically. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, Junayd found out that a letter he had written was opened by a stra
Sharia, Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations; the manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah and ijma. Different legal schools—of which the most prominent are Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari—developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad. Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law, ʿibādāt and muʿāmalāt, which together comprise a wide range of topics, its rulings are concerned with ethical standards as much as with legal norms, assigning actions to one of five categories: mandatory, neutral and prohibited.
Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God’s will. Classical jurisprudence was elaborated by private religious scholars through legal opinions issued by qualified jurists, it was applied in sharia courts by ruler-appointed judges, who dealt with civil disputes and community affairs. Sultanic courts, the police and market inspectors administered criminal justice, influenced by sharia but not bound by its rules. Non-Muslim communities had legal autonomy to adjudicate their internal affairs. Ottoman rulers achieved additional control over the legal system by promulgating their own legal code and turning muftis into state employees; the Ottoman civil code of 1869–1876 was the first partial attempt to codify sharia. In the modern era, traditional criminal laws in the Muslim world have been replaced by statutes inspired by European models. Judicial procedures and legal education were brought in line with European practice.
While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were retained only in personal status laws. Legislators who codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence; the Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for full implementation of sharia, including hudud corporal punishments, such as stoning. In some cases, this resulted in traditionalist legal reform, while other countries witnessed juridical reinterpretation of sharia advocated by progressive reformers; some Muslim-minority countries recognize the use of sharia-based family laws for their Muslim populations. The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. Introduction of sharia-based laws sparked intercommunal violence in Nigeria and may have contributed to the breakup of Sudan; some jurisdictions in North America have passed bans on use of sharia, framed as restrictions on religious or foreign laws.
There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, women's rights, LGBT rights, banking. The word sharīʿah is used by Arabic-speaking peoples of the Middle East to designate a prophetic religion in its totality. For example, sharīʿat Mūsā means law or religion of Moses and sharīʿatu-nā can mean "our religion" in reference to any monotheistic faith. Within Islamic discourse, šarīʿah refers to religious regulations governing the lives of Muslims. For many Muslims, the word means "justice," and they will consider any law that promotes justice and social welfare to conform to sharia. Jan Michiel Otto distinguishes four senses conveyed by the term sharia in religious and political discourse: Divine, abstract sharia: God's plan for mankind and the norms of behavior which should guide the Islamic community. Muslims of different perspectives agree in their respect for the abstract notion of sharia, but they differ in how they understand the practical implications of the term.
Classical sharia: the body of rules and principles elaborated by Islamic jurists during the first centuries of Islam. Historical sharia: the body of rules and interpretations developed throughout Islamic history, ranging from personal beliefs to state legislation and varying across an ideological spectrum. Classical sharia has served as a point of reference for these variants, but they have reflected the influences of their time and place. Contemporary sharia: the full spectrum of rules and interpretations that are developed and practiced at present. A related term al-qānūn al-islāmī, borrowed from European usage in the late 19th century, is used in the Muslim world to refer to a legal system in the context of a modern state; the primary range of meanings of the Arabic word šarīʿah, derived from the root š-r-ʕ, is related to religion and religious law. The lexicographical tradition records two major areas of use where the word šarīʿah can appear without religious connotation. In texts evoking a pastoral or nomadic environment, the word, its derivatives refer to watering animals at a permanent water-hole or to the seashore, with special reference to animals who come there.
Another area of use relates to notions of lengthy. This range of meanings is cognate with the Hebrew saraʿ and is to be the origin of the meaning "way" or "path". Both these areas have been claimed to have given rise to aspects of the religious m
Discipline is action or inaction, regulated to be in accordance with a particular system of governance. Discipline is applied to regulating human and animal behavior, furthermore, it is applied to each activity-branch in all branches of organized activity and other fields of study and observation. Discipline can be a set of expectations that are required by any governing entity including the self, classes, industries, or societies. Children being educated to use public litter bins is a form of disciplinary education, expected by some societies. Discipline is followed in every school. If a child cannot use a litter bin the lack of discipline can result in a reaction from observant people in public. Many people observe a form of disciplinary effort in their daily lives. Discipline acts an important role in student's campus life to enhance their credit and intellectual recognition amongst peers. In academia, discipline can regard the educators' responses and efforts that are designed to punish the student.
Discipline is a moral obligation among many groups of people. Disciplined behavior is required by other legal obligations. Commercial entities can put in place strict disciplinary requirements for the length of the commercial agreement. Airlines enforce strict disciplinary and conduct rules upon flight passengers. In the military, discipline regards. Not only in military, in every parts of life of an individual discipline plays the most important role by placing group recognition of the personal significance of activities, in personal life on its gradual improvements and symbolic activities that give homage to the groups actual face or respect which are more recognized by the group. Discipline shows the actual face of an individual, taking personal judgement lower or higher to meet the groups, adding values or reservations so that they may be held. In animal husbandry and training, the animals may be disciplined to perform specific task and activities without errors. Additionally, animals can discipline their young through numerous methods.
Disciplinarians have been involved in many societies throughout history. The Victorian era resulted in the popular use of disciplinarian governance over children. Edward VIII had a disciplinarian father, the English had modelled the royal families during this era. Edward's grandmother was Queen Victoria who had championed the role of the family unit during her reign. A disciplinarian will enforce a stricter set of rules that are aimed at developing children according to theories of order and discipline. Disciplinarians have been linked to child abuse in numerous cases and biographies. Time management is a form of discipline that utilizes time as the regulator and the observer of time as the governor; the requirement is for time to be used efficiently. This activity maximizes the result of a set of activities by marking each activity within a boundary of time. To improve efficiency activities that are not necessary to completing the current activity or goal should be completed separately without interruption, this is the alternative to multi-tasking.
Time management can utilize skills, tools, or techniques to create specific time allotments according to a range of organization methods. Time management for discipline scheduling should involve focusing on one task defining what we plan to undertake and focus on what we are doing rather than resisting alternative ways of doing during its completion. A major theme arising from time management is that of modifying behavior to ensure compliance with time-related deadlines, it may be utilized by a emphasis on completing goals rather than a specific task, completing short and non-urgent tasks first, complete urgent and high importance tasks second and make progress on less urgent tasks which are time consuming in the middle of the working day. More segregating operations to different individuals as opposed to overlapping activities, more efficiently organizing and completing tasks, this may however increase the need for supervision, non-group fixed milestones and intermittent reports; this theme is interrelated with discipline and methods of discipline that can be used to incentivize group or personal responsibility and reducing wasted hours by performance drops or irrelevant tasks to completing a deadline.
Time management is about goal-oriented programs. Team based time management is exemplified by good questioning. Meeting times can be reduced by asking why we need to meet to accomplish this, what will we do differently if we succeed and how will this further the vision or goals of our team, group or organization? Responsibility-based discipline co-opts the members to understand remedies for problems in an organization. Responsibility is includes laying out instructions for modifying future behavior by following good role models who have earned esteem. Reward and punishment may be ineffective without someone to administer them. Responsibility-based discipline is about mimicking the warmth, democratic decision-making in setting ground rules and problem-solving, this is while maintaining dignity and observing clear limits. Sending frequent reminders about how the member can meet the performance indicators, organizational objectives, why the rules should be adhered to or useful advice on meeting the rules day-to-day.
Obedience-based discipline is basing membership by the hard work, obedience to authority, self-discipline. Corporal punishment is a debated technique of discipline that can focus on spanking, whipping, deprivation or hitting with an object using mild to extreme degrees of force