This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself. The most familiar scale models represent the appearance of an object in miniature. Scale models are used in fields including engineering, film making, military command, salesmanship. While each field may use a model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles. The detail requirements vary depending on the needs of the modeler, in general a scale model must be designed and built primarily considering similitude theory. However, other requirements concerning practical issues must be considered, similitude is the theory and art of predicting prototype performance from scale model observations. The main requirement of similitude is all dimensionless quantities must be equal for both the model and the prototype under the conditions the modeler desires to make observations. Dimensionless quantities are generally referred to as Pi terms, or π terms, in many fields the π terms are well established.
For example, in dynamics, a well known dimensionless number called the Reynolds number comes up frequently in scale model tests with fluid in motion relative to a stationary surface. An example of the Reynolds number and its use in similitude theory satisfaction can be observed in the scale model testing of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe, one method to determine the dimensionless quantities of concern for a given problem is to use dimensional analysis. Practical concerns include the cost to construct the model, available test facilities to condition and observe the model, the availability of certain materials, and even who will build it. Practical requirements are very diverse depending on the purpose of the scale model. As an example, perhaps an aerospace company needs to test a new wing shape, however, if a facility such as this one cant be used, perhaps due to cost constraints, the similitude requirements must be relaxed or the test redesigned to accommodate the limitation. In this case, concessions must be made for reasons to the similitude requirements.
An example of this from fluid dynamics is flow of a liquid in a horizontal pipe, possible π terms to consider in this situation are Reynolds number, Weber number, Froude number, and Mach number. For this flow configuration, however, no tension is involved. Also, compression of the fluid is not applicable, so the Mach number can be disregarded, gravity is not responsible for the flow, so the Froude number can be disregarded. This leaves the modeler with only the Reynolds number to worry about in terms of equating its values for the scale model, in general, scale models can be classified into three classes depending on the degree of similitude satisfaction they exhibit
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux was a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III. Born in Valenciennes, son of a mason, his studies were under François Rude. Carpeaux entered the École des Beaux-Arts in 1844 and won the Prix de Rome in 1854, staying in Rome from 1854 to 1861, he obtained a taste for movement and spontaneity, which he joined with the great principles of baroque art. Carpeaux sought real life subjects in the streets and broke with the classical tradition, Carpeaux debuted at the Salon in 1853 exhibiting La Soumission dAbd-el-Kader alEmperuer, a bas-relief in plaster that did not attract much attention. Carpeaux was an admirer of Napoléon III and followed him from city to city during Napoléons official trip through the north of France, Carpeaux soon grew tired of academicism and became a wanderer on the streets of Rome. He spent free time admiring the frescoes of Michelangelo at the Sistine Chapel, Carpeaux said, When an artist feels pale and cold, he runs to Michelangelo in order to warm himself, as with the rays of the sun.
While a student in Rome, Carpeaux submitted a version of Pêcheur napolitain à la coquille. He carved the marble version several years later, showing it in the Salon exhibition of 1863 and it was purchased for Napoleon IIIs empress, Eugénie. The statue of the smiling boy was very popular, and Carpeaux created a number of reproductions and variations in marble. There is a copy, for instance, in the Samuel H. Kress Collection in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, some years later, he carved the Girl with a Shell, a very similar study. In 1861, he made a bust of Princess Mathilde, in 1866, he established his own atelier in order to reproduce and make work on a grander scale. In 1866, he was awarded the chevalier of the Legion of Honour and he employed his brother as the sales manager and made a calculated effort to produce work that would appeal to a larger audience. On 12 October 1875, he died at the Chateau de Bécon, among his students were Jules Dalou, Jean-Louis Forain and the American sculptor Olin Levi Warner.
Carpeaux died at age 48 in Courbevoie, ugolin et ses fils with versions in other museums including the Musée dOrsay, Paris. Partly complete at his death, Carpeaux finished the terrestrial globe with the points represented by the four figures of Asia, Europe. LAmour à la folie, part of a group La danse for the facade of the Opera Garnier A page from insecula
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor. The word video in video game referred to a raster display device. Some theorists categorize video games as an art form, but this designation is controversial, the electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms, examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices, the input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, and buttons, or even, with the Kinect sensor, a persons hands and body. Players typically view the game on a screen or television or computer monitor, or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are often game sound effects, music and, in the 2010s, some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets.
In the 2010s, the game industry is of increasing commercial importance, with growth driven particularly by the emerging Asian markets and mobile games. As of 2015, video games generated sales of USD74 billion annually worldwide, early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a Cathode ray tube Amusement Device was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S. Written by MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanens on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961, and the hit ping pong-style Pong, used the DEC PDP-1s vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold and it used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green, Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console.
Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the Brown Box and these were followed by two versions of Ataris Pong, an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first killer app, the term platform refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term system is commonly used
A sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing that is not usually intended as a finished work. Sketches can be made in any drawing medium, the term is most often applied to graphic work executed in a dry medium such as silverpoint, pencil, charcoal or pastel. But it may apply to drawings executed in pen and ink, ballpoint pen, water colour. The latter two are referred to as water colour sketches and oil sketches. A sculptor might model three-dimensional sketches in clay, plasticine or wax, sketching is generally a prescribed part of the studies of art students. This generally includes making sketches from a model whose pose changes every few minutes. Underdrawing is drawing underneath the work, which may sometimes still be visible. Most visual artists use, to a greater or lesser degree, the term sketchbook refers to a book of blank paper on which an artist can, drawn sketches. The book might be purchased bound or might comprise loose leaves of sketches assembled or bound together, the ability to quickly record impressions through sketching has found varied purposes in todays culture.
Courtroom sketches record scenes and individuals in law courts, Sketches drawn to help authorities find or identify wanted people are called composite sketches. Street artists in popular tourist areas sketch portraits within minutes, doodle Multi-Sketch Etch A Sketch, a toy Urban Sketchers This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Media related to Sketches at Wikimedia Commons
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, electronics. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one, in some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea. The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, primitive form, neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, primitive, from πρῶτος protos, first and τύπος typos, a Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product. A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, a User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research.
A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the design, though it may be created with different techniques. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the interface of a software product. In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves, process - Mass-production processes are often unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product, verification - The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications. These tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, prototypes are generally made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists will attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the role for the prototype. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to exactly simulate the characteristics of their intended design and it is important to realize that by their very definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the design may have been sound. In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes generally cannot eliminate all risk.
As an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the prototypes, which implement part
An architectural model is a type of scale model - a physical representation of a structure - built to study aspects of an architectural design or to communicate design ideas. Depending on the purpose, models can be made from a variety of materials, including blocks and wood, and at a variety of scales. They may be useful in explaining a complicated or unusual design to builders, presentation models can be used to exhibit, visualise or sell a final design. A model are used as show pieces, for instance as a feature in the reception of a building. Types of models include, Exterior models are models of buildings which include some landscaping or civic spaces around the building. Interior models are models showing interior space planning, colors, landscaping design models are models of landscape design and development representing features such as walkways, small bridges, vegetation patterns and beautification. Landscaping design models usually represent public spaces and may, in some cases, urban models are models typically built at a much smaller scale, representing several city blocks, even a whole town or village, large resort, industrial facility, military base and so on.
Urban models are a tool for town/city planning and development. Engineering and construction models show isolated building/structure elements and components and their interaction, buildings are increasingly designed in software with CAD systems. Early virtual modelling involved the fixing of arbitrary lines and points in virtual space, modern packages include advanced features such as databases of components, automated engineering calculations, visual fly-throughs, dynamic reflections, and accurate textures and colours. Rough study models can be made using cardboard, wooden blocks, foam, foam boards. Such models are an efficient design tool for understanding of a structure, space or form, used by architects, interior designers. Common materials used for centuries in architectural model building were card stock, balsa wood, basswood, a number of companies produce ready-made pieces for structural components, furniture, vehicles, trees and other features which are found in the models. Increasingly, rapid prototyping techniques such as 3D printing and CNC routing are used to construct models straight from CAD plans.
Architectural models are being constructed at smaller scale than their 1,1 counterpart. Architectural rendering Building model Maquette Origamic architecture Scale model Superquick
A film, called a movie, motion picture, theatrical film or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed rapidly in succession, the process of filmmaking is both an art and an industry. The word cinema, short for cinematography, is used to refer to the industry of films. Films were originally recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process, the adoption of CGI-based special effects led to the use of digital intermediates. Most contemporary films are now fully digital through the process of production, distribution. Films recorded in a form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. It runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it and is not projected, Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them, Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
The visual basis of film gives it a power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into the language of the viewer, some have criticized the film industrys glorification of violence and its potentially negative treatment of women. The individual images that make up a film are called frames, the perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called phi phenomenon. The name film originates from the fact that film has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for a motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Terms for the field, in general, include the big screen, the screen, the movies, and cinema. In early years, the sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film, sets, production, actors, storyboards, much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène.
Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images, the magic lantern, probably created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, which was achieved by various types of mechanical slides
Pietrasanta is a town and comune on the coast of northern Tuscany in Italy, in the province of Lucca. Pietrasanta is part of Versilia, on the last foothills of the Apuan Alps, the town is located 3 kilometres off the coast. The Pietrasanta Marina, with sand and luxurious equipment, is considered one of the best beaches of Italy. The town has Roman origins and part of the Roman wall still exists, the medieval town was founded in 1255 upon the pre-existing Rocca di Sala fortress of the Lombards by Luca Guiscardo da Pietrasanta, from whom it got its name. Pietrasanta was at its height a part of the Republic of Genoa, the town is first mentioned in 1331 in records of Genoa, when it became a part of the Lucca along with the river port of Motrone, and was held until 1430. At that time it passed back to Genoa until 1484, when it was annexed to the Medici held seigniory of Florence, in 1494, Charles VIII of France took control of the town. It remained a Luccan town again until Pope Leo X, a member of the Medici family, the town suffered a long period of decline during the 17th and 18th centuries, partially due to malaria.
In 1841, Grand Duke Leopold II of Tuscany promoted several reconstruction projects, the town became the capital of the Capitanato di Pietrasanta, which included the towns of Forte dei Marmi and Stazzema. The town joined the newly unified Italian Kingdom in 1861, santAgostino, Romanesque style former church, now seat of art exhibitions. It includes remnants of 14th-15th centuries frescoes and Fountain of the Marzocco. Palazzo Moroni, home to the local Archaeological Museum, the area, like most of Tuscany in general, has long enjoyed the patronage of artists. Pietrasanta grew to importance during the 15th century, mainly due to its connection with marble, michelangelo was the first sculptor to recognize the beauty of the local stone. Eugenio Barsanti, together with Felice Matteucci invented the first version of the combustion engine in 1853. Ottavio Barsanti, New Zealand missionary and writer born in Pietrasanta, fernando Botero, Colombian painter and sculptor, lives in the commune. Julia Vance, Norwegian Sculptor, lives in the commune, hanneke Beaumont, Dutch-born sculptor, lives in the commune.
Romano Cagnoni, Italian photographer, lives in the commune, giosuè Carducci and teacher, recipient of 1906 Nobel Prize in Literature. Claude Cehes, sculptor Corinna Dentoni, tennis player, cesare Galeotti, composer and concert pianist was born in Pietrasanta on 5 June 1872. He was best known for his opera Anton and Dorisse, kathleen Jones, English biographer and poet, lives in the commune
The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses.
It employed an iconography that was direct, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists.
Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories
Artnet. com is an art market website. The company increased revenues by 24. 3% to 17.3 million EUR in 2015 compared with a year before. The company was founded as Centrox Corporation in 1989 by Pierre Sernet, hans Neuendorf, a German art dealer, began to invest in the company in the 1990s, he became chairman in 1992 and chief executive officer in 1995. In the same year the name was changed to Artnet Worldwide Corporation and it was taken over by Artnet AG in 1998.14 Neuendorfs son Jacob Pabst became chief executive officer in July 2012. Artnet operates a research and trading platform for the art market, including works of fine art, decorative arts. It provides services that promote accessibility, allowing users to art, contact galleries directly. The platform caters specifically to art dealers, as well as buyers, in 2008, Artnet launched the first online auctions platform exclusively for works of art. In 2015, artnet saw a 120% increase in new registrations, rising sell-through rates, in October 2008, Artnet launched a French website, artnet. fr.
It included a French language magazine which offers an overview of the French art market. In February 2014 the company launched Artnet News, a 24-hour news site, benjamin Genocchio, former editorial director of Louise Blouin Media, was appointed editor-in-chief. It has become the most read and influential art news platform in the world, the primary service of this business is Artnet online auctions. Market value and long-term price developments of artworks can be researched online, an additional key product is the Artnet online Gallery Network, an online platform that connects galleries and collectors from around the world. Collectors are able to search by artist and medium, in 2004, Artnet and the international auction house Sothebys began their collaboration. The close collaboration between Artnet and Art Basel/ Art Basel Miami Beach started in 2007, Artnet partners with a large number of the worlds leading art fairs
Art Institute of Chicago
The Art Institute of Chicago, founded in 1879 and located in Chicagos Grant Park, is one of the oldest and largest art museums in the United States. Recognized for its efforts and popularity among visitors, the museum hosts approximately 1.5 million guests annually. The growth of the collection has warranted several additions to the museums original 1893 building, the Art Institute is connected to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, a leading art school, making it one of the few remaining unified arts institutions in the United States. In 1866, a group of 35 artists founded the Chicago Academy of Design in a studio on Dearborn Street, the organization was modeled after European art academies, such as the Royal Academy, with Academicians and Associate Academicians. The Academys charter was granted in March 1867, classes started in 1868, meeting every day at a cost of $10 per month. The Academys success enabled it to build a new home for the school, a stone building on 66 West Adams Street.
When the Great Chicago Fire destroyed the building in 1871 the Academy was thrown into debt, attempts to continue despite the loss by using rented facilities failed. By 1878 the Academy was $10,000 in debt, members tried to rescue the ailing institution by making deals with local businessmen, before some finally abandoned it in 1879 to found a new organization, named the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts. When the Chicago Academy of Design went bankrupt the same year, in 1882, the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts changed its name to the current Art Institute of Chicago and elected as its first president the banker and philanthropist Charles L. Also in 1882, the purchased a lot on the southwest corner of Michigan Avenue. By January 1885 the trustees recognized the need to provide space for the organizations growing collection. The city agreed, and the building was completed in time for the year of the fair. Construction costs were met by selling the Michigan/Van Buren property, on October 31,1893 the Institute moved into the new building.
For the opening reception on December 8,1893, Theodore Thomas, from the 1900s to the 1960s the school offered with the Logan Family the Logan Medal of the Arts, an award which became one of the most distinguished awards presented to artists in the US. Between 1959 and 1970 the Institute was a key site in the battle to gain art and documentary photography a place in galleries, under curator Hugh Edwards and his assistants. As Director of the museum starting in the early 1980s, James N. Wood conducted an expansion of its collection. He retired from the museum in 2004, in 2006, the Art Institute began construction of The Modern Wing, an addition situated on the southwest corner of Columbus and Monroe. The project, designed by Pritzker Prize winning architect Renzo Piano, was completed, the 264, 000-square-foot building makes the Art Institute the second-largest art museum in the United States