Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the worlds largest non-governmental school system, in 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, and 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the mission of the Church, integrating religious education as the core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe, the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across Europe, United Kingdom and Australia. Historically, the establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63, anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions. The Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to openly practice Catholicism in England and this led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses.
Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools, Catholic schools were previously required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off sharply causing fees to rise and this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith, the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities, particularly those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness. ”The education involves, “the distinct but complementary aspect of the religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.
”In Catholic schools. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons, Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have many changes since independence in the late 50s. The education policy in Malaysia is very centralized, in 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other government funded programmes. With Islam being the religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith. The missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country
Femininity is a set of attributes and roles generally associated with girls and women. Femininity is socially constructed, but made up of both socially-defined and biologically-created factors and this makes it distinct from the definition of the biological female sex, as both males and females can exhibit feminine traits. People who exhibit a combination of masculine and feminine characteristics are considered androgynous, and feminist philosophers have argued that gender ambiguity may blur gender classification. In some non-English speaking cultures, certain concepts or inanimate objects are considered feminine or masculine, tara Williams has suggested that modern notions of femininity in English speaking society began during the English medieval period at the time of the bubonic plague in the 1300s. Women in the Early Middle Ages were referred to simply within their traditional roles of maiden, after the Black Death in England wiped out approximately half the population, traditional gender roles of wife and mother changed, and opportunities opened up for women in society.
Prudence Allen has traced how the concept of woman changed during this period, the words femininity and womanhood are first recorded in Chaucer around 1380. Girls, second-wave feminists said, were socialized with toys, games and school into conforming to feminine values, femininity is sometimes linked with sexual objectification and sexual appeal. Sexual passiveness, or sexual receptivity, is considered feminine while sexual assertiveness. Some queer theorists and other postmodernists, have rejected the sex /gender dichotomy as a dangerous simplification, an ongoing debate with regards to sex and psychology concerns the extent to which gender identity and gender-specific behavior is due to socialization versus inborn factors. According to Diane F. Halpern, both play a role, but the relative importance of each must still be investigated. The nature versus nurture question, for example, is debated and is continually revitalized by new research findings. Some hold that feminine identity is partly a given and partly a goal to be sought, in 1959, researchers such as John Money and Anke Erhardt proposed the prenatal hormone theory.
This theory, has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds, Money argued that gender identity is formed during a childs first three years. In Carl Jungs school of psychology, the anima and animus are the two primary anthropomorphic archetypes of the unconscious mind. The anima and animus are described by Jung as elements of his theory of the collective unconscious, a domain of the unconscious that transcends the personal psyche. In the unconscious of the male, it finds expression as a feminine inner personality, equivalently, in the unconscious of the female, it is expressed as a masculine inner personality, animus. In Western cultures, the ideal of feminine appearance has traditionally included long, flowing hair, clear skin, a narrow waist, in other cultures, expectations are different. For example, in parts of the world, underarm hair is not considered unfeminine
English rose (epithet)
English rose is a description, associated with English culture, that may be applied to a naturally attractive woman or girl of traditionally fair complexion who is from or is associated with England. The description has a reference to the national flower of England, the rose. The term English rose is found in Merrie England, an opera written by Basil Hood. He describes a garden where women are the flowers and in which the sweetest blossom or fairest queen is the perfect English rose. The words are performed by a tenor in the role of Sir Walter Raleigh in the presence of a May Queen, See also, 16th-century portrait paintings of women and 1900–09 in fashion. Last of the English Roses is a song by singer/songwriter Pete Doherty from his album Grace/Wastelands. At the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in 1997, Elton John performed a version of his 1974 hit Candle in the Wind which began with the adapted lyrics, Goodbye Englands rose
Cult of Domesticity
This value system emphasized new ideas of femininity, the womans role within the home and the dynamics of work and family. True women, according to this idea, were supposed to possess four cardinal virtues, purity, the idea revolved around the woman being the center of the family, she was considered The light of the home. The women and men who most actively promoted these standards were generally white and Protestant, the most prominent of them lived in New England and the Northeastern United States. Although all women were supposed to emulate this ideal of femininity, working class, part of the separate spheres ideology, the Cult of Domesticity identified the home as womens proper sphere. Women were supposed to inhabit the private sphere, running the household and production of food, rearing the children, purity – Virginity, a womans greatest treasure, must not be lost until her marriage night, and married women had to remain committed only to their husbands. Submission – True women were required to be as submissive and obedient as little children because men were regarded as womens superiors by Gods appointment.
Domesticity – A womans proper place was in the home and her role as a wife was to create a refuge for her husband, needlework, making beds, and tending flowers were considered naturally feminine activities, whereas reading anything other than religious biographies was discouraged. Physically, according to Wilma Pearl Mankiller, a True Woman was expected to be delicate and she should not engage in strenuous physical activity that would damage her “much more delicate nervous system. The conflation of Domesticity and True Womanhood can be misleading in that dedication to the domestic sphere did not necessarily imply purity, the characteristics of True Womanhood were described in sermons and religious texts as well as womens magazines. Prescriptive literature advised women on how to transform their homes into domestic sanctuaries for their husbands, fashion was stressed because a woman had to stay up to date in order to please her husband. Instructions for seamstresses were often included in magazines, magazines which promoted the values of the Cult of Domesticity fared better financially than those competing magazines which offered a more progressive view in terms of womens roles.
In the United States, Petersons Magazine and Godeys Ladys Book were the most widely circulated womens magazines and were popular among women and men. With a circulation of 150,000 by 1860, Godeys reflected and supported some of the ideals of the Cult of True Womanhood, the magazines paintings and pictures illustrated the four virtues, often showing women with children or behind husbands. It equated womanhood with motherhood and being a wife, declaring that the perfection of womanhood is the wife, the magazine presented motherhood as a womans natural and most satisfying role, and encouraged women to find their fulfillment and their contributions to society mainly within the home. Hale promoted Vassar College, advocated for female physicians, and published many of the most important female writers of the nineteenth century, cogan argued that Godeys supported Real Womanhood more than True Womanhood. The Cult of Domesticity affected married womens labor market participation in the nineteenth, True Women were supposed to devote themselves to unpaid domestic labor and refrain from paid, market-oriented work.
Consequently, in 1890,4. 5% of all married women were employed, compared with 40. 5% of single women. Womens complete financial dependence upon their husbands proved disastrous when wives lost their husbands through death or desertion and were forced to fend for themselves and this division between the domestic and public spheres had effects on womens power and status
Monasticism or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work. Monastic life plays an important role in many Christian churches, especially in the Catholic, similar forms of religious life exist in other faiths, most notably in Buddhism, but in Hinduism and Jainism, although the expressions differ considerably. By contrast, in other religions monasticism is criticized and not practiced, as in Islam and Zoroastrianism, or plays a marginal role, males pursuing a monastic life are generally called monks while female monastics are called nuns. Many monks and nuns live in monasteries to stay away from the secular world, the way of addressing monastics differs between the Christian traditions. As a general rule, in Roman Catholicism and nuns are called brother or sister, while in Eastern Orthodoxy, the Sangha or community of ordained Buddhist bhikkhus and original bhikkhunis was founded by Gautama Buddha during his lifetime over 2500 years ago.
This communal monastic lifestyle grew out of the lifestyle of earlier sects of wandering ascetics and it was initially fairly eremitic or reclusive in nature. Bhikkhus and bhikkunis were expected to live with a minimum of possessions, lay followers provided the daily food that bhikkhus required, and provided shelter for bhikkhus when they needed it. After the Parinibbana of the Buddha, the Buddhist monastic order developed into a primarily cenobitic or communal movement. The practice of living communally during the rainy season, prescribed by the Buddha. The number of rules observed varies with the order, Theravada bhikkhus follow around 227 rules, there are a larger number of rules specified for bhikkhunis. The Buddhist monastic order consists of the male bhikkhu assembly and the female bhikkhuni assembly, initially consisting only of males, it grew to include females after the Buddhas stepmother, asked for and received permission to live as an ordained practitioner. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are expected to fulfill a variety of roles in the Buddhist community and foremost, they are expected to preserve the doctrine and discipline now known as Buddhism.
A bhikkhu or Bhikshu, first ordains as a Samanera, novices often ordain at a young age, but generally no younger than eight. Samaneras live according to the Ten Precepts, but are not responsible for living by the set of monastic rules. Higher ordination, conferring the status of a full Bhikkhu, is only to men who are aged 20 or older. Bhikkhunis follow a progression, but are required to live as Samaneras for longer periods of time- typically five years. The disciplinary regulations for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are intended to create a life that is simple and focused, celibacy is a fundamental part of this form of monastic discipline. Monasticism in Christianity, which provides the origins of the monk and monastery
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south, Luzon and Mindanao, the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 square kilometers, and it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. As of 2013, approximately 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelagos earliest inhabitants and they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Chinese, Malay and Islamic nations occurred, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of Datus, Sultans or Lakans.
The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization, in 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion, during this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, since then, the Philippines has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution. It is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte, eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other such as Islas del Poniente. The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history, during the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris, the name Philippines began to appear, since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. The metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago is the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date and this distinction previously belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago.
Negritos were among the archipelagos earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated, there are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos
Women in the Philippines
The role of women in the Philippines is explained based on the context of Filipino culture and mindsets. The Philippines is described to be a nation of strong women and it is in this framework of Philippine hierarchical structure, class differences, religious justifications, and living in a globally developing nation wherein Filipino women are respected well by men. Compared to other parts of Southeast Asia, women in Philippine society have always enjoyed a greater share of equality, some pre-colonial social structures of the Philippines gave equal importance to maternal and paternal lineage. This bilateral kinship system accorded Philippine women enormous power within a clan and they were entitled to property, engage in a trade and could exercise their right to divorce her husband. They could become village chiefs in the absence of a male heir, before the arrival of the Spaniards, Filipino women could achieve status as medicine women or high-priestesses and astrologers. As it happened all over Asia, women in the Philippines were expected to become caring and nurturing mothers for their own children, a trait found all over Asia was the preference of most families to have male children instead of females.
When Spain lost the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Philippines was ceded to the United States of America, the U. S. A. introduced a new public education system which retained opportunity to every child regardless of gender. According to the Monroe Commission on Philippine Education, “Upon leaving school, only 10% to 15% of the next generation will be able to use this language in their occupations. In fact, it only be the government employees, and the professionals. They handle the money, act as mentors, and can make all the important family decisions. In the past and businesses generally hire Filipino women for less pay, but at present, Filipino women are given the same opportunities as their male counterparts in the business realm. About one-third of businesses in the Philippines are operated by Filipino women, in rural areas, the Filipino woman belongs in the home. The children approach her for money and help and she supports the children’s educational needs. For non-family members who support, the wife is the person to be approached.
However, the wife is neither the person who makes the decision or the person who hands out the money. Juan Flavier, a physician, an authority on community development, and a former Philippine senator, described in his book, Doctor to the Barrios, rural women in the Philippines wield considerable authority, the housewife in particular. Flavier mentioned that In the Philippine barrio, the one responsible for the home and relationships in the Philippines are conservative in nature. The man will have to court the woman and prove his love for her before he can win her heart, sometimes the courtship period would last for years, this however, is a very old fashioned idea
Chastity is sexual behavior of a man or woman that is acceptable to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion. The term has become associated with sexual abstinence, especially before marriage. The words chaste and chastity stem from the Latin adjective castus meaning pure, the words entered the English language around the middle of the 13th century, at that time they meant slightly different things. Chaste meant virtuous or pure from unlawful sexual intercourse, while chastity meant virginity and it was not until the late 16th century that the two words came to have the same basic meaning as a related adjective and noun. For Muslims and many Christians, acts of nature are restricted to marriage. For unmarried persons, chastity is identified with sexual abstinence, sexual acts outside or apart from marriage, such as adultery and prostitution, are considered sinful. In many Christian traditions, chastity is synonymous with sexual purity, chastity means not having any sexual relations before marriage.
It means fidelity to husband or wife during marriage, in Catholic morality, chastity is placed opposite the deadly sin of lust, and is classified as one of seven virtues. The moderation of sexual desires is required to be virtuous, reason and desire can harmoniously work together to do what is good. In marriage, the spouses commit to a relationship which excludes sexual intimacy with other persons. After marriage, a form of chastity, often called vidual chastity, is expected of a woman while she is in mourning for her late husband. For example, Anglican Bishop Jeremy Taylor defined 5 rules in Holy Living, including abstaining from marrying so long as she is with child by her former husband, the particular ethical system may not prescribe each of these. Many Anglican communities allow for artificial contraception, seeing the restriction of family size by artificial contraception as possibly not contrary to Gods will, a stricter view is held by the Shakers, who prohibit marriage as a violation of chastity.
The Catholic Church has set up various rules regarding clerical celibacy, celibacy is required of monastics—monks and friars—even in a rare system of double cloisters, in which husbands could enter the monastery while their wives entered a sister monastery. Required celibacy among the clergy is a recent practice, it became Church policy at the Second Lateran Council in 1139. It was not uniformly enforced among the clergy until 200 years later, eastern Catholic priests are permitted to be married, provided they are so before ordination and outside the monastic life. Vows of chastity can be taken by laypersons, either as part of a religious life or on an individual basis, as a voluntary act of devotion, or as part of an ascetic lifestyle. The voluntary aspect has led it to being included among the main counsels of perfection, chastity is a central and pivotal concept in Roman Catholic praxis
A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism, although the term has been used in a legal sense. A male godparent is a godfather, and a female godparent is a godmother, as early as the 2nd century AD, infant baptism had begun to gain acceptance among Christians for the spiritual purification and social initiation of infants. The requirement for some confession of faith necessitated the use of adults who acted as sponsors for the child and they vocalized the confession of faith and acted as guarantors of the child’s spiritual upbringing. Normally, these sponsors were the parents of a child, as emphasized in 408 by St. Augustine who suggested that they could, it seems exceptionally. Within a century, the Corpus Juris Civilis indicates that parents had been replaced in this role almost completely and this was clarified in 813 when the Council of Munich prohibited natural parents from acting as godparents to their own children. This pattern was marked by the creation of legal barriers to marriage that paralleled those for other forms of kin, as confirmation emerged as a separate rite from baptism from the 8th century, a second set of sponsors, with similar prohibitions, emerged.
Luther and Calvin preserved infant baptism against the attacks of more radical reformers including Anabaptists, in 888, the Catholic Council of Metz attempted to limit the number to one, but proliferation seems to have continued. In early 14th-century Spain, as many as 20 godparents were being chosen, in England, the Synod of Worcester stipulated three sponsors, and this has remained the norm in the Church of England. The Council of Trent attempted to limit the numbers of godparents to one or two, but practice has differed across the Catholic world. They were abolished in 1644 by the Directory of Public Worship promulgated by the English Civil War Parliamentary regime, after the Restoration in 1660, they were reintroduced to Anglicanism, with occasional objections, but dropped by almost every dissenting church. There is some evidence that the institution had lost some of its social importance as well as its universality. At present, in the Church of England, relatives can stand as godparents, godparents should be both baptized and confirmed, but the requirement for confirmation can be waived.
There is no requirement for clergy to baptize those from outside their parishes, as a result, individual clergy have considerable discretion over the qualifications of godparents. Many contemporary Anglican rites likewise require parents and godparents to respond on behalf of infant candidates, the Catholic institution of godparenthood survived the Reformation largely unchanged. Someone who belongs to another Christian church cannot become a godparent, a witness does not have any religious role recognized by the Church. Lutherans follow a similar theology of godparents as Roman Catholics and they believe that godparents help with their Christian upbringing, especially if they should lose their parents. Lutherans, like Roman Catholics, believe that a godparent must be both a baptized and confirmed Christian, some Lutherans follow the Roman Catholic tradition that a Christian who is not affiliated with the Lutheran denomination may serve as a witness rather than a godparent. The Orthodox institution of godparenthood has been the least affected of the traditions by change