Oommen Chandy is an Indian statesman and senior leader of the Indian National Congress party. He served as the Chief Minister of Kerala for two terms, from 2004 to 2006 and again from 2011 to 2016, he was Leader of the Opposition in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 2006 to 2011. He has represented Puthuppally as MLA in the State Assembly since 1970. On 6 June 2018 Congress President Rahul Gandhi appointed him as General Secretary of All India Congress Committee in charge of the crucial state of Andhra Pradesh, he is now the Congress Working Committee member. Oommen Chandy was born at Kumarakom, Kottayam district, Kerala in 1943. Chandy ventured into the political arena as an activist of Kerala Students Union, the student wing of the party, he was the unit president of KSU at St George High School and went on to become the State President of the organization. Chandy completed his pre university course from CMS College, Kottayam and BA Economics from St. Berchmans College, Changanassery, he took a bachelor's degree in law from Government Law College, Ernakulam.
Chandy started his political career through the Kerala Students Union, which he served as president from 1967 to 1969. He was elected as the president of the State Youth Congress in 1970, he has represented the Puthuppally Constituency for decades, having been elected to the Kerala Legislative Assembly in 1970, 1977, 1980, 1982, 1987, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. During his legislative career he had served as Chairman of the Public Accounts Committee during 1996–98. Chandy has been a minister in the Government of Kerala on four occasions, he was the Minister for Labour from 11 April 1977 to 25 April 1977 in the first K. Karunakaran Ministry and continued holding the same portfolio in the succeeding first A. K. Antony Ministry till 27 October 1978, he was in the charge of Home portfolio in the second K. Karunakaran Ministry from 28 December 1981 to 17 March 1982. Again, he was sworn in as a minister in the fourth K. Karunakaran Ministry on 2 July 1991, he was in charge of Finance Portfolio and resigned from the cabinet on 22 June 1994 due to difference with the Chief Minister.
The results of the parliamentary elections in May 2004 saw the Indian National Congress not winning a single seat in Kerala. The sitting Chief Minister, A. K. Antony, was forced to resign and accept responsibility for the poor results. On 30 August 2004, Chandy was elected the Congress Legislature Party leader at the end of a meeting by AICC observers and clearance by the Congress president, Sonia Gandhi. In what may be seen as a reflection of his work as Chief Minister, the Congress-led alliance was defeated, but managed to retain 40 out of 140 seats in the assembly and boost its vote-share by nearly 10% after the general election rout, he resigned as Chief Minister on 12 May 2006 following the defeat of his party in 2006 Assembly Elections. Oommen Chandy was the leader of opposition in the twelfth Kerala Legislative Assembly. Under his leadership UDF marked victories in Lok Sabha Election 2009, gaining 16 out of 20 parliament constituencies in Kerala, Local Body Election 2010. In the history of Kerala politics it's the first time that the UDF got an upper hand in local body elections.
After winning the contested 2011 assembly election, Congress legislative party unanimously elected Oommen Chandy as its leader. At the Congress Legislature Party meeting, Chandy's name was proposed by, Ramesh Chennithala and seconded by Aryadan Mohammed; the election process was formally launched after Congress Working Committee member Mohsina Kidwai and AICC general secretary Madhusudan Mistry, in charge of Kerala, held a one-to-one meeting in their capacity as observers with the 38 elected MLAs. UDF led by Oommen Chandy secured a slender margin in assembly election which held on 13 April 2011. UDF candidates won in 72 seats against 68 seats of LDF, he took the oath on 18 May 2011 with six other ministers of his cabinet. Thirteen other ministers were inducted into his cabinet, he gave up Vigilance Portfolio in early August 2011, after a fresh probe was ordered on the Palmolein oil case, which happened when he was Finance Minister in 1992. In June 2013, Chandy's personal assistant was arrested for an alleged involvement in the 2013 Kerala solar panel scam..
Opposition parties subsequently demanded Chandy's resignation until the United Democratic Front government ordered a judicial inquiry into the scandal.. Oommen Chandy received the 2013 United Nations Public Service Award from the Asia-Pacific region, for the category "Preventing and Combating Corruption in the Public Service." The award was presented on 27 June 2013, in Manama, Bahrain, by the UN Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, Wu Hongbo. The award was based on the theme "Transformative e-Government and Innovation: Creating a Better Future for All." The website of Oommen Chandy
The Holy Qurbana or Holy Qurbono, the "Holy Offering" or "Holy Sacrifice", refers to the Eucharist as celebrated in Syriac Christianity. This includes various Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches, including the Syriac Orthodox Church based in Syria, the Coptic Orthodox Church based in Egypt, the Maronite Catholic Church based in Lebanon, the Syriac Catholic Church based in Lebanon, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church based in India, the Chaldean Catholic Church based in Iraq, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church based in Ethiopia, the Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Church based in India, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church based in India; the East Syriac Rite is used in the Assyrian Church of the East based in Iraq as well, however they are not in official communion with Oriental Orthodoxy, they are not a part of the Eastern Catholic churches. The main Anaphora of the East Syriac tradition is the Holy Qurbana of Saints Addai and Mari, while that of the West Syriac tradition is the Divine Liturgy of Saint James.
The East Syriac word Qurbana and the West Syriac word Qurbono are derived from the Aramaic term Qurbana. When the Temple stood in Jerusalem, sacrifices were offered, "Qorban" was a technical Hebrew term for some of the offerings that were brought there, it comes from a Hebrew root, "Qarab", meaning "to draw close or'near'". A required Korban was offered morning and evening daily and on holidays, in addition to which individuals could bring an optional personal Korban; the Holy Qurbana is referred to as "complete" worship, since it is performed for the benefit of all members of the Church. The other sacraments are celebrated for individual members, thus the Holy Qurbana is believed to be the sacrament. Hence it is called the "sacrament of perfection" or the "queen of sacraments"; the East Syriac or Chaldean rite was associated with the historical Church of the East, centered in the Persian capital of Seleucia-Ctesiphon. Today the Liturgy of Addai and Mari is used in the Ancient Church of the East, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Chaldean Catholic Church, as well as the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church based in Kerala, India.
The Liturgy belongs to the East Syriac Rite, the anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer, part of this liturgy dating back to 3rd-century Edessa if the outline of the current form can be traced as far back only as the time of the Patriarch Mar Isho-Yab III in the 7th century. This liturgy is traditionally attributed to Saint Mari. In the form given in the oldest manuscripts, all of the High Middle Ages, this anaphora does not include the Words of Institution, a matter that raised ecumenical concerns. West Syriac liturgical rite is developed out of the ancient Antiochene Rite of the Patriarchate of Antioch, adapting the old Greek liturgy into Syriac, the language of the Syrian countryside. West Syriac liturgies represent one of the major strains in Syriac Christianity, the other being the East Syriac Rite, the liturgy of the Church of the East and its descendants. Distinct West Syriac liturgies developed following the Council of Chalcedon, which divided the Christian community in Antioch into Melkites, who supported the Emperor and the Council and adopted the Byzantine Rite, the non-Chalcedonians, who rejected the council and developed an independent liturgy – the West Syriac Rite.
An independent West Syriac community that grew around the monastery of Saint Maron developed into the Maronite Church. A variant of the West Syriac Rite, the Malankara Rite, developed in the ancient Malankara Church of India and is still used in its descendant churches, they are the Jacobite Syrian Christian Church, the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church, the Malabar Independent Syrian Church. The Liturgy is based on the traditions of the ancient rite of the Early Christian Church of Jerusalem, as the Mystagogic Catecheses of St Cyril of Jerusalem imply; the Liturgy is associated with the name of James the Just, the "brother" of Jesus and patriarch among the Jewish Christians at Jerusalem. Saint James was martyred at the hands of a mob incensed at his preaching about Jesus and his "transgression of the Law" - an accusation made by the Jewish High Priest of the time, Hanan ben Hanan. Among the Eastern liturgies, the Liturgy of Saint James is one of the Antiochene group of liturgies, those ascribed to Saint James, to Saint Basil, to Saint John Chrysostom.
The Liturgy of Saint James is considered to be the oldest surviving liturgy developed for general use in the Church. Its date of composition is still disputed with some authorities proposing an early date ca. AD 60, close to the time of composition of Saint Paul's Epistle to the Romans, while most authorities propose a fourth-century date for the known form, because the anaphora seems to have been developed from an ancient Egyptian form of the Basilean anaphoric family united with the anaphora described in The Catechisms of St. Cyril of Jerusalem. Divine Liturgy Holy Leaven Explanation about the Holy Qurbana - St. Mary's Malankara Orthodox Cathedral of Philadelphia
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
Paulos Mar Gregorios, born Paul Varghese or Vargīsa Pôla, was the first Metropolitan of the Delhi diocese of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church and served for over two decades. Gregorios was born in Tripunithura to a traditional Christian family called Thadikkal, his Younger brother Jacob T. P was a retired naval officer, he passed away on 26 February 2018. T. P Jacob has 4 children, Elizabeth and Biju, he started his career as a freelance journalist, contributing articles and reports to various newspapers in Kochi and Malabar. After working with the Cochin Transport Company, he joined the Post & Telegraphs Department in 1942, he took up a job as a teacher in Ethiopia. He came to the attention of the Emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie I; the relationship that developed between them led Varghese to appointments as the head of various institutions in Ethiopia. He was sent to the United States for higher studies, he received his education there from Goshen College, the University of Oklahoma, Princeton Theological Seminary and Yale.
In 1954, he returned to India with a master's degree in theology. He worked as a director of the Fellowship house in Aluva and a visiting professor of Union Christian College Aluva. In 1955, he joined the faculty of Kottayam, he served as the general secretary of the Orthodox Students Christian Movement. During the Ethiopian Emperor's visit to India, in 1956, Varghese was persuaded to return to Ethiopia. There he served as advisor. In 1959, he returned to India and in 1961 he was ordained as a priest. Fr. Varghese continued to pursue theological studies, he did his doctoral studies in Oxford and Germany and received his Doctorate in Theology from Serampore College in Calcutta. In 1975, Fr. Paul Varghese was elevated as a bishop with the name Paulos Gregorios, he took charge of the newly formed Diocese of Delhi, a position. He established the Delhi Orthodox Centre, where he began such ambitious projects as the Neeti Shanti Kendra for promoting peace and justice, Sarva Dharma Nilaya for inter- religious dialogue and cooperation.
Concurrently, Mar Gregorios was the Principal of the Orthodox Theological Seminary at Kottayam, the premier teaching and training institution for the priests of the Church. He raised it to a college recognized for the award of post graduate degrees, he established the Sophia Centre linked to the Seminary. He held various positions in the W. C. C.. There he headed the Division of Ecumenical Action as an Associate General Secretary, he was a member of the Central Committee and of the Executive Committee, Moderator of the Commission on Church and Society, one of its Presidents. He led WCC delegations to major conferences including the UN General Assembly Special Sessions on Disarmament. In WCC forums and beyond, he persistently opposed the old and new colonialism, he chaired the World Conference on Faith and the Future in Cambridge, United States. He was the vice-president of the Christian Peace Conference. A member of the Senate of the Kerala and Serampore Universities for a number of years, Mar Gregorios was a visiting Professor at Denver, Harvard and Princeton Theological Seminary.
He was a fellow at the Indian Institute of Advanced Study at Shimla, the vice-president of the Kerala philosophical Congress, the president of the Indian Philosophical Congress. The Joy of Freedom: Eastern Worship and Modern Man, Lutterworth P; the Freedom of Man. R. Pub. Corp. ISBN 81-7018-560-2'A light too Bright - An Assessment of the values of European Enlightenment' Certificate of Merit for Distinguished Service and Inspired Leadership of the World Church, Cambridge. Vladimir. Sergius, First Rank. Mary Magdalene. Mar Gregorios Orthodox Church Janakpuri
Geevarghese Dionysius of Vattasseril
Saint Geevarghese Mar Dionysius of Vattasseril, born Geevarghese was the Malankara Metropolitan of the Malankara Orthodox Church. Vattasseril Geevarghese Mar Dionysius is popularly known as "Malankara Sabha Bhasuran", a title which the Church bestowed on him in recognition of his contribution to Malankara Church. Vattasseril Thirumeni was a man of prayer and dynamism, he was the greatest advocate of autonomy of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Geevarghese was born in Vattasseril family, the fifth child of Joseph Vattasseril of Mallappally and Aleyamma, Kolathu Kalathil of Kurichy, on 31 October 1858. Among his siblings, Ouseph Punnoose was a priest. Following his elementary education at C. M. S. Middle School in Mallappally he completed his high school education from C. M. S. High School, Kottayam. On 12 October 1876, while still a high school student, he was ordained as a sub-deacon by Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Peter III at Puthuppally St. George Church, he studied at Kottayam for four years.
He acted as the secretary to Mar Gregorios Geevarghese of Parumala. Geevarghese soon became a great Syriac scholar under the careful tutelage of St. Gregorios, who taught him at Parumala Seminary, he learned Theology and Syriac language from Metropolitan Paulose Mar Ivanios at Vettikkal Dayara. On 16 October 1879, the sub-deacon Geevarghese was ordained as a full deacon and on 18 January 1880 he was ordained to priesthood by St. Gregorios himself. For some time, Fr. Geevarghese oversaw the theological education at Parumala Seminary; as per the existing tradition, he had been ordained for Parumala Seminary. During the period 1881–1908 he was the manager of the Seminary. In 1895, Fr. Geevarghese accompanied St. Gregorios on his visit to the Holy Land. By 1880, Rev. Fr. Geevarghese had become an authority in the Syriac language, Canons of the Church, Church History and Doctrine, the Church Fathers and Theology. In recognition of his expertise in Syriac and theology he was designated as Malankara Malpaan.
In 1887, he was appointed the Syriac teacher at the Old Seminary. Malpan Fr. Geevarghese spent his spare time reading and thinking which translated to his many writings, such as the book Doctrines of the Church, he used his scholarship to edit and publish the order of Church worship to be used by the laity as an aid for participation in worship. He published a book titled Syriac - Chapter I for students of the language. During this period, he authored the book Doctrines of the Church which remains one of the most authoritative and popular works describing Orthodox dogma and ecclesiastical traditions with thorough Scriptural explanations. In 1903, he translated the Holy Service book from Syriac to the local language Malayalam and published it with the blessings of the Church authorities. In 1896, by the decision of Managing Committee of the Church, he was appointed as Principal of M. D. Seminary School, Kottayam, he served as the Principal for eight years, while teaching at the Old Seminary at the same time.
His colleagues at the Seminary include the eminent Syriac scholar Rev. Fr. Mathen Malpan of Konat; the Malankara Association meeting which convened at Parumala Seminary on 2 December 1902 nominated Fr. Geevarghese and Kochuparampil Paulose Ramban to the office of Metropolitan Bishop. On 2 November 1903, Fr. Geevarghese Malpan was blessed as a Ramban at Parumala Seminary by Mar Dionysius V. Following this, he moved to the Old Seminary; the Malankara Association meeting of 14 February 1908 elected him along with Kochuparampil Paulose Ramban for consecration as Metropolitan. In the same year, the Patriarch of Antioch Ignatius Abded Aloho II asked the two elected monks to reach Jerusalem during the Great Lent for the ordination; the two-week-long journey began on 13 April 1908. The party which included Kallasseril Punnoose Ramban, Karottuveetil Fr. Yuyakkim and Dn. Mathews Paret arrived at Jerusalem on 23 April. After some delay, the Patriarch Ignatius Abded Aloho II arrived from Turkey. On 31 May 1908, the ordination took place at Sehion House.
Fr. Geevarghese was enthroned as Geevarghese Mar Dionysius Metropolitan by the Patriarch; the ceremony was attended by representatives of Greek Orthodox Churches. Mar Dionysius was appointed as the Bishop of the Malankara Church in general and as the assistant to the Malankara Metropolitan Mar Dionysius V The newly ordained bishop served as the Assistant Malankara Metropolitan for a year. On 26 November 1908, the Malankara Association convened at the Old Seminary and elected Geevarghese Mar Dionysius as the successor to Malankara Metropolitan Mar Dionysius V; the next year he assumed full office of Malankara Metropolitan following the demise of Mar Dionysius V and served and led the Church in that capacity until his death in 1934 when he and the Church triumphed in establishing the official constitution of the Malankara Orthodox Church. He was an outstanding orator, well aware of the importance of the vitality and Christian persuasiveness of the Bible when delivering the speeches to the faithful.
Prayers and fasting were the pillars of his spiritual foundation. In addition to the liturgical hours of prayer, he spent much time in private prayers and silent meditations behind closed doors. In spite of his busy schedule, he wa
Maharashtra is a state in the western peninsular region of India occupying a substantial portion of the Deccan plateau. It is third-largest state by area in India. Spread over 307,713 km2, it is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, the Indian states of Karnataka and Goa to the south and Chhattisgarh to the east and Dadra and Nagar Haveli to the north west, Madhya Pradesh to the north, it is the world's second-most populous subnational entity. It was formed by merging the western and south-western parts of the Bombay State and Vidarbha, the north-western parts of the Hyderabad State and splitting Saurashtra by the States Reorganisation Act, it has over 112 million inhabitants and its capital, has a population around 18 million making it the most populous urban area in India. Nagpur hosts the winter session of the state legislature. Pune is known as'Oxford of the East' due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions; the Godavari and the Krishna are the two major rivers in the state.
The Narmada and Tapi Rivers flow near Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third-most urbanized state of India. Prior to Indian independence, Maharashtra was chronologically ruled by the Satavahana dynasty, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Western Chalukyas, Deccan sultanates and Marathas, the British. Ruins, tombs and places of worship left by these rulers are dotted around the state, they include the UNESCO World Heritage Sites of the Ellora caves. The numerous forts are associated with the life of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Maharashtra is the wealthiest state by all major economic parameters and the most industrialized state in India; the state continues to be the single largest contributor to the national economy with a share of 15% in the country's gross domestic product. Maharashtra accounts for 17% of the industrial output of the country and 16% of the country's service sector output; the economy of Maharashtra is the largest state economy in India with ₹27.96 lakh crore in GDP and a per capita GDP of ₹180,000.
The modern Marathi language developed from the Maharashtri Prakrit, the word Marhatta is found in the Jain Maharashtri literature. The terms Maharashtra, Maharashtri and Maratha may have derived from the same root. However, their exact etymology is uncertain; the most accepted theory among the linguistic scholars is that the words Maratha and Maharashtra derived from a combination of Maha and rashtrika, the name of a tribe or dynasty of petty chiefs ruling in the Deccan region. Another theory is that the term is derived from Maha and ratha / rathi, which refers to a skilful northern fighting force that migrated southward into the area. An alternative theory states that the term derives from Rashtra. However, this theory is somewhat controversial among modern scholars who believe it to be the Sanskritised interpretation of writers. Chalcolithic sites belonging to the Jorwe culture have been discovered throughout the state. Maharashtra was ruled by the Maurya Empire in the fourth and third centuries BCE.
Around 230 BCE, Maharashtra came under the rule of the Satavahana dynasty for 400 years. The greatest ruler of the Satavahana dynasty was Gautamiputra Satakarni. In 90 CE, son of the Satavahana king Satakarni, the "Lord of Dakshinapatha, wielder of the unchecked wheel of Sovereignty", made Junnar, 30 miles north of Pune, the capital of his kingdom; the state was ruled by Western Satraps, Gupta Empire, Gurjara-Pratihara, Kadambas, Chalukya Empire, Rashtrakuta Dynasty, Western Chalukya before the Yadava rule. The Buddhist Ajanta Caves in present-day Aurangabad display influences from the Satavahana and Vakataka style; the caves were excavated during this period. The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II, who defeated the north Indian Emperor Harsha, Vikramaditya II, who defeated the Arab invaders in the eighth century; the Rashtrakuta dynasty ruled Maharashtra from the eighth to the tenth century. The Arab traveller Sulaiman described the ruler of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty as "one of the four great kings of the world".
Shilahara dynasty began as vassals of the Rashtrakuta dynasty which ruled the Deccan plateau between the eighth and tenth centuries. From the early 11th century to the 12th century, the Deccan Plateau, which includes a significant part of Maharashtra, was dominated by the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola dynasty. Several battles were fought between the Western Chalukya empire and the Chola dynasty in the Deccan Plateau during the reigns of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I, Jayasimha II, Someshvara I, Vikramaditya VI. In the early 14th century, the Yadava Dynasty, which ruled most of present-day Maharashtra, was overthrown by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Ala-ud-din Khalji. Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan, temporarily shifted his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra. After the collapse of the Tughluqs in 1347, the local Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga took over, governing the region for the next 150 years. After the break-up of the Bahamani sultanate in 1518, Maharashtra split into five Deccan Sultanates: Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Adilshah of Bijapur, Qutubshah of Golkonda, Bidarshah of Bidar and Imadshah of Elichpur.
These kingdoms fought with each other. United, they decisively defeated the
Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide. As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Armenia, Eritrea, Ethiopia and parts of the Middle East and India. An Eastern Christian communion of autocephalous churches, its bishops are equal by virtue of episcopal ordination, its doctrines can be summarised in that the communion recognizes the validity of only the first three ecumenical councils; the Oriental Orthodox communion is composed of six autocephalous churches: the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Collectively, they consider themselves to be the One, Holy and Apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles.
Most member churches are part of the World Council of Churches. All member churches share a identical theology, with the distinguishing feature being Miaphysitism. Three different rites are practiced in the communion: the western-influenced Armenian Rite, the West Syrian Rite of the two Syriac churches, the Alexandrian Rite of the Copts and Eritreans. At the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD, the Oriental Orthodox churches separated from the Imperial Roman Church over differences in Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy developed distinctively under the Patriarchate of Alexandria in Egypt part of the Pentarchy, the only episcopal see besides the Holy See to maintain the title "Pope"; the majority of Oriental Orthodox Christians live in Egypt, Ethiopia and Armenia, with smaller Syriac communities living in the Middle East–decreasing due to persecution–and India. There are many in other parts of the world, formed through diaspora and missionary activity; the Oriental Orthodox churches are distinguished by their recognition of only the first three ecumenical councils during the period of the State church of the Roman Empire –the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Oriental Orthodoxy shares much theology and many ecclesiastical traditions with the Eastern Orthodox Church. The primary theological difference between the two communions is the differing Christology. Oriental Orthodoxy rejects the Chalcedonian Definition, instead adopts the Miaphysite formula, believing that the human and divine natures of Christ are united; the early prelates of the Oriental Orthodox churches thought that the Chalcedonian Definition implied a possible repudiation of the Trinity or a concession to Nestorianism. Other differences include minor deviations in social teaching and different views on ecumenism. Oriental Orthodox churches are considered to be more conservative with regard to social issues as well more enthusiastic about ecumenical relations with non-Orthodox churches; the break in communion between the Imperial Roman and Oriental Orthodox churches did not occur but rather over 2-3 centuries following the Council of Chalcedon. The two communions developed separate institutions, the Oriental Orthodox did not participate in any of the ecumenical councils.
The Oriental Orthodox churches maintain their own ancient apostolic succession. The various churches are governed by holy synods, with a primus inter pares bishop serving as primate; the primates hold titles like patriarch and pope. Among these patriarchs, the Pope of Alexandria takes precedence, is sometimes considered the "face" of Oriental Orthodoxy; the Alexandrian Patriarchate, along with Rome and Antioch, was one of the most prominent sees of the early Christian Church, contains a majority population of Coptic Christians, unlike Antioch is still a major population center. That said, the Pope of Alexandria has no governing powers with respect to the non-Coptic churches. Oriental Orthodoxy does not have a magisterial leader like the Roman Catholic Church, nor does the communion have a leader who can convene ecumenical synods like the Eastern Orthodox Church; the schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity was based on differences in Christology. The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God, to say, "consubstantial" with the Father.
The third ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being, or person. Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism, the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct beings, one divine and one human, who happened to inhabit the same body; the churches that became Oriental Orthodoxy were anti-Nestorian, therefore supported the decisions made at Ephesus. Twenty years after Ephesus, the Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed the view that Jesus Christ was a single person, but at the same time declared that this one person existed "in two complete natures", one human and one divine; those who opposed Chalcedon saw this as a concession to Nestorianism, or as a conspiracy to convert the Church to Nestorianism by stealth. As a result, over the following decades, they separated from communion with those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon, formed the body, today called Oriental Orthodoxy. At times, Chalcedonian Christians have referre