Desești is a commune in Maramureș County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Hărnicești and Mara; the commune's Saint Parascheva Church was built in 1770 and is one of eight Wooden Churches of Maramureș that are listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site
Dassault Mirage 5
The Dassault Mirage 5 is a supersonic attack aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1960s and manufactured in France and a number of other countries. It was derived from Dassault's popular Mirage III fighter and spawned several variants of its own, including the IAI Kfir; the aircraft is capable of nuclear weapons delivery. The Mirage 5 grew out of a request to Dassault from the Israeli Air Force. Since the weather over the Middle East is clear and sunny most of the time, the Israelis suggested removing avionics located behind the cockpit, from the standard Mirage IIIE to reduce cost and maintenance, replacing them with more fuel storage for attack missions. In September 1966, the Israelis placed an order for 50 of the new aircraft; the first Mirage 5 flew on 19 May 1967. It looked much like the Mirage III, except that it had a long slender nose that extended the aircraft's length by about half a metre. A pitot tube was distinctively moved from the tip of the nose to below the nose in the majority of Mirage 5 variants.
The Mirage 5 retained the IIIE's twin DEFA guns, but added two additional pylons, for a total of seven. Maximum warload was 4,000 kg. Provision for the SEPR rocket engine was deleted. Rising tensions in the Middle East led French President Charles de Gaulle to embargo the Israeli Mirage 5s on 3 June 1967; the Mirages continued to roll off the production line though they were embargoed, by 1968 the batch was complete and the Israelis had provided final payments. In late 1969, the Israelis, who had pilots in France testing the aircraft, requested that the aircraft be transferred to Corsica, in theory to allow them to continue flight training during the winter; the French government became suspicious when the Israelis tried to obtain long-range fuel tanks and cancelled the move. The Israelis gave up trying to acquire the aircraft and accepted a refund; some sources claim that cooperation with France resumed outside the public's eye and Israel received 50 Mirage 5s in crates from the French Air Force, while the French took over the 50 aircraft intended for Israel, as Mirage 5Fs.
Israel claimed to have built the aircraft after obtaining complete blueprints, naming them IAI Nesher. Like the Mirage IIIE, the Mirage 5 was popular with export customers, with different export variants fitted with a wide range of different avionics. While the Mirage 5 had been oriented to the clear-weather attack role, with some avionic fits it was refocused to the air-combat mission; as electronic systems became more compact and powerful, it was possible to provide the Mirage 5 with increased capability though the rear avionics bay had been deleted, therefore in some sub-versions, the result was a "reinvented" Mirage IIIE. Reconnaissance and two-seat versions of the Mirage 5 were sold, with the designation Mirage 5R, Mirage 5D respectively; the Mirage 5 was sold to Abu Dhabi, Colombia, Gabon, Pakistan, Peru and Zaire, with the usual list of subvariant designations and variations in kit. The Belgian aircraft were fitted with US avionics, Egyptian aircraft fitted with the MS2 attack avionics system from the Dassault-Dornier Alpha Jet.
In 1978 and 1980, Israel sold a total of 35 of their Neshers plus 4 Nesher trainer aircraft to Argentina, where they were locally known first as Daggers and after their last upgrade as Fingers. The Argentines lost two IIIEAs and eleven Daggers during the Falklands War in 1982, and, as a measure of solidarity, the Peruvians transferred ten of their Mirage 5s to Argentina, under the name Mirage Mara, to help alleviate its losses. South Africa purchased five Nesher trainers for trials during its own Atlas Cheetah fighter programme. All the aircraft were upgraded to Cheetah D standard. Chile incorporated some Mirage 5s under name Mirage Elkan. A total of 582 Mirage 5s were built, including 51 Israeli Neshers. In 1968, the Belgian government ordered 106 Mirage 5s from Dassault to re-equip No 3 Wing at Bierset air base. All aircraft but the first one were to be license-built by SABCA in Belgium. Component production at the SABCA Haren plant near Brussels was followed by assembly at the SABCA plant at Gosselies airfield, near Charleroi.
The ATAR engines were produced by FN Moteurs at this company's Liège plant. SABCA production included three versions: Mirage 5BA for the ground-attack role, Mirage 5BR for the reconnaissance role and Mirage 5BD for training and conversion. By the end of the 1980s, a MIRage Safety Improvement Program was agreed to by parliament, calling for 20 low-time Mirages to be upgraded. Initial plans included a new more powerful engine; the upgrade included a new state-of-the-art cockpit, a new ejection seat, canards to improve takeoff performance and overall maneuverability. A new government canceled the MIRSIP but SABCA, having a watertight contract, were allowed to carry out the update. After completion, the Belgian government sold all 20 aircraft to Chile at a loss; the new Atar 09K-50 engine, was still an improvement, fitment of this engine led to the next Mirage variant, the Mirage 50, during the 1970s. The uprated engine gave the Mirage 50 better takeoff and climb characteristics than its predecessors.
While the Mirage 50 incorporated new avionics, such as a Cyrano IV radar system, it did not prove popular in export sales, as the first-generation Mirage series was becoming obsolete. Chile ordered a quantity of Mirage 50s, receiving both new production as well as updated Armée de l'Air Mirage 5s; the Chilean aircraft were modernised along the lines of the IAI Kfir as the ENAER Pantera. The Pantera incorporates fixed canards and other aerodynamic improvements, as well as advanced avioni
Mara (Doctor Who)
The Mara is a fictional monster in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It is a being of pure hatred and greed, requires the fear of its victims to survive, it exists in the minds of its victims and can transmit itself telepathically, although it can physically manifest as a giant snake. It is so evil. In the Dark Places of the Inside, it manifests as phantoms such as Dukkha and Annica; the Mara was created on the planet Manussa in the Scrampus system, turning the Manussan empire into the Sumaran empire. The Mara was defeated and driven out by a Manussan and cast into the "dark places beyond". However, it survived. In Kinda, the Fifth Doctor, Nyssa and Adric encountered the Mara on the planet Deva Loka; when Tegan fell asleep near the wind chimes on Deva Loka, she became possessed by the Mara. It soon left her and possessed a native Kinda named Aris, who began to stir up the peaceful Kinda against an expedition of human colonists who were present on Deva Loka; the Doctor was able to prevent the humans detonating a bomb which would have destroyed their dome and killed many Kinda, managed to trap the Mara in a circle of mirrors.
As the Mara could not bear to see its own reflection, it was driven out to the Dark Places of the Inside. In Snakedance, Tegan became possessed by the Mara once again, she navigated the TARDIS to Manussa, where a ceremony was to be held to mark the 500th anniversary of the banishment of the Mara. Using Tegan and a young Manussan named Lon, the Mara tried to obtain the "great crystal" with which it hoped to restore its corporeal existence; the Doctor was guided by Dojjen, an old mystic who showed him how to find the "still point". When the Mara tried to make its return at the ceremony, the Doctor concentrated his thought with a small replica of the great crystal, by finding the still point was able to repel the Mara. By grabbing the great crystal, the Doctor broke the Mara's hold over its controlled victims, destroyed its new snake body; this time, the Mara had been permanently destroyed. It turns out that the Mara has retreated deeper into Tegan's mind; the Mara is revisited in the 2010 audio story The Cradle of the Snake, when it erupts in Tegan yet again.
The Doctor, Tegan and Turlough search for a cure on Manussa, but hundreds of years in its past, when it was still an industrialized civilization. The Mara moves beyond Tegan and manages to possess both Nyssa and the Doctor, before being destroyed through an array of cameras and televisions. In the Torchwood episode "Small Worlds", Jack speculates that "fairies" may be "part Mara". However, his noting of "Mara" as the origin of the word "nightmare" and their ability to steal the breath from their victims suggests that he is referring to the Mara of Germanic/Scandinavian mythology rather than the Manussan Mara. Christopher Bailey, writer of Snakedance and Kinda, was a practising Buddhist and named Doctor Who's Mara after the Buddhist demon Mara; the two names share a common Proto-Indo-European root. The Mara was mentioned by the Tenth Doctor in the 2007 Children in Need special "Time Crash". Mara Mara on Tardis Data Core, an external wiki
The Bushveld is a sub-tropical woodland ecoregion of Southern Africa named after the term veld. It encompasses most of Limpopo Province and a small part of the North West Province of South Africa, the Central and North-East Districts of Botswana and the Matabeleland South and part of the Matabeleland North provinces of Zimbabwe. Kruger National Park in South Africa has a number of'Bushveld' camps; the elevation of this region varies from 750 to 1,400 m and the annual rainfall from 350 mm in the west to 600 mm in parts of the northeast. There are four significant mountain ranges in this region:the Magaliesberg which runs from Rustenburg in the west to Bronkhorstspruit in the east and forms the southern border of the Bushveld; the latter is the northernmost mountain range in South Africa. As implied by the region's name, the Bushveld's well-grassed plains are dotted by dense clusters of trees and tall shrubs; the grasses found here are tall and turn brown or pale in winter, the dry season throughout most of Southern Africa.
The undisturbed portions of this habitat, such as much of the Waterberg Biosphere, are home to many large mammal species including white rhino, black rhino, blue wildebeest, impala and a variety of further antelope species and other game. The Bushveld is one of the most mineral-rich regions of the world; this is due to the Bushveld igneous complex, an rich saucer-shaped geological formation that stretches over more than 50,000 square kilometers. This formation contains most of the world's reserves of minerals such as andalusite, fluorspar and vanadium; the complex includes the Merensky Reef, the world's biggest source of platinum as well as platinum-group metals. As most of the region tends to be dry, the Bushveld is beef cattle and game farming country, with only a few drought-resistant crops such as sorghum and millet being farmed under irrigation; the term Middleveld is sometimes used to describe land lying between an altitude of 600m and 1200m and has been synonymous with the term Bushveld.
Towns and cities in the region include: Bela Bela Brits De Wildt Haenertsburg Hammanskraal Lephalale Louis Trichardt Mara Modimolle Mokopane Mookgophong Musina Northam Phalaborwa Pienaarsrivier Polokwane Roedtan Selebi-Phikwe Sun City Thabazimbi Vaalwater Vivo Zion City Moria Rustenburg Geography of South Africa Hlane Royal National Park Jock of the Bushveld "Southern Africa bushveld". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund
Mara Provincial Park
Mara Provincial Park is a day-use provincial park in British Columbia, located on Mara Lake south of Sicamous. The park is open with services from May 1 to September 27; the gate is locked open during the off season. Mara Provincial Park is dedicated to intensive recreation, providing opportunities for public recreation access and use of Mara Lake, with emphasis on swimming and boat launching. Mara Provincial Park provides good sandy beaches and the only major public access and boat launch on Mara Lake. There is fish-spawning at the mouths of two creeks. One kekuli pit can be found in the park. Shuswap Lake Marine Provincial Park List of protected areas of British Columbia
Majlis Amanah Rakyat
The Majlis Amanah Rakyat, is a Malaysian government agency. It was formed to aid and guide Bumiputra in the areas of business and industry. MARA was formed on 1 March 1966 under the National Development Ministry. MARA was formed by an act of Parliament in 1966, it had begun as the Rural Industrial Development Authority, established by the British colonial administration in 1951, a program to provide economic assistance and support to Malay farmers and rural inhabitants. This organisation was expanded in scope and became the MARA in 1966. Although it is an autonomous government agency, it reports to the Minister of Rural and Regional Development, who appoints all the members of the MARA Council. Besides state-level offices in the 13 states of Malaysia and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, MARA operates three offices overseas — one in London, Washington, D. C. and another in Alexandria, Egypt. For other things, MARA offers loans to Bumiputra entrepreneurs; such loans may be repaid either in the conventional Western manner or in the style of Islamic banking, depending on the borrower's preference.
MARA offers entrepreneurship courses, vocational training, consultancy services, assistance in marketing for Bumiputra entrepreneurs. MARA constructs infrastructure, such as shoplots or factories, which are rented to Bumiputra entrepreneurs at a subsidised rate; these facilities are constructed in towns or underdeveloped areas, to encourage further development there. MARA operates several junior colleges or boarding schools, Universiti Kuala Lumpur. Universiti Teknologi MARA was operated by MARA; the junior colleges, referred to as Maktab Rendah Sains MARA, are operated by the Education & Training Department of MARA, whose stated mission is to "produce Bumiputra students of potential in science and technology". Until the MRSMs were only open to Bumiputra students. However, the Barisan Nasional government pledged during its campaign for the 2004 general election that the MRSMs would be opened to all, they were opened, with a quota allocating 10% of all places in MRSMs to non-Bumiputras. In admissions, preference is given to students from low-income families, rural areas and/or those living in squatter settlements in the cities.
In addition to MRSMs and the UniKL, vocational and professional colleges are operated by MARA such as Pusat GIAT MARA and Kolej Kemahiran MARA. These vocational colleges give a second lane of higher education to students who are unable to continue their studies in universities. There are Kolej Kemahiran Tinggi MARA, Institut Kemahiran MARA, Kolej Professional MARA and Kolej MARA. Scholarships are offered to Bumiputra students for local and foreign institutions of higher learning. However, students must specialize in certain professions, such as engineering, medicine or accounting. F. I. T Center Sdn. Bhd. Universiti Teknikal MARA Sdn. Bhd. Pelaburan MARA Berhad German-Malaysian Institute Yayasan Pelajaran MARA Pusat Pembangunan Reka Bentuk Sdn. Bhd. Kolej Universiti Poly-Tech MARA Sdn. Bhd. GIATMARA Sdn. Bhd. Asia Aerotechnic Sdn. Bhd. MARALiner Sdn. Bhd Technology Park Malaysia College Sdn. Bhd. MARA Excellent Ventures Sdn. Bhd. UniMARA Sdn. Bhd. Rural Capital Sdn. Bhd. MARA Aerospace & Technologies Sdn.
Bhd YPM Realties Sdn. Bhd. MARA Incorporated Sdn. Bhd Glocal Link Sdn. Bhd MARA Corporation Sdn. Bhd. Te Puni Kōkiri an analogous body in New Zealand Mara Junior Science College Kuching, Sarawak Official website
Mara, in Buddhism, is the demon that tempted Prince Siddhartha by trying to seduce him with the vision of beautiful women who, in various legends, are said to be Mara's daughters. In Buddhist cosmology, Mara is associated with death and desire. Nyanaponika Thera has described Mara as "the personification of the forces antagonistic to enlightenment." The word "Māra" comes from the Sanskrit form of the verbal root mṛ. It takes a causative form mārayati. Māra is a verbal noun from the causative root and means'causing death' or'killing', it is related to other words for death from the same root, such as: mṛtyu. The latter is sometimes identified with Yama; the root mṛ is related to the Indo-European verbal root *mer meaning "die, disappear" in the context of "death, murder or destruction". It is "very wide-spread" in Indo-European languages suggesting it to be of great antiquity, according to Mallory and Adams. In traditional Buddhism, four metaphorical forms of "māra" are given: Kleśa-māra, or Ma̋ra as the embodiment of all unskillful emotions, such as greed and delusion.
Mṛtyu-māra, or Māra as death. Skandha-māra, or Māra as metaphor for the entirety of conditioned existence. Devaputra-māra, the deva of the sensuous realm, who tries to prevent Gautama Buddha from attaining liberation from the cycle of rebirth on the night of the Buddha´s enlightenment. Early Buddhism acknowledged both a psychological interpretation of Mara. Specially Mara is described both as an entity having an existence in Kāma-world, just as are shown existing around the Buddha, is described in pratītyasamutpāda as the guardian of passion and the catalyst for lust and fear that obstructs meditation among Buddhists. "Buddha defying Mara" is a common pose of Buddha sculptures. The Buddha is shown with his left hand in his lap, palm facing upwards and his right hand on his right knee; the fingers of his right hand touch the earth, to call the earth as his witness for defying Mara and achieving enlightenment. This posture is referred to as the bhūmisparśa "earth-witness" mudra. In some accounts of the Buddha's enlightenment, it is said that the demon Māra didn't send his three daughters to tempt but instead they came willingly after Māra's setback in his endeavor to eliminate the Buddha's quest for enlightenment.
Mara's three daughters are identified as Taṇhā, Raga. For example, in the Samyutta Nikaya's Māra-saṃyutta, Mara's three daughters were stripping in front of Buddha; some stories refer to the existence of Five Daughters, who represent not only the Three Poisons of Attraction and Delusion, but include the daughters Pride, Fear. The story "Dying in Bangkok" by Dan Simmons, in his 1993 collection Lovedeath, features Mara and her demonic daughter as supernatural creatures who tempt men with the ultimate in sexual pleasures. Mara has been prominently featured in the Megami Tensei video game series as a demon. Within the series, Mara is portrayed as a large, phallic creature shown riding a golden chariot, his phallic body and innuendo-laden speech is based on a pun surrounding the word mara, a Japonic word for "penis", attested as early as 938 CE in the Wamyō Ruijushō, a Japanese dictionary of Chinese characters. According to the Sanseido dictionary, the word was used as a euphemism for "penis" among Buddhist monks, which makes it likely that it was meant as a direct reference to Mara the demon Mara appears in Roger Zelazny's novel Lord of Light as a God of Illusion.
Demiurge Eros Grīmekhalaṃ Kamadeva Mare Marzanna Mors Thanatos Anubis Izanami Hades Ah Puch Id, ego and super-ego The Temptation of St. Anthony Maravijaya Buddha Bodhi, Bhikkhu; the Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Pubs. ISBN 0-86171-331-1. Saddhatissa, H.. The Sutta-Nipāta. London: RoutledgeCurzon Press. ISBN 0-7007-0181-8. Boyd, James W.. "Symbols of Evil in Buddhism". The Journal of Asian Studies. 31: 63–75. Doi:10.2307/2053052. JSTOR 2053052. – via JSTOR Guruge, Ananda W. P.. "The Buddha's encounters with Mara, the Tempter: their representation in Literature and Art". Indologica Taurinensia. 17–18: 183–208. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Ling, Trevor O.. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: Allen and Unwin The Buddha's Encounters with Mara the Tempter: Their Representation in Literature and Art Taming the Mara Mara, the Evil One_99