Benfica, Rio de Janeiro
Benfica is a neighborhood in the North Zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located within the Centro Administrative Region. Benfica was first populated in the 16th century, as an area of sugarcane plantation developed by Jesuit missionaries, who received an extensive donation of land, which included present-day Engenho da Rainha and Engenho Novo, from Estácio de Sá. After the jesuits were expelled from the Portuguese Empire by the marquis of Pombal, in 1759, possessions in Benfica were granted to various private owners, the region became further populated; the neighbourhood has played a role as a resting place and point of passage to places of interest in the outskirts of Rio, most notably on the Estrada Real. Today, Benfica is served by the Avenida Brasil and Avenida Dom Hélder Câmara, two avenues which link downtown Rio to suburbs in the North and West Zones
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants, it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies.
From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.
In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir
Ipanema is a neighborhood located in the South Zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, between Leblon and Arpoador. The beach at Ipanema became known internationally with the popularity of the bossa nova jazz song, "The Girl from Ipanema", written by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinícius de Moraes; the word "Ipanema" comes from the Tupi language and means "stinky lake", from upaba and nem or "bad water. Ipanema today consists of land that once belonged to José Antonio Moreira Filho, Baron of Ipanema; the name "Ipanema" did not refer to the beach, but to the homeland of the baron at São Paulo. Ipanema gained fame with the rise of the popular bossa nova sound, when residents Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes created their ode to the neighbourhood, "The Girl from Ipanema." The song was written with music by Jobim and Portuguese lyrics by de Moraes. Ipanema is adjacent to Copacabana and Leblon Beach, it is easy to navigate because the streets are aligned in a grid. Ipanema's beach culture includes surfers and sun bathers.
Every Sunday, the roadway closest to the beach is closed to motor vehicles allowing local residents and tourists to ride bikes, roller skate and walk along the ocean. Ipanema is one of Rio's most expensive districts to live in. Ipanema has played a cultural role in Rio de Janeiro since the city's beginning, with its own universities, art galleries, theaters, it holds a street parade, the Banda de Ipanema, during Carnival festivities separate from those of Rio de Janeiro, attracting up to 50,000 people to the streets of Ipanema. The beach at Ipanema is known for its social life. Two mountains called the Dois Irmãos rise at the western end of the beach, divided into segments delineated by postos, or lifeguard towers. Beer is sold along with the traditional cachaça. There are always circles of people playing football and footvolley, a locally invented sport, a combination of volleyball and football. In the winter the surf can reach nine feet; the water quality varies from clear light-blue water to a more murky green after heavy rains.
Constant swells help keep the water clean, the treacherous beach break forms surfable barrels. Just west of this colorful section, towards Leblon, Rio de Janeiro, is another popular stretch of sand known as Posto 10, referring to the #10 lifeguard station; the beach is one of many areas. In its waters, "fecal coliform bacteria sometimes spike at 16 times the Brazilian government's'satisfactory' level." Large amounts of pollutants are still dumped into the sea through the nearby marine outfall pipe, a matter of increasing concern to ecologists. Beachgoers applaud the sunset in the summer. In 2008, the Travel Channel listed Ipanema Beach as the sexiest beach in the world. Posto 9 is the section of the beach around the #9 lifeguard station, across from Joana Angelica Street, its notoriety began around 1979 when Fernando Gabeira, now a federal deputy for the State of Rio de Janeiro, returned from political exile in France and was photographed there in a thong. He had been a member of the leftist urban guerilla group MR8, which kidnapped the American ambassador, Charles Burke Elbrick, in 1969 and demanded the release of fifteen political prisoners in exchange for his life.
Gabeira became a political celebrity with the publication of a memoir about his experiences as a guerilla and his years in exile. In 1979, he was photographed wearing a skimpy purple swimsuit at Ipanema, gave an interview to a gay and lesbian newspaper, inciting rumors that he was gay, which he neither confirmed nor denied, his going to the beach at Posto 9 made it famous throughout the country. Posto 9 inherited its status as a gathering spot for counter-cultural types from the area near Farme de Amoedo Street, next to the dunes called Dunas do Barato and a pier, demolished in the 1970s, it has a long history of public cannabis smoking, police raids, gatherings of left-wing intellectuals. It is still popular with students, artists and liberal-minded people. A group of hippies started a Sunday market in Ipanema in 1968 and the traditional fair continues with over 700 stalls set up at the Feira Hippie de Ipanema. Back to Rio, RGSSA blog post contains images of Ipanema Beach, 1914 Ipanema Beach
Santo Cristo, Rio de Janeiro
Santo Cristo is a neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The neighbourhood is named after the Catholic church Santo Cristo dos Milagres situated in the port area
The Maracanã Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, is a football stadium in Rio de Janeiro. The stadium is part of a complex that includes an arena known by the name of Maracanãzinho, which means "The Little Maracanã" in Portuguese. Owned by the Rio de Janeiro state government, it is, as is the Maracanã neighborhood where it is located, named after the Rio Maracanã, a now canalized river in Rio de Janeiro; the stadium was opened in 1950 to host the FIFA World Cup, in which Brazil was beaten 2–1 by Uruguay in the deciding game, in front of 199,854 spectators on 16 July 1950. The venue has seen attendances of 150,000 or more at 26 occasions, the last being on 29 May 1983, as 155,253 spectators watched Flamengo beat Santos 3-0; the stadium has seen crowds of more than 100,000 284 times. But as terraced sections have been replaced with seats over time, after the renovation for the FIFA World Cup 2014, its original capacity has been reduced to the current 78,838, but it remains the largest stadium in Brazil.
The stadium is used for football matches between the major football clubs in Rio de Janeiro, including Flamengo, Fluminense and Vasco da Gama. It has hosted a number of concerts and other sporting events; the total attendance at the last game of the 1950 FIFA World Cup was 199,854, making it the world's largest stadium by capacity when it was inaugurated. After its 2010–13 renovation, the rebuilt stadium seats 78,838 spectators, making it the largest stadium in Brazil and the second in South America after Estadio Monumental in Peru, it was the main venue of the 2007 Pan American Games, hosting the football tournament and the opening and closing ceremonies. The Maracanã was rebuilt in preparation for the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the 2014 World Cup, for which it hosted several matches, including the final, it served as the venue for the opening and closing ceremonies of the 2016 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, with the main track and field events taking place at the Estádio Olímpico. The official name of the stadium, Mário Filho, was given in honor of an old Pernambucan journalist, the brother of Nelson Rodrigues, a strong vocal supporter of the construction of the Maracanã.
The stadium's popular name is derived from the Maracanã River, whose point of origin is in the jungle-covered hills to the west, crossing various bairros of Rio's Zona Norte, such as Tijuca and São Cristóvão, via a drainage canal which features sloping sides constructed of concrete. Upon flowing into the Canal do Mangue, it empties into Guanabara Bay; the name "Maracanã" derives from the indigenous Tupi–Guarani word for a type of parrot which inhabited the region. The stadium construction was prior to the formation of the Maracanã neighborhood, once part of Tijuca; the stadium of Red Star Belgrade, the Red Star Stadium, is popularly called Marakana in honor of the Brazilian stadium. After winning the right to host the 1950 FIFA World Cup, the Brazilian government sought to build a new stadium for the tournament; the construction of Maracanã was criticized by Carlos Lacerda Congressman and political enemy of the mayor of the city, general Ângelo Mendes de Morais, for the expense and for the chosen location of the stadium, arguing that it should be built in the West Zone neighborhood of Jacarepaguá.
At the time, a tennis stadium stood in the chosen area. Still it was supported by journalist Mário Filho, Mendes de Morais was able to move the project forward; the competition for the design and construction was opened by the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 1947, with the construction contract awarded to engineer Humberto Menescal, the architectural contract awarded to seven Brazilian architects, Michael Feldman, Waldir Ramos, Raphael Galvão, Oscar Valdetaro, Orlando Azevedo, Pedro Paulo Bernardes Bastos, Antônio Dias Carneiro. The first cornerstone was laid at the site of the stadium on 2 August 1948. With the first World Cup game scheduled to be played on 24 June 1950, this left a little under two years to finish construction. However, work fell behind schedule, prompting FIFA to send Dr. Ottorino Barassi, the head of the Italian FA, who had organized the 1934 World Cup, to help in Rio de Janeiro. A work force of 1,500 constructed the stadium, with an additional 2,000 working in the final months.
Despite the stadium having come into use in 1950, the construction was only completed in 1965. The opening match of the stadium took place on 16 June 1950. Rio de Janeiro All-Stars beat São Paulo All-Stars 3–1. While the major part of the stadium was finished, it still looked like a construction site. Brazilian officials claimed it could seat over 200,000 people, while the Guinness Book of World Records estimated it could seat 180,000 and other sources pegged capacity at 155,000. What is beyond dispute is that Maracanã overtook Hampden Park as the largest stadium in the world. Despite the stadium's unfinished state, FIFA allowed matches to be played at the venue, on 24 June 1950, the first World Cup match took place, with 81,000 spectators in attendance. In that first match for which Maracanã had been built, Brazil beat Mexico with a final score 4–0, with Ademir becoming the first scorer of a competitive goal at the stadium with his 30th-minute strike. Ademir had one each from Baltasar and Jair.
The match was refereed by Englishman George Reader. Five of Brazil's six games at the tournament were played at Maracan
Glória, Rio de Janeiro
Glória is a middle-class neighborhood of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is located between the neighbourhoods of Flamengo, Rio de Janeiro. In the 16th century, the base of Glória Hill was the site of a Tupí people village called Karioca; this village gave the name of the modern demonym of the city: carioca. In the 17th century, the Nossa Senhora da Glória do Outeiro church was built, at the peak of Glória Hill. A 3 ft narrow gauge funicular railway, first opened in 1945, is employed to take visitors to the top of the hill. In 1979, the Marina da Glória was inaugurated
Centro, Rio de Janeiro
Centro is a neighborhood in Zona Central of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It represents the financial heart of the city, the crux of the Central Region. Despite still having a large number of residences, the neighborhood is predominantly commercial with a mixture of historical buildings as well as modern skyscrapers. Residential areas lie along Rua do Riachuelo and Castelo; the historic and financial centre of the city, sites of interest include the Paço Imperial, Candelária Church, the Old Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, the modern-style Saint Sebastian's Cathedral. Around Marechal Floriano Square, there are several landmarks from the Belle Époque such as the Municipal Theatre and the National Library building; the Centro area has several museums such as the National Museum of Fine Arts and the National Historical Museum. Other important historical attractions in downtown Rio include its Passeio Público, an 18th-century public garden, as well as the imposing arches of the Carioca Aqueduct. A "bondinho" leaves from a station near Saint Sebastian's Cathedral, crosses the aqueduct and rambles through the hilly streets of the nearby Santa Tereza neighbourhood.
Downtown remains the heart of the city's business community. Some of the largest companies in Brazil have their head offices here, including Petrobras, Eletrobras, BNDES and Vale. Most of Rio's skyscrapers the tallest ones, are located in this neighbourhood. Crowded from Monday to Friday during regular work hours, it becomes empty during the evening and on Saturdays and holidays. Centro, Rio de Janeiro travel guide from Wikivoyage