W. A. S. Butement
William Alan Stewart Butement was a defence scientist and public servant. A native of New Zealand, he made extensive contributions to radar development in Great Britain during World War II, served as the first chief scientist for the Australian Defence Scientific Service ended his professional career with a research position in private business. Alan Butement was born at Masterton, New Zealand, the son of New Zealand-born William Butement and surgeon, his English-born wife Amy Louise Stewart; when Alan was age eight, the family moved to Sydney. After a year, the family moved again, this time to England, he graduated from University College School and studied at University College, University of London, where he attended lectures by Edward Victor Appleton and received the BSc degree in physics in 1926. He followed this as a research student for two years, he married Ursula Florence Alberta Parish on 17 June 1933. In 1928, Butement joined the War Office's Signals Experimental Establishment at Woolwich, London, as a Scientific Officer, developing radio equipment for the British Army.
He and an associate, P. E. Pollard, conceived a radio apparatus for the detection of ships. A breadboard test unit, operating at 50 cm and using pulsed modulation, gave successful laboratory results, but was not of interest to War Office officials. In January 1931, a writeup on the apparatus was entered in the Inventions Book maintained by the Royal Engineers; this is the first official record in Great Britain of the technology that would become radar. In October 1936, Robert Watson Watt's team working for the Air Ministry began work on what would become Chain Home. By 1936 they had moved to the Bawdsey Manor Research Centre and had begun plans for deployment of the CH system. Referred to as Range and Direction Finding, Bawdsey had by this time begun branching out, forming teams to design and build all sorts of radar related devices. An Army Cell from the SEE was attached to the Bawdsey operation. Butement was among those representing the War Office. At Bawdsey, Butement was assigned to develop a Coastal Defence RDF system to be used for aiming anti-shipping and anti-aircraft guns.
By early 1938, he had a prototype under test. This used a pulsed 1.5 m transmitter producing 50 kW power. For the transmitting and receiving antennas, he developed a large dipole array, 10 feet high and 24 feet wide, giving narrow transmitting and receiving beams; this array could be rotated at a speed around 1.5 revolutions per minute. To improve the directional accuracy, lobe-switching was used in the transmitting array. Primary credit for introducing beamed RDF systems in Great Britain must be given to Butement; as a part of this development, he formulated the first – at least in Great Britain – mathematical relationship that became well known as the "radar range equation". In September 1939, at the start of the war, operations at Bawdsey were distributed to safer locations; the Army Cell joined the Air Defence Experimental Establishment at Christchurch in Dorset on the south coast. At the time of the move, Butement was named an Assistant Director of Scientific Research, continued to lead the Coastal Defence research activity.
The primary use of the evolving CD system was in aiming searchlights associated with the anti-aircraft guns, Butement acquired the nickname of'Mr. Searchlight Radar.' He developed what became the standard method of determining miss-distance of gunfire against shipping by using RDF echoes from splashes caused by shells hitting the sea. There was an urgent need to improve the effectiveness of the anti-aircraft guns. With his background in radio, in October 1939 Butement turned to this technology as a potential solution, he conceived of a compact RDF set placed on the projectile, setting off the detonation when close proximity to the target was attained. He completed the circuit design, but there was the problem of packaging such a device in a small projectile, as well as the question of the vacuum tubes surviving the acceleration forces at firing; the demands on personnel and funds at the start of the war were such that little more was done at that time. In less than a year, Butement's concept was moved toward mass production when it was exported under the technology transfer arrangements of the Tizard Mission, subsequently a variation of his circuit became adopted in the United States as the proximity fuse or VT fuse, the most-manufactured electronic device of the war.
In the stages of the war, anti-aircraft shells fitted with proximity fuses played a major part in defeating both German V-1 flying bomb attacks on London, Japanese kamikaze attacks on Allied shipping. As well as the dramatic breaking of Japanese Naval air power in the Battle of the Philippine Sea, it immortalised the invention's impact with the battle's alternate name: The Great Marianas Turkey Shoot, where the battle losses were so severe that it led to the Japanese adoption of the kamikaze. Years Butement said that he considered the proximity fuse as his most significant accomplishment; as the war got under way, it was realised that the Chain Home system needed an additional ability to detect low-flying aircraft. The CD RDF was ideal for this function, was soon added at most CH stations as the Chain-Home Low. For making the necessary adaptations, Butement led the effort at the Air Defence Experimental Establishment. In February 1940, Harry Boot and John Randall at Birmingham University built a high-power cavity magnetron, allowing signal-generation at microwave frequencies
Francis Henry Walsh was the 34th Premier of South Australia from 10 March 1965 to 1 June 1967, representing the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party. One of eight children, Walsh was born into an Irish Catholic family in O'Halloran Hill, South Australia. After an education at Christian Brothers College, Walsh left school at fifteen to work as a stonemason, which sparked his interest in the trade union movement. Walsh would serve as President of the South Australian Stonemason's Society and the national stonemason body and as a member of the United Trades and Labour Council of South Australia, while still finding the time to continue working as a stonemason and marry on 29 December 1925. Walsh first stood for Labor in the safe conservative electorate of Mitcham at the 1938 state election and while losing to the Liberal and Country League member, impressed senior ALP figures sufficiently to gain endorsement for the safe Labor seat of Goodwood. Walsh duly entered parliament in March 1941 and was elected as Deputy Opposition Leader of the state parliamentary Labor Party in 1949, when it became clear no one else wanted the job.
Labor had by been in opposition in South Australia since 1933. The LCL, led by Sir Thomas Playford, ruled South Australia through a time of strong economic development and held power thanks to an electoral malapportionment known as the Playmander, in which rural areas were overrepresented in the legislature. In response, many South Australian Labor politicians believed the Deputy Opposition Leader's role to be a thankless, poor-paying job. Following the split in the Labor Party in 1955, along with Opposition leader Mick O'Halloran, resisted numerous overtures to join the Catholic Democratic Labor Party, their opposition ensured that the DLP did not attain the same influence in South Australian politics that it did in Victoria and Queensland. Following the sudden death of O'Halloran in 1960, Walsh was narrowly elected to the Labor leadership ahead of Don Dunstan, he followed O'Halloran's lead of preferring co-operation with the LCL to criticising them and maintained friendly relations with Playford, who treated him in a somewhat avuncular manner.
However, while O'Halloran and many of his colleagues had despaired of winning government, Walsh made a concerted effort to end the LCL's three-decade grip on power. Knowing that there was no way for Labor to beat the Playmander with a statewide campaign, he decided to focus on targeting the LCL's marginal seats. Walsh fought his first election as state Labor leader in 1962. Labor won decisively on the two-party vote. In nearly every other area of Australia, this would have been enough for a comprehensive Labor victory. However, due to the Playmander, Labor won 19 seats, two short of a majority; the balance of power rested with two independents, who threw their support behind Playford a week after the election. Walsh lobbied Governor, Sir Edric Bastyan, to appoint him Premier instead, arguing that he had won a clear majority of the popular vote, it was to no avail. Nonetheless, the election showed. Though Adelaide accounted for two-thirds of the state's population, a country vote was worth anywhere from two to 10 times a vote in Adelaide.
Labor overcame the Playmander in the 1965 election, taking 55 percent of the primary vote. However, the Playmander was strong enough that Labor only netted 21 seats to the LCL's 18, for a paper-thin majority of two seats. In nearly every other state, Labor's margin would have been enough for a landslide majority government. Walsh thus became the first Labor Premier of South Australia in 32 years, as well as the first Catholic to hold the post, he served as his own Treasurer and Minister for Immigration. Walsh found himself the head of an inexperienced government, as no current ALP parliamentarian had served as a minister; this left him no choice but to entrust sensitive portfolios to men more used to criticising the LCL. His term as Premier was marked by increased spending on public education and the implementation of far-reaching social welfare and Aboriginal Affairs legislation, although many of these changes were spearheaded by his deputy and Attorney-General, Dunstan, by far the youngest member of the cabinet.
The conservative Walsh may well have opposed some of these reforms. Indeed, it was no secret that he distrusted Dunstan. Nonetheless, he felt compelled to go along. Walsh was never comfortable dealing with the media television, his ascension to the job of Premier only exacerbated these problems. Before 1965, he was notorious for using complex words in the wrong context, his speeches were peppered with malapropisms. Walsh had journalists, Hansard reporters, political ally and foe alike bewildered by his statements. To give but one example, Walsh once said in parliament "In this manner, Mr Speaker, the government has acted as if this were a diseased estate. It's not sufficiently elasticated... The government is suffering from a complete lack of apathy in the case." His unease with the media was seen in stark contrast to Dunstan, who would prove to be a media relations master throughout his terms as Premier. Walsh's awkwardness with the media was further highlighted after 1966, the year Playford retired as leader of the LCL and the 37-year-old Steele Hall took his place.
Hall's youth stood in sharp contrast to Walsh, he was far more progressive than Playford had been. Combined with a sagging economy and poor polling figures, local ALP heavyweights concluded that Labor cou
Michael David Rann, is an Australian former politician, the 44th Premier of South Australia from 2002 to 2011. He accepted a professorship at Flinders University and a visiting fellowship at University of Auckland in 2012, was Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 2013 to 2014, was Australia's Ambassador to Italy, Albania and San Marino and as Australia's Permanent Representative to the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization and World Food Programme from 2014 to 2016. Among several other honours, Rann was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in the 2016 Australia Day Honours. Rann succeeded Lynn Arnold as leader of the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party and South Australian Leader of the Opposition in 1994. Rann led Labor to minority government at the 2002 election, before attaining a landslide win at the 2006 election; the Rann Government was elected to a third four-year term at the 2010 election, retaining majority government despite a swing − giving Labor a record 12 years in government.
He resigned as Premier in October 2011 after a year of poor opinion polling saw him lose party support and was succeeded by Jay Weatherill. Rann is the third-longest serving Premier of South Australia behind Thomas Playford IV and John Bannon − the third-longest serving Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 2002 behind Mick O'Halloran and Robert Richards − and served a record 17 years as South Australian Labor parliamentary leader from 1994 to 2011, he was a South Australian MP in the House of Assembly from the 1985 election and Father of the House from the 2010 election until his parliamentary resignation on 13 January 2012. The Labor government Rann led, through Weatherill, became the longest-serving South Australian Labor government and the second longest-serving South Australian government behind the Playmander-assisted Thomas Playford IV. Aside from Playford, the 2014 election was the second time that any party has won four consecutive state elections in South Australia, the first occurred when Don Dunstan led Labor to four consecutive victories between the 1970 election and the 1977 election.
Following the 2014 election, Labor went from minority to majority government when Nat Cook won the 2014 Fisher by-election by five votes from a 7.3 percent two-party swing. Achievements of the Rann Government include job numbers raised and unemployment lowered, funding increased for health and education, the expansion of mining and defence industries, investment in wind power in South Australia making it the leader of wind power in Australia, funding increased for new projects including: the Adelaide tram extension and new vehicle purchase, commencement of the rail electrification of Adelaide's train lines, construction commencement of the new Royal Adelaide Hospital, redevelopment of the Adelaide Oval, expansion of the Adelaide Convention Centre, upgrade of the River Torrens Riverbank precinct, construction of the Port Stanvac Desalination Plant, the undertaking of various major road works including major upgrades to the North–South Corridor and South Road, aiming to be stop-free by 2030 for over 100 km from Old Noarlunga in the outer southern metropolitan Adelaide suburbs through to Nuriootpa in the inner northern rural area around the Barossa Valley, such as construction of the Anzac Highway underpass and construction commencement of the elevated North-South Motorway/South Road Superway, construction of the Port River Expressway and Northern Expressway, the upgrade of the Sturt Highway, the duplication and expansion of the Southern Expressway and plans for the construction of the Northern Connector to join up the Superway and Expressway.
His government introduced Adelaide's Thinker in Residence program. South Australia achieved a AAA credit rating under the Rann Labor government, prompting Business SA chief executive Peter Vaughan to praise Labor's economic management. Rann was the most popular Premier in the country, with his approach to government moderate and crisis-free. Following the 2006 election landslide where Labor was re-elected with a historic 56.8 percent two-party-preferred vote, Newspoll early in 2007 saw Rann peak at a historic 64 percent Preferred Premier rating with a historic 61 percent Labor two-party-preferred vote. University of Adelaide Professor of Politics Clem Macintyre said that after John Bannon and the State Bank collapse, Rann had to re-establish Labor's credentials as an economic manager as a matter of urgency, "in that sense Rann had a whole lot of priorities to concentrate on that Don Dunstan didn't think about", with a legacy built on economic achievements, achieving the triple-A credit rating, as well as its capacity to deliver infrastructure projects.
Rann was born in Kent. His father was an electrician who had served at El Alamein in World War II, his mother was employed in an armaments factory. Most of Rann's childhood was spent in the care of his father in South London. In 1962, when he was nine, his family emigrated from Blackfen to Mangakino, a small town north of Taupo on the Waikato River in New Zealand, his family moved to Matamata to Birkenhead on Auckland's North Shore where he attended Northcote College. He completed a Master of Arts in political science at the University of Auckland, he was Vice President of the New Zealand Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and editor of the student newspaper Craccum. As a member of Princes Street Labour, he spent considerable time working on New Zealand Labour Party campaigns including that of Mike Moore. After university, Rann was a political journalist for the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation. Haydon Manning has stated that "it was reported that" Rann "struggled with being an objective reporter".
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
The Rainbow Serpent or Rainbow Snake is a common deity seen as a creator god and a common motif in the art and religion of Aboriginal Australia. It is named for the identification between that of a snake; some scholars believe that the link between snake and rainbow suggests the cycle of the seasons and the importance of water in human life. When the rainbow is seen in the sky, it is said to be the Rainbow Serpent moving from one waterhole to another, the divine concept explained why some waterholes never dried up when drought struck. There are innumerable names and stories associated with the serpent, all of which communicate the significance and power of this being within Aboriginal traditions, it is viewed as a giver of life, through its association with water, but can be a destructive force if angry. The Rainbow Serpent is one of the most common and well known Aboriginal stories, is of great importance to Aboriginal society; the Rainbow Serpent is one of the oldest continuing religious beliefs in the world and continues to be a cultural influence today.
The Rainbow Serpent is known by different names by different Aboriginal sub-cultures. The Rainbow Serpent is known as Borlung by the Miali, Dhakkan by the Kuli, Kajura by the Ingarda, Goorialla by the Lardil people, Kunmanggur by the Murinbata, Ngalyod by the Gunwinggu, Numereji by the Kakadu, Taipan by the Wikmunkan, Tulloun by the Mitakoodi, Wagyl by the Noongar, Wanamangura by the Talainji, Witij by the Yolngu. Other names include Bolung, Julunggul, Langal, Muit, Wollunqua, Wonungar, Yero and Yurlunggur. Though the concept of the Rainbow Serpent has existed for a long time in Aboriginal Australian cultures, it was introduced to the wider world through the work of anthropologists. In fact, the name Rainbow Serpent or Rainbow Snake appears to have been coined in English by Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, an anthropologist who noticed the same concept going under different names among various Aboriginal Australian cultures, called it "the rainbow-serpent myth of Australia", it has been suggested that this name implies that there is only one Rainbow Serpent, when the concept varies quite a bit from one Aboriginal culture to another, should be properly called the Rainbow Serpent myths of Australia.
It has been suggested that the Serpent's position as the most prominent creator god in the Australian tradition has been the creation of non-Aboriginal anthropologists. Another error of the same kind is the way in which Western-educated people, with a cultural stereotype of Greco-Roman or Norse myths, tell the Aboriginal stories in the past tense. For the indigenous people of Australia, the stories are "Everywhen" — past and future. Dreamtime stories tell of the great spirits and totems during creation, in animal and human form that moulded the barren and featureless earth; the Rainbow Serpent came from beneath the ground and created huge ridges and gorges as it pushed upward. The Rainbow Serpent is understood to be of immense proportions and inhabits deep permanent waterholes and is in control of life's most precious resource, water. In some cultures, the Rainbow Serpent is considered to be the ultimate creator of everything in the universe. In some cultures, the Rainbow Serpent is male; some commentators have suggested that the Rainbow Serpent is a phallic symbol, which fits its connection with fertility myths and rituals.
When the Serpent is characterized as female or bisexual, it is sometimes depicted with breasts. Other times, the Serpent has no particular gender; the Serpent has been known to appear as a scorpion or another animal or creature. In some stories, the Serpent is associated with a bat, sometimes called a "flying fox" in Australian English, engaged in a rivalry over a woman; some scholars have identified other creatures, such as a bird, dingo, or lizard, as taking the role of the Serpent in stories. In all cases, these animals are associated with water; the Rainbow Serpent has been identified with the bunyip, a fearful, water-hole dwelling creature in Australian mythology. The sometimes unpredictable Rainbow Serpent replenishes the stores of water, forming gullies and deep channels as the Rainbow Serpent slithers across the landscape. In this belief system, without the Serpent, no rain would fall and the Earth would dry up. In other cultures, the Serpent is said to come to stop the rain. In addition to the identification with the rainbow, the Serpent is identified with a prismatic halo around the moon that can be regarded as a sign of rain.
The Rainbow Serpent is sometimes associated with human blood circulation and the menstrual cycle, considered a healer. Thunder and lightning are said to stem from when the Rainbow Serpent is angry, the Serpent can cause powerful rainstorms and cyclones. Quartz crystal and seashells are associated with the Rainbow Serpent and are used in rituals to invoke it; the identification with quartz crystal results from its prism-like appearance. Stories about the Rainbow Serpent have been passed down from generation to generation; the Serpent story may vary however, according to environmental differences. Tribes of the monsoonal areas depict an epic interaction of the sun and wind in their Dreamtime stories, whereas tribes of the central desert experience less drastic seasonal shifts and their stories reflect this, it is known both as a ben
Thomas Playford IV
Sir Thomas Playford was an Australian politician from the state of South Australia. He served continuously as Premier of South Australia and leader of the Liberal and Country League from 5 November 1938 to 10 March 1965. Though controversial, it was the longest term of any elected government leader in the history of Australia, his tenure as premier was marked by a period of population and economic growth unmatched by any other Australian state. He was known for his parochial style in pushing South Australia's interests, was known for his ability to secure a disproportionate share of federal funding for the state as well as his shameless haranguing of federal leaders, his string of election wins was enabled by a system of a malapportionment gerrymander that bore his name, the'Playmander' − which saw the Labor Party win clear majorities of the statewide two-party vote whilst failing to form government in 1944, 1953, 1962 and 1968. Born into an old political family, Playford was the fifth Thomas Playford and the fourth to have lived in South Australia.
He grew up on the family farm in Norton Summit before enlisting in the Australian Imperial Force in World War I, fighting in Gallipoli and Western Europe. After serving, he continued farming until his election as a Liberal and Country League representative for Murray at the 1933 state election. In his early years in politics, Playford was an outspoken backbencher who lambasted LCL colleagues and ministers and their policies, had a maverick strategy defying party norms and advocating unadulterated laissez faire economics and opposing protectionism and government investment, in stark contrast to his actions as premier. With the resignation of the LCL's leader, Richard Layton Butler, Playford ascended to the premiership in 1938, having been made a minister just months earlier in an attempt to dampen his insubordination. Playford inherited a minority government and many independents to deal with, instability was expected. However, Playford dealt with the independents adroitly and went on to secure a one-seat majority at the next election.
In office, Playford turned his back on laissez faire economics and used his negotiating skills to encourage industry to relocate to South Australia during World War II, as the state was far from the battlefield. He built upon this in the post-war boom years, particular in automotive manufacturing. Playford had more dissent from within his own party than the opposition centre-left Labor Party; the Labor leader Mick O'Halloran worked cooperatively with Playford and was known to be happy being out of power, quipping that Playford could better serve his left-wing constituents. Playford's policies allowed for the supply of cheap electricity to factories, minimal business taxes, low wages to make the state more attractive to industrial investment. Playford kept salaries low by using the South Australian Housing Trust to building vast amounts of public housing and using government price controls to keep housing and other costs of living low to attract workers and migrants, angering the landlord class.
Implemented in the 1940s, these policies were seen as dangerous to Playford's control of his party, but they proved successful and he cemented his position within the LCL. During the 1950s, Playford and the LCL's share of the vote declined continually despite the economic growth, they clung to power due to the Playmander. Playford became less assured in parliament as Labor became more aggressive, their leading debater Don Dunstan combatively disrupting the collaborative style of politics, targeting the injustice of the Playmander in particular. Playford's successful economic policies had fuelled a rapid expansion of the middle class, which wanted more government attention to education, public healthcare, the arts, the environment and heritage protection. However, Playford was an unrelenting utilitarian, was unmoved by calls to broaden policy focus beyond economic development; this was exacerbated by Playford and his party's failure to adapt to changing social mores, remaining adamantly committed to restrictive laws on alcohol and police powers.
A turning point in Playford's tenure was the Max Stuart case in the 1950s, when Playford came under heavy scrutiny for his hesitation to grant clemency to a murderer on death row amid claims of judicial wrongdoing. Although Playford commuted the sentence under heavy criticism of the judicial review process, the controversy was seen as responsible for his government losing its assurance, he lost office in the 1965 election, he relinquished the party leadership to Steele Hall and retired at the next election, serving on various South Australian company boards until his death in 1981. The Playford family heritage can be traced back to 1759, when a baby boy was left at the door of a house in Barnby Dun, England, with a note to christen the child'Thomas Playford'; the occupants of the house, who were to raise the child, were given instructions to receive money from a bank account for the deed. The child grew up to be a simple farmer in the village, had a son in 1795 whom he christened'Thomas Playford'.
The tradition of naming the firstborn son in the family in this way has continued since. The second Playfor
South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until