Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
National Register of Historic Places listings in Atchison County, Missouri
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Atchison County, Missouri. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Atchison County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 8 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county. Another property has been removed; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri National Register of Historic Places listings in Missouri
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with caves, it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and be missing above ground; the study of karst is considered of prime importance in petroleum geology because as much as 50% of the world's hydrocarbon reserves are hosted in porous karst systems. The English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century, which entered German much earlier. According to one interpretation the term is derived from the German name for a number of geological and hydrological features found within the range of the Dinaric Alps, stretching from the northeastern corner of Italy above the city of Trieste, across the Balkan peninsula along the coast of the eastern Adriatic to Kosovo and North Macedonia, where the massif of the Šar Mountains begins, more the karst zone at the northwestern-most section, described in early topographical research as a plateau, between Italy and Slovenia.
In the local South Slavic languages, all variations of the word are derived from a Romanized Illyrian base metathesized from the reconstructed form *korsъ into forms such as Bosnian: krš, Croatian: krš, kraš, Serbian: kras, Slovene: kras. Languages preserving the older, non-metathesized form include Italian: Carso, German: Karst, Albanian: karsti; the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. As a proper noun, the Slovene form Grast was first attested in 1177; the word is of Mediterranean origin. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra-'rock'; the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, also to Latin Carusardius. Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer of the study of karst in Slovenia and a fellow of the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge, introduced the word karst to European scholars in 1689, describing the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Lake Cerknica.
Jovan Cvijić advanced the knowledge of karst regions, so much that he became known as the "father of karst geomorphology". Discussing the karstic regions of the Balkans, Cvijić's 1893 publication Das Karstphänomen describes landforms such as karren and poljes. In a 1918 publication, Cvijić proposed a cyclical model for karstic landscape development. Karst hydrology emerged as a discipline in early 1960s in France; the activities of cave explorers, called speleologists, had been dismissed as more of a sport than a science, meaning that underground karstic caves and their associated watercourses were, from a scientific perspective, understudied. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes; as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath. If this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power.
The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through Earth's atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the water. Once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate; the primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following: In particular and rare conditions such as encountered in the past in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, other mechanisms may play a role. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of sulfuric acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation; as oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system to form sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation; this chain of reactions is: This reaction chain forms gypsum. The karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath.
On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, collectively called karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys. Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground drainage systems and extensive caves and cavern systems may form. Erosion along limes
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, Missouri
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Carroll County, Missouri. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Carroll County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 6 districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri National Register of Historic Places listings in Missouri
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti