Varosha is an abandoned southern quarter of the Cypriot city of Famagusta. Before the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974, it was the modern tourist area of the city, its inhabitants fled during the invasion, when it came under Turkish control, it has remained abandoned and under the occupation of the Turkish Armed Forces since. As of 2019, the quarter is described as a ghost town. Entry is forbidden to the public. In the early 1970s, Famagusta was the number-one tourist destination in Cyprus. To cater to the increasing number of tourists, many new high-rise buildings and hotels were constructed. During its heyday, Varosha was not only the number-one tourist destination in Cyprus, but between 1970 and 1974, it was one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, was a favourite destination of celebrities such as Elizabeth Taylor, Richard Burton, Raquel Welch, Brigitte Bardot; the main features of Varosha included John F. Kennedy Avenue, a street which ran from close to the port of Famagusta, through Varosha and parallel to Glossa beach.
Along JFK Avenue, there were many well known high rise hotels including the King George Hotel, The Asterias Hotel, The Grecian Hotel, The Florida Hotel, The Argo Hotel, the favourite hotel of Elizabeth Taylor. The Argo Hotel is located near the end of JFK Avenue, looking towards Fig Tree Bay. Another major street in Varosha was Leonidas, a major street that came off JFK Avenue and headed west towards Vienna Corner. Leonidas was a major shopping and leisure street in Varosha, consisting of bars, nightclubs, a Toyota car dealership. Before the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, the city of Varosha had a population of 39,000. Following the invasion of Cyprus on July 20,1974, the Greek Cypriot army withdrew its forces to Larnaca; the Turkish army advanced as far as the Green Line, the present day border between the two communities. Just hours before the Greek Cypriot and Turkish armies met in military combat on the streets of Famagusta, the entire population fled, fearing a massacre, an action aided and orchestrated by the nearby stationed UK military base.
Many refugees fled south to Paralimni and Larnaca. Paralimni has since become the modern day capital of the Famagusta province; when the Turkish Army gained control of the area during the invasion, they fenced it off and have since barred admittance to anyone except Turkish military and United Nations personnel. The people living in Varosha hoped to return to their home when the situation calmed down, but the resort was fenced off by the Turkish military; the UN Security Council Resolution 550 of 1984 ordered for Varosha to be handed over to the administration of the United Nations, was to be resettled by no other people than the inhabitants who were forced out. The Turkish state did not comply but has held Varosha as a "bargaining chip" since in the hope of persuading the people of Cyprus into accepting a settlement of the Cyprus issue on their terms. One such settlement plan was the Annan Plan, which the vast majority of Greek Cypriots rejected as unfair, it provided for the return of Varosha to the original residents, but this never happened because the plan was rejected by Greek Cypriot voters in a referendum, as the overall plan was considered unacceptable.
The UN Security Council Resolution 550 states that it "considers attempts to settle any part of Varosha by people other than its inhabitants as inadmissible and calls for the transfer of this area to the administration of the United Nations". Since 1974, Turkey has forbidden entry to the district with the exception of the TSK personnel; the European Court of Human Rights awarded between €100,000 and €8,000,000 to eight Greek Cypriots for being deprived of their homes and properties as a result of the 1974 invasion. The case was filed jointly by businessman Constantinos Lordos and others, with the principal judgement in the Lordos case dating back to November 2010; the court ruled that, in the case of eight of the applicants, Turkey had violated Article 1 of Protocol 1 of the European Convention on Human rights on the right of peaceful enjoyment of one's possessions, in the case of seven of the applicants, Turkey had violated Article 8 on the right to respect for private and family life. In the absence of human habitation and maintenance, buildings continue to decay.
Nature is reclaiming the area, as metal corrodes, windows break, plants work their roots into the walls and pavement. Sea turtles have been seen nesting on the deserted beaches. During the Cyprus Missile Crisis, the Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf Denktash, threatened to take over Varosha if the Cypriot government didn't back down. BBC News - Varosha: The abandoned tourist resort Hopes for reunification NYTimes, 2015
Salep is a flour made from the tubers of the orchid genus Orchis. These tubers contain. Salep flour is consumed in beverages and desserts in places that were part of the Ottoman Empire where it is a traditional winter beverage. An increase in consumption is causing local extinctions of orchids in parts of Iran, it is sometimes served with iced coffee at certain coffee shops in Istanbul. The word "salep" comes from Arabic: سَحْلَب. In the mid 18th century: from French, from Turkish sālep, from Arabic: ثَعْلَب, translit. ﭐلثَعْلَب, lit.'fox's', the name of an orchid. The Ancient Romans used ground orchid bulbs to make drinks, which they called by a number of names satyrion and priapiscus; as the names indicate, they considered it to be a powerful aphrodisiac. Of salep, Paracelsus wrote: "behold the Satyrion root, is it not formed like the male privy parts? No one can deny this. Accordingly, magic discovered it and revealed that it can restore a man's virility and passion". Salep was a popular beverage in the lands of the Ottoman Empire.
Its consumption spread beyond there to England and Germany before the rise of coffee and tea and it was offered as an alternative beverage in coffee houses. In England, the drink was known as saloop. Popular in the 17th and 18th centuries in England, its preparation required that the salep powder be added to water until thickened whereupon it would be sweetened flavored with orange flower or rose water. Substitution of British orchid roots, known as "dogstones", was acceptable in the 18th century for the original Turkish variants; the beverage sahlab is now made with hot milk instead of water. Other desserts are made from salep flour, including salep pudding and salep ice cream; the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey is a major producer of sahlab known as Salepi Maraş. The popularity of sahlab in Turkey has led to a decline in the populations of wild orchids; as a result, it is illegal to export true salep. Thus, many instant sahlab mixes are made with artificial flavoring. Salep is consumed in Greece, it is sold on the streets as a hot beverage during the cold months of the year.
It is popular in many parts of the Middle East the Levant. Families in Turkey drink the hot version during the winter time, it is estimated that, each year in Turkey, 30 tonnes of tubers from 38 species are harvested, it takes from 1,000 to 4,000 tubers to make a kilo of flour. With the increasing rarity of some species and local extinctions, traders are harvesting wild orchids in Iran. Abdolbaset Ghorbani of Uppsala University estimates that between 7 and 11 million orchids of nineteen species and sub-species were collected from northern Iran in 2013. Harvesting of orchid tubers is increasing in Greece. Dondurma Media related to Salep at Wikimedia Commons
Maras is a town in the Sacred Valley of the Incas, 40 kilometers north of Cuzco, in the Cuzco Region of Peru. The town is well known for its salt evaporation ponds, located towards Urubamba from the town center, which have been in use since Inca times; the salt-evaporation ponds are four kilometers north of the town, down a canyon that descends to the Rio Vilcanota and the Sacred Valley of the Incas. The Maras area is accessible by a paved road, which leads from the main road leading through the Sacred Valley between Cuzco and the surrounding towns. Tourist sites in the area include the colonial church, the nearby Moray Inca ruins, the local salt evaporation ponds, the surrounding scenery. Since pre-Inca times, salt has been obtained in Maras by evaporating salty water from a local subterranean stream; the salty water emerges at a spring, a natural outlet of the underground stream. The flow is directed into an intricate system of tiny channels constructed so that the water runs down onto the several hundred ancient terraced ponds.
All the ponds are less than four meters square in area, none exceeds thirty centimeters in depth. All are shaped into polygons with the flow of water controlled and monitored by the workers; the altitude of the ponds decreases, so that the water may flow through the myriad branches of the water-supply channels and be introduced through a notch in one sidewall of each pond. The proper maintenance of the adjacent feeder channel, the side walls and the water-entry notch, the pond's bottom surface, the quantity of water, the removal of accumulated salt deposits requires close cooperation among the community of users, it is agreed among local residents and pond workers that the cooperative system was established during the time of the Incas, if not earlier. As water evaporates from the sun-warmed ponds, the water becomes supersaturated and salt precipitates as various size crystals onto the inner surfaces of a pond's earthen walls and on the pond's earthen floor; the pond's keeper closes the water-feeder notch and allows the pond to go dry.
Within a few days the keeper scrapes the dry salt from the sides and bottom, puts it into a suitable vessel, reopens the water-supply notch, carries away the salt. Color of the salt varies from white to a light reddish or brownish tan, depending on the skill of an individual worker; some salt is sold at a gift store nearby. The salt mines traditionally have been available to any person wishing to harvest salt; the owners of the salt ponds must be members of the community, families that are new to the community wishing to propitiate a salt pond get the one farthest from the community. The size of the salt pond assigned to a family depends on the family's size. There are many unused salt pools available to be farmed. Any prospective salt farmer need only locate an empty unmaintained pond, consult with the local informal cooperative, learn how to keep a pond properly within the accepted communal system, start working. Antonio Sinchi Roca Inka, 17th-century Quechua painter Maras, National Geographic
Kahramanmaraş is a city in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province. Before 1973, Kahramanmaraş was named Maraş; the city lies on a plain at the foot of the Ahir Dağı and has a population of 1,112,634 as of 2017. The region is best known for its distinctive ice cream, its production of salep, a powder made from dried orchid tubers, it is connected by air to Ankara. Turkish Airlines has daily direct flights from İstanbul and AnadoluJet operates direct flights from Ankara. In the early Iron Age, Maraş was the capital city of the Syro-Hittite state Gurgum, it was known as "the Kurkumaean city" as Marqas to the Assyrians. In 711 BC, the land of Gurgum was annexed as an Assyrian province and renamed as Marqas after its capital. Maraş was called Germanicia Caesarea in the time of Byzantine empires. According to a 2010 Cumhuriyet article, the first ruins of Germanicia have been unearthed in the Dulkadiroğulları quarters of the city. In 645, Germanicia was taken from the Byzantines by the Muslim Arabs, to whom the city was known as Marʻash.
Marash was an important Syriac Orthodox diocese. Over the next three centuries, Marash belonged to the fortified Arab-Byzantine frontier zone and was used as a base for incursions into Byzantine-held Asia Minor by the Arabs, it was destroyed several times during the Arab-Byzantine Wars. It was rebuilt by the Umayyad caliph Muawiya I and was expanded ca. 800 by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid. The city was controlled by the Tulunids and Hamdanids before the Byzantines, under Nikephoros Phokas, recovered it in 962. After the defeat of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, Philaretos Brachamios, a former Byzantine general, founded a principality centred on the city, which stretched from Antioch to Edessa. Germanikeia was captured by Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1098, during the First Crusade, made part of the County of Edessa, becoming an important center during Crusader rule. According to the Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa, it was destroyed by an earthquake and 10,000 people were killed, an exaggeration.
In 1100, it was captured by the Danishmends, followed by the Seljuks in 1103. In 1107, Crusaders led by Tancred retook it with aid from Toros I of Little Armenia. In 1135, the Danishmends captured it the next year. However, the Crusaders retook it in 1137. Baldwin of Germanikeia died in a war in 1146, while trying recover Edessa Nur ad-Din Zangi, which had taken the side of Joscelin II of Edessa, his successor Reynald of Germanikeia died in the Battle of Inab against the Zengids. Sultan Mesud I of the Sultanate of Rum took the city in 1149. Marash was captured by the Zengids in 1151, but was recaptured by the Seljuks in 1152. Maraş was left to Mleh, his collaborator. Marash passed to the Seljuks in 1174 and to the Ayyubids in 1182. Kaykhusraw I, Sultan of Rum captured Marash in 1208. Seljuk rule lasted to 1258. In 1258, Maraş was captured by the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, following the war with the Ilkhanate. Served by an Armenian Apostolic Church Archbishop, it became for a short period of time, the seat of the Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia.
Marash was captured by Al-Ashraf Khalil, Mamluk Sultan in 1292. But, it was recaptured by Hethum II, King of Cilician Armenia in 1299. Marash was taken by the Mamluks in 1304. Marash was ruled by Dulkadirs as vassals of the Mamluks from 1337–1515 before being annexed to the Ottoman Empire. In the early days of Ottoman rule there were 1,557 adult males. During Ottoman rule, the city was the centre of Eyalet of Dulkadir and a sanjak centre in the Vilayet of Aleppo. Marash was controlled by British troops between 22 February 1919 and 30 October 1919 by French troops after the Armistice of Mudros, it was taken over by the Turkish National Movement after the Battle of Marash on 13 February 1920. Afterward a massacre of Armenian civilians took place. Roving Turkish bands threw kerosene-doused rags on Armenian homes and laid a constant barrage upon the American relief hospital; the Armenians themselves, as in previous times of trouble, sought refuge in their churches and schools. Women and children found momentary shelter in Marash's six Armenian Apostolic and three Armenian Evangelical churches, in the city's sole Catholic cathedral.
All the churches, the entire Armenian districts, were set alight. When the 2,000 Armenians who had taken shelter in the Catholic cathedral attempted to leave, they were shot. Early reports put the number of Armenians dead at no less than 16,000, although this was revised down to 5,000–12,000. In 1973, Marash's name was changed to Kahramanmaraş when the Turkish government added "Kahraman" to the name, in reference to the bravery of the people of the city in resisting the French occupation after the First World War. Kahraman means "hero" in Turkish. In December 1978, Kahramanmaraş was the site of a massacre of leftist Alevis. A Turkish nationalist group, the Grey Wolves, incited the violence -- 1000 dead; the incident was important in the Turkish government's decision to declare martial law, the eventual military coup in 1980. Kahramanmaraş has a mediterranean climate. Summers are hot