Moving Day (Quebec)
Moving Day is a tradition, but not a legal requirement, in the province of Quebec, dating from the time when the province used to mandate fixed terms for leases of rental properties. It falls on July 1, Canada Day; the tradition began as a humanitarian measure of the French colonial government of New France, who forbade seigneurs, the semi-feudal landlords of the seigneuries, from evicting their tenant farmers before the winter snows had melted.. Historian Yvon Desloges notes that it was common to move in the spring in the 18th century, citing a 1750 bylaw by Intendant François Bigot. Additionally, Jean-Philippe Warren, a sociologist at Concordia University in Montreal, noted in a 2013 interview for The New York Times that French law in the 18th century set May 1 as the starting date for all legal agreements, including leases; this evolved into a requirement that urban leases begin on May 1 and end on April 30. In law, this date was set in the Civil Code of Lower Canada of 1866. May 1 thus became "Moving Day", the day during which renters who wished to vacate their current premises physically changed domiciles.
In 1973, the Quebec government decided. This measure would allow children the ones in primary school to complete their full year at the same establishment. By moving the date to a holiday, workers would not have to sacrifice a working day; this argument was strong for the tenants rights groups representing the average poorer class. Moreover, they moved the date from May 1st to July 1 because of the tendency for rough weather in early May; the law repealed sections of the Civil code setting fixed terms for leases as of 1974, but mandated a two-month lengthening of leases for following year as a transitory measure. However, tradition has held sway, the vast majority of leases are still a year long and begin around July 1. In 2004 120,000 households moved on or around July 1, corresponding to 4% of the population. In 2013, the government of Montreal estimated that about 115,000 city residents moved each year, or about 7% of the city's 1.6 million people. In the aforementioned interview, Warren added sociological reasons why July 1 has persisted as Moving Day.
He noted that Francophone Quebecers move much more than other Canadians, but stay in their old neighbourhoods, with some moving only across the street. According to Warren, a higher frequency of moves in the Francophone community makes a standard moving date more convenient for people changing their residences; as he put it, "They are on the move, but they don’t go anywhere." Moving Day is a boon and a headache for commercial moving companies, people must reserve their services in advance, more than six months before moving day in some cases. During this period, moving companies work around the clock, with moving charges being three times the normal rate; the short supply of movers in Montreal inspired entrepreneurs to offer a green moving service featuring heavy-duty bicycle trailers. In Montreal, where as of 2013 only 38% of residents own their home, Moving Day is busy and has been described as "a kind of moving madness". Exterior staircases leading up to second, third, or fourth-storey apartments are common in many neighbourhoods, in part because this reduced the size of buildings and therefore decreased the owner's property taxes.
These staircases are narrow and metal – not ideal for nonprofessionals carrying major appliances. According to New York Times writer Ian Austen, "unlike apartments in the rest of Canada, the ones here come with kitchen appliances, adding to the movers’ burdens." Cities schedule extra garbage and recycling pickups for this period to deal with unwanted furniture and empty boxes left beside the road. According to Hydro-Québec, more than 700,000 Quebec households moved in 2009, including 225,000 on the island of Montreal; the July 1 date of Moving Day somewhat reduces the significance of Canada Day as a public holiday in Quebec, as many who might otherwise attend holiday festivities are occupied by moving. Suggestions that the move was a deliberate decision by Quebec sovereigntists to discourage participation in a patriotic Canadian holiday ignore the fact that the change in date from May 1 to July 1 was the result of a bill introduced by a federalist MNA, Jérôme Choquette of the Quebec Liberal Party.
Although moving day is seen as a headache for most people, Montreal-based columnist Josée Legault sees a few positive aspects in the annual festival, pointing out that July 1 occurs at the end of the school year, not two months before as was the case before the 1970s. Bargain hunters —especially people who don't move— enjoy the numerous garage sales occurring before moving day and the common practice of leaving behind used furniture and appliances on the curb side or in the alley, in effect giving them to anyone in need; the annual ritual has been translated in Quebec's literature and cinema. Gabrielle Roy's classic novel Bonheur d'occasion describes the traditional frenzy surrounding Moving Day in the working-class borough of Saint-Henri in Montreal. Quebec film director Philippe Gagnon used the yearly occurrence as the setting for Premier juillet, le film, a 2004 light-hearted comedy featuring three households caught in the turmoil of Moving Day. Moving Moving Day
Société de transport de l'Outaouais
Société de transport de l'Outaouais is the transit service of the Outaouais region of Quebec. It operates conventional bus and rapibus bus rapid transit services in Gatineau, including the districts of Hull, Gatineau and Masson-Angers. STO provided limited service to Chelsea and Cantley until June 2015 when Transcollines began operations in the Collines de l'Outaouais MRC. STO is located on the Quebec-side of Canada's National Capital Region, operates several bus routes through Downtown Ottawa, Ontario. Prior to 1971, public transportation in Gatineau was operated by private sector companies. In 1971, these companies had a total of 2.5 million clients. This same year, the Commission de transport de la communauté régionale de l'Outaouais was created to improve regional transportation services that would otherwise exceed the means of the constituent cities. In 1972, for $6.25 million, CTCRO purchased 8 private transit companies in the region: Transport urbain de Hull, Transport Hull métropolitain, Transport d'écoliers du nord de l'Outaouais.
A year the CTCRO created an agreement with OC Transpo to make transfers between the two services easier. It purchased only air-conditioned buses from its first one, 1990. In 1991, it changed its name to Société de transport de l'Outaouais In 1998, the STO was named the "Canadian public transit operator of the year" by the Canadian Urban Transit Association. From 1999 to 2001, to satisfy growing demand, the STO purchased additional second-hand buses from the Société de transport de Montréal, Société de transport de Laval, Société de transport de Sherbrooke and OC Transpo, they all have since been retired. The STO introduced its first fleet of low-floor buses from NovaBus in 2002, it has only such buses since then; the following year, the STO announced plans to build a bus-only roadway called the Rapibus. The project was expected to be completed by 2009, but it was opened in 2013. In 2005, the STO announced a strategic plan for 2002-2015 in which it projected a ridership of 96 million by 2019 up from 2.4 million in 1992.
Ridership from 1995 to 2006 had grown about 50%. In addition to the Rapibus, the STO planned to increase the number of park and ride facilities across the city as well as introduce bike racks, expand or add garages, expand the fleet. In 2012, it introduced its fleet of Novabus LFS articulated buses and the following year, it unveiled their new visual identity – L'avenir en commun as well as a new logo. According to its 2014 annual report, STO employed a total of 780 employees, of which 479 were drivers, it has a total of 340 buses, 70 routes and 284 shelters. Its ridership in 2014 was approx. 19.8 million, a slight decrease from previous years. Similar to other cities, it paratransit service as well as Park-n-Ride service. Since 2002, Novabus LFS's have been purchased annually to replace older vehicles and to expand the fleet over time. All generations have been purchased except the first generation as OC Transpo have found its first generation Novabus LFS's to be unreliable; the STO planned to convert half of its total bus fleet into low-floor, LFS model NovaBus by 2012.
The more recent models had a decreased seating capacity. Another issue, discovered with this model were the unreliable telescopic ramps that prevented wheelchair access to the bus; as of 1988, the fleet had wheelchair accessible buses. These were of the 1995 first-generation LFS's. Aside from these planes, wheelchair users rely on the paratransit service. A number of significant technology improvements and studies have been made over the past few decades by the STO. In 1998, The company introduced a smart-card fare system, making it the first company not only in the Americas but the entire Western Hemisphere to have a smart-card system. Paper card bus passes were phased out until its official end in 2004 when smart cards became the exclusive bus pass. In 2006–07, fishbowl buses had their rollsigns replaced with LED signs. In 2002 and again in 2007, the STO tested new hybrid buses for feasibility. During the summer of 2008, the STO has started a test trial of a prototype New Flyer articulated bus on several of its routes.
The bus has a total capacity of 115 passengers. In 2014, STO added wi-fi to several of its lines, including all buses and stations associated with rapibus. In 2015, STO announced plans to introduce the bus planning App called Plani-Bus OC Transpo Société de transport de l'Outaouais Home Page STO network map Peter McLaughlin's STO photo page Barp.ca's STO bus gallery
Management is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural and human resources; the term "management" may refer to those people who manage an organization. Social scientists study management as an academic discipline, investigating areas such as social organization and organizational leadership; some people study management at universities. Individuals who aim to become management specialists or experts, management researchers, or professors may complete the Doctor of Management, the Doctor of Business Administration, or the PhD in Business Administration or Management. Larger organizations have three levels of managers, which are organized in a hierarchical, pyramid structure: Senior managers, such as members of a Board of Directors and a Chief Executive Officer or a President of an organization.
They set the strategic goals of the organization and make decisions on how the overall organization will operate. Senior managers are executive-level professionals, provide direction to middle management who directly or indirectly report to them. Middle managers, examples of these would include branch managers, regional managers, department managers and section managers, who provide direction to front-line managers. Middle managers communicate the strategic goals of senior management to the front-line managers. Lower managers, such as supervisors and front-line team leaders, oversee the work of regular employees and provide direction on their work. In smaller organizations, an individual manager may have a much wider scope. A single manager may perform several roles or all of the roles observed in a large organization. Views on the definition and scope of management include: According to Henri Fayol, "to manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Fredmund Malik defines it as "the transformation of resources into utility." Management included as one of the factors of production – along with machines and money. Ghislain Deslandes defines it as “a vulnerable force, under pressure to achieve results and endowed with the triple power of constraint and imagination, operating on subjective, interpersonal and environmental levels”. Peter Drucker saw the basic task of management as twofold: innovation. Innovation is linked to marketing. Peter Drucker identifies marketing as a key essence for business success, but management and marketing are understood as two different branches of business administration knowledge. Management involves identifying the mission, procedures and manipulation of the human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise; this implies effective communication: an enterprise environment implies human motivation and implies some sort of successful progress or system outcome. As such, management is not the manipulation of a mechanism, not the herding of animals, can occur either in a legal or in an illegal enterprise or environment.
From an individual's perspective, management does not need to be seen from an enterprise point of view, because management is an essential function to improve one's life and relationships. Management is therefore everywhere and it has a wider range of application. Based on this, management must have humans. Communication and a positive endeavor are two main aspects of it either through enterprise or independent pursuit. Plans, motivational psychological tools and economic measures may or may not be necessary components for there to be management. At first, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, meeting goals; this applies in situations where planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol considers management to consist of five functions: planning organizing commanding coordinating controllingIn another way of thinking, Mary Parker Follett defined management as "the art of getting things done through people", she described management as philosophy.
Critics, find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs suggesting the difficulty of defining management without circularity, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices with the existence of a managerial cadre or of a class. One habit of thought regards management as equivalent to "business administration" and thus excludes management in places outside commerce, as for example in charities and in the public sector. More broadly, every organization must "manage" its work, processes, etc. to maximize effectiveness. Nonetheless, many people refer to university departments that teach management as "business schools"; some such institutions use that name, while others employ the broader term "management". English-speakers may use the term
Rivière-du-Loup is a small city on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River in Quebec. The city is the seat for the Rivière-du-Loup Regional County Municipality and the judicial district of Kamouraska; the city was named after the nearby river. This name may have come from a native tribe known as "Les Loups" or from the many seals, known in French as loup-marin, once found at the river's mouth. Rivière-du-Loup was established in 1673 as the seigneurie of Sieur Charles-Aubert de la Chesnaye; the community was incorporated as the village of Fraserville, in honour of early Scottish settler Alexandre Fraser, in 1850, became a city in 1910. The city reverted to its original name, Rivière-du-Loup, in 1919. Between 1850 and 1919, the city saw large increases in its anglophone population. Most of them left the region by the 1950s. 1% of the population still speaks English as its first language. In fall of 1950 Rivière-du-Loup was the site of a nuclear accident. A USAF B-50 was returning a nuclear bomb to the USA.
The bomb was released due to engine troubles, was destroyed in a non-nuclear detonation before it hit the ground. The explosion scattered nearly 100 pounds of uranium; the city is known for its spectacular sunsets. Rivière-du-Loup is a traditional stopping point between Quebec City, the Maritimes and the Gaspé Peninsula; the Trans-Canada Highway turns south here, transferring from Autoroute 20 to Autoroute 85 and continuing southerly to Edmundston, New Brunswick. There is a ferry; the city is served by the Rivière-du-Loup Airport. The town can be reached by Via Rail on the train named The Ocean, between Montreal and Halifax. Rivière-du-Loup is an unusual television market, as each of its stations has two transmitters in the city; the city's hilly terrain causes residents of the lower, western portions of the city to experience signal dropout. This makes it all but impossible for a television station to serve the entire area with a single transmitter. Accordingly, each station in the city has both a primary transmitter and a "nested" low-power rebroadcaster to serve viewers in the western part of the city who cannot receive the primary signal.
Additionally, the city is served by Canada's only triple-stick operation, in which all three of its licensed stations are owned by the same company, Télé Inter-Rives. Rivière-du-Loup is a mandatory market for digital television conversion. Unlike most larger cities in Quebec, Rivière-du-Loup has no local Télé-Québec outlet, though Rimouski's CIVB-DT is available on the Vidéotron system in Rivière-du-Loup. FM 89.5 - CJBR-FM-1, Ici Radio-Canada Première FM 90.7 - CBRX-FM-3, Ici Musique FM 103.7 - CIEL-FM, AC FM 107.1 - CIBM-FM, CHR FM 107.9 - CIBM-FM-1 Sir John A. Macdonald, Canada's first prime minister, had a summer home in Rivière-du-Loup. People born there include: Danielle April, artist Joseph Jean Benoit, 31st Canadian Surgeon General Nicolas Dickner, writer Dr. John McLoughlin, known as "the father of Oregon" Louis-Philippe Picard, member of the House of Commons of Canada Maurice Arthur Pope and diplomat Allan Sirois, professional hockey player Alexandre-Antonin Taché, first Archbishop of Saint Boniface List of cities in Quebec Official city site
Finance is a field, concerned with the allocation of assets and liabilities over space and time under conditions of risk or uncertainty. Finance can be defined as the art of money management. Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, their expected rate of return. Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance. Matters in personal finance revolve around: Protection against unforeseen personal events, as well as events in the wider economies Transference of family wealth across generations Effects of tax policies management of personal finances Effects of credit on individual financial standing Development of a savings plan or financing for large purchases Planning a secure financial future in an environment of economic instability Pursuing a checking and/or a savings account Personal finance may involve paying for education, financing durable goods such as real estate and cars, buying insurance, e.g. health and property insurance and saving for retirement.
Personal finance may involve paying for a loan, or debt obligations. The six key areas of personal financial planning, as suggested by the Financial Planning Standards Board, are: Financial position: is concerned with understanding the personal resources available by examining net worth and household cash flows. Net worth is a person's balance sheet, calculated by adding up all assets under that person's control, minus all liabilities of the household, at one point in time. Household cash flows total up all from the expected sources of income within a year, minus all expected expenses within the same year. From this analysis, the financial planner can determine to what degree and in what time the personal goals can be accomplished. Adequate protection: the analysis of how to protect a household from unforeseen risks; these risks can be divided into the following: liability, death, disability and long term care. Some of these risks may be self-insurable, while most will require the purchase of an insurance contract.
Determining how much insurance to get, at the most cost effective terms requires knowledge of the market for personal insurance. Business owners, professionals and entertainers require specialized insurance professionals to adequately protect themselves. Since insurance enjoys some tax benefits, utilizing insurance investment products may be a critical piece of the overall investment planning. Tax planning: the income tax is the single largest expense in a household. Managing taxes is not a question of if you will pay taxes, but when and how much. Government gives many incentives in the form of tax deductions and credits, which can be used to reduce the lifetime tax burden. Most modern governments use a progressive tax; as one's income grows, a higher marginal rate of tax must be paid. Understanding how to take advantage of the myriad tax breaks when planning one's personal finances can make a significant impact in which can save you money in the long term. Investment and accumulation goals: planning how to accumulate enough money – for large purchases and life events – is what most people consider to be financial planning.
Major reasons to accumulate assets include purchasing a house or car, starting a business, paying for education expenses, saving for retirement. Achieving these goals requires projecting what they will cost, when you need to withdraw funds that will be necessary to be able to achieve these goals. A major risk to the household in achieving their accumulation goal is the rate of price increases over time, or inflation. Using net present value calculators, the financial planner will suggest a combination of asset earmarking and regular savings to be invested in a variety of investments. In order to overcome the rate of inflation, the investment portfolio has to get a higher rate of return, which will subject the portfolio to a number of risks. Managing these portfolio risks is most accomplished using asset allocation, which seeks to diversify investment risk and opportunity; this asset allocation will prescribe a percentage allocation to be invested in stocks, bonds and alternative investments.
The allocation should take into consideration the personal risk profile of every investor, since risk attitudes vary from person to person. Retirement planning is the process of understanding how much it costs to live at retirement, coming up with a plan to distribute assets to meet any income shortfall. Methods for retirement plans include taking advantage of government allowed structures to manage tax liability including: individual structures, or employer sponsored retirement plans and life insurance products. Estate planning involves planning for the disposition of one's assets after death. There is a tax due to the state or federal government at one's death. Avoiding these taxes means that more of one's assets will be distributed to one's heirs. One can leave one's assets to friends or charitable groups. Corporate finance deals with the sources of funding and the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.
Although it is in principle different from managerial finance which studies the financial management of all firms, rather than corporations alone, the main concepts in the study of corporate finance are applicable to the financial problems of all kinds of firms. Corporate f
The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth; this environment encompasses the interaction of all living species, climate and natural resources that affect human survival and economic activity. The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished as components: Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive civilized human intervention, including all vegetation, soil, rocks and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries and their nature. Universal natural resources and physical phenomena that lack clear-cut boundaries, such as air and climate, as well as energy, electric charge, magnetism, not originating from civilized human actions. In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. In such areas where man has fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is modified into a simplified human environment.
Acts which seem less extreme, such as building a mud hut or a photovoltaic system in the desert, the modified environment becomes an artificial one. Though many animals build things to provide a better environment for themselves, they are not human, hence beaver dams, the works of Mound-building termites, are thought of as natural. People find natural environments on Earth, naturalness varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other. More we can consider the different aspects or components of an environment, see that their degree of naturalness is not uniform. If, for instance, in an agricultural field, the mineralogic composition and the structure of its soil are similar to those of an undisturbed forest soil, but the structure is quite different. Natural environment is used as a synonym for habitat. For instance, when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna. Earth science recognizes 4 spheres, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere as correspondent to rocks, water and life respectively.
Some scientists include, as part of the spheres of the Earth, the cryosphere as a distinct portion of the hydrosphere, as well as the pedosphere as an active and intermixed sphere. Earth science, is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. There are four major disciplines in earth sciences, namely geography, geology and geodesy; these major disciplines use physics, biology and mathematics to build a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of Earth. The Earth's crust, or lithosphere, is the outermost solid surface of the planet and is chemically and mechanically different from underlying mantle, it has been generated by igneous processes in which magma cools and solidifies to form solid rock. Beneath the lithosphere lies the mantle, heated by the decay of radioactive elements; the mantle though solid is in a state of rheic convection. This convection process causes the lithospheric plates to move, albeit slowly; the resulting process is known as plate tectonics.
Volcanoes result from the melting of subducted crust material or of rising mantle at mid-ocean ridges and mantle plumes. Most water is found in another natural kind of body of water. An ocean is a major body of saline water, a component of the hydrosphere. 71% of the Earth's surface is covered by ocean, a continuous body of water, customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas. More than half of this area is over 3,000 meters deep. Average oceanic salinity is around 35 parts per thousand, nearly all seawater has a salinity in the range of 30 to 38 ppt. Though recognized as several'separate' oceans, these waters comprise one global, interconnected body of salt water referred to as the World Ocean or global ocean; the deep seabeds are more than half the Earth's surface, are among the least-modified natural environments. The major oceanic divisions are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, other criteria: these divisions are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean.
A river is a natural watercourse freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. A few rivers flow into the ground and dry up before reaching another body of water; the water in a river is in a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is a wider floodplain shaped by waters over-topping the channel. Flood plains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel. Rivers are a part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge and the release of water stored in glaciers and snowpacks. Small rivers may be termed by several other names, including stream and brook, their current is confined within a stream banks. Streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity; the study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology. A lake is a terrain feature, a body of water, localized to the bottom of basin.
A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part
Sept-Îles is a city in the Côte-Nord region of eastern Quebec, Canada. It is among the northernmost locales with a paved connection to the rest of Quebec's road network; the population was 25,686 as of the Canada 2011 Census. The town is called meaning "bay," in the Innu language; the city is well known for having major iron companies like Iron Ore Company of Canada and the Cliffs Natural Resources. The city relies on the iron industry. Sept-Îles is one of the large cities by area in the province of Québec more expansive than Montreal. Sept-Îles has among the highest average wage increases; the only settlements on the paved road network that are farther north are Fermont and Chisasibi, the latter two of which are in the extreme western part of the province at the north end of the James Bay Road. The only other settlements at higher latitudes in the province are isolated Cree, Innu, or Inuit villages, with access limited to seasonal gravel roads. Sept-Îles is the seat of the judicial district of Mingan.
The city is home to the most attended recreational sport events in the province: the Tournoi Orange. Volleyball tournament, which consists of 405 teams and close to 800 volleyball games; the first inhabitants of the area were varying cultures of indigenous peoples. The historic Montagnais or Innu people, who called it Uashat, lived there at the time of European encounter. Jacques Cartier sailed by the islands in 1535 and made the first written record of them, calling them the Ysles Rondes, he was not the first European in the area, as he encountered Basque fishermen who came annually from Europe for whaling and cod fishing. Early European economic activity in Sept-Îles was based on the fur trade. Louis Joliet established trading posts by 1679. Great Britain took over Canada from France in 1763 after its victory in the Seven Years' War. In 1842 the Hudson's Bay Company founded another post at this location; the village was incorporated into a municipality in 1885. Lacking road access at the time, the town got its first pier in 1908.
The City of Sept-Îles was incorporated in 1951, on the 300th anniversary of the first Catholic Mass held in the village. The modern Sept-Îles was built during the construction of the Quebec North Shore and Labrador Railway, the 357-mile railway link to the northern town of Schefferville; the railway was built between 1954 by the Iron Ore Company of Canada. Iron ore mined near Schefferville and Wabush, was transported on this railway and shipped from the Port of Sept-Îles. Shipment of the important new commodity resulted in investments. With the iron ore business, the Sept-Îles deep-water seaport was second in Canada only to Vancouver in terms of yearly tonnage; the huge engineering project led to a major increase in population, housing was built to accommodate them. The town grew from 2,000 inhabitants in 1951 to 14,000 in 1961, 31,000 in 1981; the decline in worldwide iron ore prices in recent decades has since caused employment and population to decrease. During the early 1990s, some new jobs accompanied the construction and operation of the new Aluminerie Alouette inc. aluminum processing plant.
Construction for Phase 1 began in September 1989, operation started in 1992. Construction of Phase 2 began in 2003. In 2002 the city amalgamated with the communities of Moisie; the city includes the neighbourhoods of Arnaud, Clarke, De Grasse, de la Pointe, de la Rivière, Ferland, La Boule, Lac Labrie, Plages, Pointe-Noire and Val-Marguerite. The Sept-Îles Airport has connections all over Labrador. General aviation seaplanes are served by Sept-Îles/Lac Rapides Water Aerodrome. Air Gaspé was based in Sept-Îles, but acquired by Quebecair in 1973. In the 1980s, continued airline restructuring led to Quebecair's being acquired by CP Air in 1986, which in turn was taken over by Canadian Airlines in 1987. Located on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, between the Sainte-Marguerite and Moisie rivers, Sept-Îles lies on the shore of a deep-water bay fronted by a seven-island archipelago, about 230 kilometres east of Baie-Comeau; the bay constitutes a 45 km² natural harbour. The seven islands are named: La Grosse Boule La Petite Boule La Grande Basque La Petite Basque Île Manowin Île du Corossol Îlets Dequen The archipelago is under provincial jurisdiction, with some parts administered by the federal government or by individuals.
There are two First Nations reserves in the area: Uashat in the western city proper, Maliotenam in the east near the Moisie River. In the urban area of Sept-Îles, 2.7% of the population reported English only as mother tongue, 86.2% reported French only, 10.3% reported only a non-official language, in 2011. In comparison, the provincial / territorial percentages were 7.7% for English only, 78.1% for French only and 12.3% for only non-official languages. Sept-Îles has a subarctic climate bordering on a humid continental climate despite being located at around only 50 degrees latitude; the two main seasons are summer and winter, as spring and autumn are short transition seasons lasting only a few weeks. Winters are long and snowy, lasting from l