New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
2002 NFL season
The 2002 NFL season was the 83rd regular season of the National Football League. The league went back to an number of teams, expanding to 32 teams with the addition of the Houston Texans; the clubs were realigned into eight divisions, four teams in each. The Chicago Bears played their home games in 2002 in Champaign, Illinois at Memorial Stadium because of the reconstruction of Soldier Field; the NFL title was won by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers when they defeated the Oakland Raiders 48–21 in Super Bowl XXXVII, at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California on January 26, 2003. With the Houston Texans joining the NFL, the league's teams were realigned into eight divisions: four teams in each division and four divisions in each conference. In creating the new divisions, the league tried to maintain the historical rivalries from the old alignment, while at the same time attempting to organize the teams geographically. Three teams from the AFC Central were required to be in the same division as part of any realignment proposals.
The major changes were: The Indianapolis Colts, the Tennessee Titans, the Jacksonville Jaguars and the inaugural Houston Texans were placed into the newly formed AFC South. This kept the Indianapolis Colts & Peyton Manning from moving to the more geographically correct AFC North; the Atlanta Falcons, the New Orleans Saints, the Carolina Panthers, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers were placed into the newly formed NFC South. The teams in the AFC Central and NFC Central were placed in the new AFC North and NFC North apart from the Titans and Buccaneers; the Seattle Seahawks became the only team to switch conferences twice, moving from the AFC West to the NFC West. The Arizona Cardinals moved from the NFC East to the NFC West, they had played in Chicago and St. Louis before moving to Tempe, Arizona in 1988. Additionally, the arrival of the Texans meant that the league could return to its pre-1999 scheduling format in which no team received a bye during the first two weeks or last seven weeks of the season.
From 1999 to 2001, at least one team sat out each week because of an odd number of teams in the league. It nearly became problematic during the previous season due to the September 11 attacks, since the San Diego Chargers had their bye week during the week following 9/11 and the league nearly outright canceled that week’s slate of games; the league introduced a new eight-year scheduling rotation designed so that all teams will play each other at least twice during those eight years, play in every other team’s stadium at least once. Under scheduling formulas in use from 1978 to 2001, two teams in different divisions might never play each other for over fifteen seasons. Under the new scheduling formula, only two of a team’s games each season are based on the previous season’s record, down from four under the previous system. All teams play four interconference games. An analysis of win percentages in 2008 showed a statistical trend upwards for top teams since this change; the playoff format was modified: four division winners and two wild cards from each conference now advance to the playoffs, instead of three division winners and three wild cards.
In each conference, the division winners are now seeded 1 through 4, the wild cards are seeded 5 and 6. In the current system, the only way a wild card team can host a playoff game is if both teams in the conference’s championship game are wild cards. However, the number of playoff teams still remains at 12, where it has been since 1990. A player who touches a pylon remains in-bounds until any part of his body touches the ground out-of-bounds. Continuing-action fouls now will result in the loss of down and distance. Any dead-ball penalties by the offense after they have made the line to gain will result in a loss of 15 yards and a new first down; the 15 yard penalty was enforced but the down was replayed. The act of batting and stripping the ball from a player is legal. Chop-blocks are illegal on kicking plays. Hitting a quarterback helmet-to-helmet anytime after a change of possession is illegal. After a kickoff, the game clock will start when the ball is touched in the field of play; the clock started when the ball was kicked.
Inside the final two minutes of a half/overtime, the game clock will not stop when the player who takes the snap is tackled behind the line of scrimmage. With the opening of the NFL’s first stadium with a retractable roof, Reliant Stadium, the following rules were enacted: The home team must determine whether their retractable roof is to be opened or closed 90 minutes before kickoff. If it is closed at kickoff, it cannot be reopened during the game. If it is open at kickoff, it cannot be closed during the game unless the weather conditions become severe. Reebok took over the contract to be the official athletic supplier to the NFL for all 32 teams’ uniforms. All teams had individual contracts with athletic suppliers. American Needle, which had a contract with a few teams before the Reebok deal, challenged the NFL in court over Reebok’s exclusive deal, with the NFL stating that it was a “single-entity league” instead of a group consisting of various owners; the case went all the way to the Supreme Court of the United States.
In 2009, the Supreme Court agreed to hear Ameri
2004 NFL season
The 2004 NFL season was the 85th regular season of the National Football League. With the New England Patriots as the defending league champions, regular season play was held from September 9, 2004 to January 2, 2005. Hurricanes forced the rescheduling of two Miami Dolphins home games: the game against the Tennessee Titans was moved up one day to Saturday, September 11 to avoid oncoming Hurricane Ivan, while the game versus the Pittsburgh Steelers on Sunday, September 26 was moved back 7½ hours to miss the eye of Hurricane Jeanne; the playoffs began on January 8, New England repeated as NFL champions when they defeated the Philadelphia Eagles 24–21 in Super Bowl XXXIX, the Super Bowl championship game, at ALLTEL Stadium in Jacksonville, Florida on February 6. Due to several incidents during the 2003 NFL season, officials are authorized to penalize excessive celebration; the 15-yard unsportsmanlike conduct penalty will be marked off from the spot at the end of the previous play or, after a score, on the ensuing kickoff.
If the infraction is ruled flagrant by the officials, the player are ejected. Due to several instances in one game during the 2003–04 playoffs, officials are instructed to enforce illegal contact, pass interference, defensive holding. Timeouts can be called by head coaches. In addition to the numbers 80–89, wide receivers will now be allowed to use numbers 10–19. A punt or missed field goal, untouched by the receiving team is dead once it touches either the end zone or any member of the kicking team in the end zone. A punt or missed field goal that lands in the end zone before being controlled by the kicking team could be picked up by a member of the receiving team and run the other way. Teams will be awarded a third instant replay challenge. Teams were only limited to two regardless of what occurred during the game; the one-bar facemask was outlawed. The few remaining players who still used the one-bar facemask at the time were allowed to continue to use the style until they left the league under a grandfather clause.
Ron Blum returned to line judge, Bill Vinovich was promoted to take his place as referee. Midway through the season, Johnny Grier suffered a leg injury, he was permanently replaced by the back judge on his crew, Scott Green, who had previous experience as a referee in NFL Europe. Baltimore Ravens – Added third alternative uniforms. Black. Cincinnati Bengals – New Uniforms. Indianapolis Colts – Grey facemask. Black shoes. Jacksonville Jaguars – New road uniforms. White uniforms, black numbers with gold and teal trim. New black pants with Jaguars logo on hip. New York Giants – Added third alternative uniforms. Red. Chicago Bears – Added third alternative uniforms. Orange. Metrodome, Minnesota Vikings – AstroTurf was replaced with a new FieldTurf field Arizona Cardinals – Dennis Green replaced Dave McGinnis Atlanta Falcons – Jim Mora, Jr. replaced Wade Phillips who replaced Dan Reeves, fired during the 2003 season Buffalo Bills – Mike Mularkey replaced Gregg Williams Chicago Bears – Lovie Smith replaced Dick Jauron Oakland Raiders – Norv Turner replaced Bill Callahan New York Giants – Tom Coughlin replaced Jim Fassel Washington Redskins – Joe Gibbs replaced Steve Spurrier Indianapolis clinched the AFC #3 seed instead of San Diego based on better head-to-head record.
N. Y. Jets clinched the AFC #5 seed instead of Denver based on better record in common games. St. Louis clinched the NFC #5 seed instead of Minnesota or New Orleans based on better conference record. Minnesota clinched the NFC #6 seed instead of New Orleans based on better head-to-head record. N. Y. Giants finished ahead of Washington in the NFC East based on better head-to-head record. Dallas finished ahead of Washington in the NFC East based on better head-to-head record. Within each conference, the four division winners and the two wild card teams qualified for the playoffs; the four division winners are seeded 1 through 4 based on their overall won-lost-tied record, the wild card teams are seeded 5 and 6. The NFL does not use a fixed bracket playoff system, there are no restrictions regarding teams from the same division matching up in any round. In the first round, dubbed the wild-card playoffs or wild-card weekend, the third-seeded division winner hosts the sixth seed wild card, the fourth seed hosts the fifth.
The 1 and 2 seeds from each conference receive a bye in the first round. In the second round, the divisional playoffs, the number 1 seed hosts the worst surviving seed from the first round, while the number 2 seed will play the other team; the two surviving teams from each conference's divisional playoff games meet in the respective AFC and NFC Conference Championship games, hosted by the higher seed. Although the Super Bowl, the fourth and final round of the playoffs, is played at a neutral site, the designated home team is based on an annual rotation by conference; the Miami Dolphins were the first team to be eliminated from the playoff race, having reached a 1–9 record by week 11. * Indicates overtime victory The following teams and players set all-time NFL records during the season: The Colts led the NFL with 522 points scored. The Colts tallied more points in the first half of each of their games of the 2004 NFL season than seven other NFL teams managed in the entire season. Despite throwing for 49 touchdown passes, Peyton Manning attempted fewer than 500 passes for the first time in his NFL career.
The San Francisco 49ers record 42
Damon Paul Huard is a former American football quarterback. He is the director of community relations and fundraiser for the University of Washington football program, his alma mater. Huard was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent in 1996, played twelve seasons in the NFL with the Miami Dolphins, New England Patriots, Kansas City Chiefs. While with the Patriots, he won two Super Bowl rings. Born in Yakima, Huard was raised southeast of Tacoma in Puyallup, where his father Mike was a high school teacher and head football coach, he was the first to hold a snap for kicker Ryan Longwell. Huard attended Puyallup High School, where he was a letterman for the Vikings in football and basketball, he played tight end as a sophomore. As a senior in 1990, Huard was named the Powerade State Player of the Year and won All-America honors. After graduation from high school, Huard attended the University of Washington in Seattle, where he redshirted in 1991, the Huskies' national championship season.
Wearing jersey number 7, he started for the first time in 1993 under first-year head coach Jim Lambright, continued as a starter through 1995. That season, he passed for 11 touchdowns; as a junior in 1994, Huard led the Dawgs to an 18-point victory over the Miami Hurricanes at the Orange Bowl, halting their nine-year home winning streak at 58 games. Not selected in the seven-round 1996 NFL Draft, Huard was signed by the Cincinnati Bengals as an undrafted free agent, but was waived on August 19. After spending the 1996 season out of football, Huard signed with the Miami Dolphins on April 24, 1997, he was released during final cuts on August 24, but was re-signed to the team's practice squad two days later. He was promoted to the active roster on September 6 and spent the remainder of the season as the Dolphins' third quarterback. Following the season, Huard played in NFL Europe for the Frankfurt Galaxy. In 1998, Huard saw action in two games for the Dolphins as a reserve, while acting as the team's third quarterback in eight games.
He finished the season six-of-nine for an interception. Huard began the 1999 season as the Dolphins' holder on the field goal unit, but following an injury to starter Dan Marino, in the future Hall of Famer's final season, Huard started his first NFL game on October 24 after replacing Marino on October 17, he won his first three games that he started, tying a Dolphins record set by Earl Morrall in 1972. Huard posted a 4–1 record before Marino returned in November, finishing the regular season with eight touchdowns, four interceptions, 1,288 passing yards. Huard saw time in the playoffs, replacing Marino for the second half of a 62–7 loss to the Jacksonville Jaguars. Several weeks earlier on December 3, he signed a two-year contract extension with the Dolphins. Despite Huard's performance in 1999, Jay Fiedler was signed to be the Dolphins' starter in 2000. Huard started one game in Fiedler's place, a 17–14 win over the Colts on November 26. On that day and his brother Brock became the NFL's first set of brothers to start at QB on the same weekend in league history.
Damon made his only start that year against the Colts, while Brock started against the Denver Broncos for the Seahawks. A free agent after the 2000 season, Huard signed with the New England Patriots. At training camp, he competed with first-year Tom Brady and second-year Michael Bishop for the backup job behind long-time starter Drew Bledsoe; when Bledsoe was injured in Week 2, Brady became the Patriots' starter for the remainder of the season, while Huard was the backup until Bledsoe returned in Week 10. As the third quarterback, Huard won his first Super Bowl ring in February 2002 with a Patriots win over the St. Louis Rams. Huard appeared in his first game as a Patriot in 2002, leading a touchdown drive in a blowout win over the Jets on September 15. In the season, he entered a game in a punt formation and run a successful quarterback sneak for a first down. While a backup for the Patriots in 2003, Huard saw time in two more games while seeing time on the team's scout team during practice.
For the AFC Championship against the Indianapolis Colts, he mimicked the line calls and audibles of Peyton Manning for the Patriots' defense during practice. After 2003, Huard signed with the Kansas City Chiefs as a free agent; as the team's third quarterback, he did not see any action for his first two seasons. In the 2006 opener, starter Trent Green was replaced by Huard, he started the next seven games. Green returned and started the remainder of the season and the team's playoff game against the Indianapolis Colts. After the season, the Chiefs signed Huard to a three-year contract extension, Green was traded to the Miami Dolphins. During the 2006 season, Huard set the NFL record for lowest percentage passes intercepted in a season among qualified players, with only one of his 244 attempts being intercepted. In the Chiefs' 2007 training camp, Huard competed with second-year Brodie Croyle, the team's third-round draft choice in 2006. Huard was named the starter on August 25, started the first nine games of the season, going 4–5.
In his final start, Huard suffered a back injury and was replaced by Croyle, but Croyle himself was injured after his second start, both losses, Huard returned as the starter in Week 13. He suffered a hand injury in the game and Croyle started the Chiefs' next two games. In Week 16, Croyle was injured again and Huard sa
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
2001 NFL season
The 2001 NFL season was the 82nd regular season of the National Football League. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the NFL's week 2 games were postponed and rescheduled to the weekend of January 6 and 7. In order to retain the full playoff format, all playoff games, including Super Bowl XXXVI, were rescheduled one week later; the New England Patriots won the Super Bowl, defeating the St. Louis Rams 20–17 at the Louisiana Superdome. Following a pattern set in 1999, the first week of the season was permanently moved to the weekend following Labor Day. With Super Bowls XXXVI-XXXVII scheduled for fixed dates, the league decided to eliminate the Super Bowl bye weeks for 2001 and 2002 to adjust. In the wake of the September 11 attacks, the games scheduled for September 16 and 17 were postponed and rescheduled to the weekend of January 6 and 7. In order to retain the full playoff format, all playoff games, including the Super Bowl, were rescheduled one week later; the season-ending Pro Bowl was moved to one week later.
This was the last season in which each conference had three divisions, as the conferences would be realigned to four divisions for the 2002 NFL season. Canceling the games scheduled for September 16 and 17 was considered and rejected since it would have canceled a home game for about half the teams, it would have resulted in an unequal number of games played: September 16 and 17 was to have been a bye for the San Diego Chargers, so that team would still have played 16 games that season and each of the other teams would have played only 15 games. As a result of rescheduling Week 2 as Week 17, the Pittsburgh Steelers ended up not playing a home game for the entire month of September; the ESPN Sunday Night Football game for that week was changed. It was scheduled to be Cleveland at Pittsburgh, but it was replaced with Philadelphia at Tampa Bay, seen as a more interesting matchup; the Eagles and Buccaneers would both rest their starters that night, would meet one week in the playoffs. In recognition of this, when NBC began airing Sunday Night Football in 2006, there would be no game scheduled for Weeks 11 to 17 – a game scheduled in the afternoon would be moved to the primetime slot, without stripping any teams of a primetime appearance.
This way of “flexible scheduling” would not be utilized at all in 2007, since 2008, it is only utilized in the final week. The games that made up Week 17 marked the latest regular season games to be played during what is traditionally defined as the "NFL season". Another scheduling change took place in October, when the Dallas Cowboys at Oakland Raiders game was moved from October 21 to 7 to accommodate a possible Oakland Athletics home playoff game on the 21st; the rescheduling ended up being unnecessary as the Athletics would not make it past the Division Series round. This was the only NFL season where every jersey had a patch to remember those who died on 9/11, while the New York Jets and New York Giants wore a patch to remember the firefighters who died; the season ended with Super Bowl XXXVI. Fumble recoveries will be awarded at the spot of the recovery, not where the player’s momentum carries him; this change was passed in response to two regular season games in 2000, Atlanta Falcons–Carolina Panthers and Oakland Raiders–Seattle Seahawks, in which a safety was awarded when a defensive player’s momentum in recovering a fumble carried him into his own end zone.
Taunting rules and roughing the passer will be enforced. Mike Pereira became the league's Director of Officiating, succeeding Jerry Seeman, who had served the role since 1991. Bill Leavy and Terry McAulay were promoted to referee. Phil Luckett returned to back judge, while another officiating crew was added in 2001 in preparation for the Houston Texans expansion team, the league's 32nd franchise, in 2002. Due to labor dispute, the regular NFL officials were locked out prior to the final week of the preseason. Replacement officials who had worked in college football or the Arena Football League officiated NFL games during the last preseason week and the first week of the regular season. A deal was reached before play resumed after the September 11 attacks. New Orleans Saints – Replaced their gold pants with black pants. Pittsburgh Steelers – New stadium: Heinz Field. San Diego Chargers – White pants with road uniforms. Denver Broncos – New stadium: Invesco Field. St. Louis Rams – New font for uniform numbers.
Philadelphia Eagles – New hard turf field, due to a cancelled preseason game scheduled against the Baltimore Ravens in which Ravens’ coach Brian Billick told officials of the NFL that he refused to have his team play on a slippery and bouncy turf field which he deemed unsafe. Buffalo Bills – Gregg Williams.
The Cleveland Browns are a professional American football team based in Cleveland, Ohio. The Browns compete in the National Football League as a member club of the American Football Conference North division; the Browns play their home games at FirstEnergy Stadium, which opened in 1999, with administrative offices and training facilities in Berea, Ohio. The Browns' official colors are brown and white, they are unique among the 32 member franchises of the NFL in that they do not have a logo on their helmets. The franchise was founded in 1945 by businessman Arthur B. McBride and coach Paul Brown as a charter member of the All-America Football Conference; the Browns dominated the AAFC, compiling a 47–4–3 record in the league's four seasons and winning its championship in each. When the AAFC folded after the 1949 season, the Browns joined the National Football League along with the San Francisco 49ers and the original Baltimore Colts; the Browns won a championship in their inaugural NFL season, as well as in the 1954, 1955, 1964 seasons, in a feat unequaled in any of the North American major professional sports, played in their league championship game in each of the Browns' first ten years of existence.
From 1965 to 1995, they made the playoffs 14 times, but did not win another championship or appear in the Super Bowl during that period. In 1995, owner Art Modell, who had purchased the Browns in 1961, announced plans to move the team to Baltimore. After threats of legal action from the city of Cleveland and fans, a compromise was reached in early 1996 that allowed Modell to establish the Baltimore Ravens as a new franchise while retaining the contracts of all Browns personnel; the Browns' intellectual property, including team name, training facility, history, were kept in trust and the franchise was regarded by the NFL as suspended, with a new team to be established by 1999 either by expansion or relocation. The Browns were announced as an expansion team in 1998 and resumed play in 1999. Since resuming operations in 1999, the Browns have struggled to find success, they have had only two winning seasons, one playoff appearance, no playoff wins. The franchise has been noted for a lack of stability with quarterbacks, having started 30 players in the position since 1999.
Through the end of the 2018 season, the Browns' win–loss record since returning to the NFL in 1999 is 95–224–1. In 2017, the Browns became only the second team in league history to finish a season 0–16, joining the 2008 Detroit Lions. Through the 2018 season, the Browns hold the longest active playoff drought in the NFL, at 16 seasons; the history of the Cleveland Browns American football team began in 1944 when taxi-cab magnate Arthur B. "Mickey" McBride secured a Cleveland franchise in the newly formed All-America Football Conference. Paul Brown was the team's namesake and first coach; the Browns began play in 1946 in the AAFC. The Browns won each of the league's four championship games before the league dissolved in 1949; the team moved to the more established National Football League, where it continued to dominate. Between 1950 and 1955, Cleveland reached the NFL championship game every year. McBride and his partners sold the team to a group of Cleveland businessmen in 1953 for a then-unheard-of $600,000.
Eight years the team was sold again, this time to a group led by New York advertising executive Art Modell. Modell fired Brown before the 1963 season, but the team continued to win behind running back Jim Brown; the Browns won the championship in 1964 and reached the title game the following season, losing to the Green Bay Packers. When the AFL and NFL merged before the 1970 season, Cleveland became part of the new American Football Conference. While the Browns made it back to the playoffs in 1971 and 1972, they fell into mediocrity through the mid-1970s. A revival of sorts took place in 1979 and 1980, when quarterback Brian Sipe engineered a series of last-minute wins and the Browns came to be called the "Kardiac Kids". Under Sipe, the Browns did not make it past the first round of the playoffs. Quarterback Bernie Kosar, who the Browns drafted in 1985, led the team to three AFC Championship games in the late 1980s but lost each time to the Denver Broncos. In 1995, Modell announced he was relocating the Browns to Baltimore, sowing a mix of outrage and bitterness among Cleveland's dedicated fan base.
Negotiations and legal battles led to an agreement where Modell was allowed to move the team, but Cleveland kept the Browns' name and history. After three years of suspension while Cleveland Stadium was demolished and FirstEnergy Stadium built on its site, the Browns started play again in 1999 under new owner Al Lerner; the Browns struggled throughout the 2000s and 2010s, posting a record of 95–224–1 since their 1999 return. The Browns have only posted two winning seasons and one playoff appearance since returning to the NFL; the team's struggles have been magnified since 2012, when the Lerner family sold the team to businessman Jimmy Haslam. In six seasons under the Haslam ownership, the Browns went through four head coaches and four general managers, none of whom had found success. In 2016 and 2017 under head coach Hue Jackson, the Browns went 1–31, the worst two-year stretch in NFL history, received the number one overall draft pick in both of those years; the Browns are the only National Football League team without a helmet logo.
The logoless helmet serves as the Browns' official logo. The organization has used several promotional logos throughout the years.