Victor An known as Viktor Ahn, is a retired South Korean-born Russian short-track speed-skater. After competing for South Korea since childhood, in 2011 he became a Russian citizen and raced for the Russian team. One of the most accomplished short track speed skaters of all time, Ahn won three gold medals and a bronze medal in 2006 Winter Olympics, becoming the most successful athlete there, he has won three gold medals and one bronze medal in the 2014 Winter Olympics. An is a six-time Overall World Champion for 2003–2007 and 2014. After winning gold in Sochi, Ahn explained his reasons for joining the Russian team saying, "I wanted to train in the best possible environment and I proved my decision was not wrong." As expected, a gold-winning athlete leaving the national team caused public uproar in South Korea. However, it was aimed not at the country's skating union. Most South Korean fans in a poll said. Ahn received the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" Award 4th class with Russian President Vladimir Putin handing the state awards.
Ahn was banned from participating in the 2018 Olympic Games in his native South Korea following a decision by the IOC amidst alleged Russia's sports doping scandal of 2016–2017. The IOC mentioned "lingering suspicions" about doping use. Ahn began skating in 1993 in his first year of primary school; the first time he watched the sport on television was during the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer where one of his heroes, Chae Ji-hoon, took gold in the 500 m and silver in the 1,000 m for South Korea. Incidentally, these were the Games where Russia achieved a national record of 11 Olympic golds, a feat that he himself would help to repeat twenty years later, his coach, Kim Ki-hoon, was a three-time Olympic gold medalist who scouted Ahn and continues to train him. He trains ten hours every day from techniques and endurance to video analysis. Ahn participated in the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, making the finals of the 1,000 meter short course event but returned home without a medal after a controversial fall involving Apolo Ohno, Li Jiajun, Mathieu Turcotte allowed Australian Steve Bradbury to sweep the gold medal.
Ahn won the world junior short track championship in 2002, finished second to Kim Dong-sung at his first senior-level world championship competition the same year duplicating Kim's feat of winning both the Junior and Senior World Championship titles in 1997. Ahn finished first in the overall World Cup rankings during 2003 -- 2005 -- 2006 seasons. At the 2006 Winter Olympics, Ahn won gold medals in 1000 m events, he set a new Olympic record time of 1:26.739 in the 1000 m, finishing ahead of teammate Lee Ho-suk and rival Ohno. Ahn won gold in men's 5,000 m relay along with teammates Lee Ho-suk, Seo Ho-jin, Song Suk-woo, he became the second South Korean athlete to win three gold medals in one Olympics. Ahn won a bronze medal in the 500 m event. Taking the lead position throughout the entire race, Ahn's strategy is to follow the leaders sprint using an outside passing lane with only two or three laps to go. In the 5,000 m relay at the 2006 Winter Olympics, he made a brilliant pass around defending Olympic champion Canada on the final lap, helping South Korea earn the victory.
Sports commentators refer to his "patented outside pass" due to its consistency and effectiveness. Ahn won four medals at an unprecedented result by any athlete in his sport, he is the first South Korean man to win at least 3 medals in a single Winter Olympics. Despite being disqualified in the finals of the 500 m and 3,000 m events at the 2006 World Championships in Minneapolis, Ahn was able to claim the championship with victories in both the 1,000 m and 1,500 m events and became the overall world champion with 68 points followed by countryman Lee Ho-suk with 60 points. After the 2006 World Championships, Ahn flew back to South Korea. At Incheon International Airport, Ahn's father had a loud quarrel with the vice president of the Korean Skating Union, claiming that the coach did not associate with Ahn and conspired with other skaters to prevent Ahn from winning the title of overall champion; the South Korean short track team was split into two groups, in one of which Ahn was being coached by the women's coach due to conflicts with the men's coach.
The tensions had risen so high that the skaters refused to dine in the same room, sit next to each other on the plane, or share the same floor with each other. Ahn and Lee Ho-suk used to attend the same high school together, shared a room the previous year in skating camps, but since have spoken to each other. Ahn mentioned on his personal website that the pressure was too much for him and he contemplated quitting the sport. Due to the issue, KSU stated that starting next season, the team would be united under one head coach to prevent deleterious rivalries. At the 2007 World Championships held in Milan, Italy from March 9 to March 11, 2007, Ahn won his fifth world championship, finishing first in the 1,000 m and in the 5,000 m relay with teammates, Sung Si-bak, Song Kyung-taek, Kim Hyun-kon, he won silver in the 3,000 m behind his compatriot Song Kyung-taek, won two bronze medals in the 500 m and the 1500 m. He is the first man to win five world championships. Ahn is the only male short track skater.
On January 1
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
1995 World Short Track Speed Skating Championships
The 1995 World Short Track Speed Skating Championships were held from 17 to 19 March 1995 at the Gjøvik Olympic Cavern Hall in Gjøvik, Norway. They were the twentieth World Short Track Speed Skating Championships and the first to be held in Norway, it consisted including one relay each. The overall winner of the men's races was South Korea's Chae Ji-hoon, who won three of the men's four individual events, with the last gold going to Canada's Marc Gagnon. In the women's' events, South Korea's Chun Lee-kyung won ahead of China's Wang Chunlu, with both winning two individual races; the men's relay was won by Canada. The overall medal table was topped by South Korea with twelve medals overall; the event was planned to take place at the Hamar Olympic Amphitheatre in Hamar, the same venue which hosted short track speed skating at the 1994 Winter Olympics. However, because Storhamar was at scheduled time playing play-offs in the Norwegian Ice Hockey Championship, it was in December 1994 decided to move the tournament to Gjøvik.
The events were held in the world's largest room within a mountain. It was opened in 1993 for the 1994 Winter Olympics; the hall is located within walking distance of the city center of Gjøvik, has a capacity for 5,500 spectators. The championship opened on Friday 17 March with the 1500 meter races, was followed by the 500 meter races the following day; the remaining events were held on 19 March. It is the only time. There were set six world records during the championship. Chae Ji-hoon's time 4:56.29 in the men's 3000 meter and Chun Lee-kyung at 5:02.18 in the women's 3000 meter. Kim Yun-mi set the record on the women's 500 meter at 45.33 in an introductory race, while Frederic Blackburn set a world record at 2:19.71 in the semi-final of the 1500 meter. Both the relay teams set world records: Canada with the men's record at 7:09.76 and the China with the women's at 4:26.68. BibliographyGreve, Arild. Norske idrettsanlegg. Sportsboken. P. 19. ISBN 82-90773-06-4
Canada's Sports Hall of Fame
Canada's Sports Hall of Fame is a hall of fame established in 1955 to "preserve the record of Canadian sports achievements and to promote a greater awareness of Canada's heritage of sport." It is located at Canada Olympic Park in Alberta. There are 611 honoured members of the hall; the Hall, first known as the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame, was founded in 1955 through the efforts of Harry I. Price, a former assistant athletics commissioner of Ontario, it was first housed in the Stanley Barracks, located in Toronto on the grounds of Exhibition Place. It moved in 1961 to a wing of a new building shared with the Hockey Hall of Fame; the Hockey Hall of Fame moved out in 1993. Without the Hockey Hall of Fame, attendance declined and the Sports Hall made plans to move to Ottawa; the move to Ottawa never took place, because the venues promised for the Hall by the federal government were allocated for other uses, the move was cancelled. In 2006, the Hall of Fame building was demolished to make way for BMO Field and the collection moved to the Stanley Barracks in preparation for an opening in some new location.
One facade, which incorporated a tile mosaic, was incorporated into the BMO Field structure. Nine cities across the country bid for the right to host the new hall, in 2008, a proposed site at Canada Olympic Park in Calgary was chosen; the new facility opened on Canada Day, July 1, 2011. It has numerous interactive displays. Canada's Sports Hall of Fame is presently located in Alberta. However, prior to 2006, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame was located in Toronto, Ontario, at Exhibition Place, the fair grounds for the Canadian National Exhibition. From 1955 to 2006, the Sports Hall of Fame located moved to several locations in Exhibition Place, they include: New Fort York, 1955-1957 CNE Press Building, 1957-1961 Canada Sports Hall of Fame Building, 1961-2006 New Fort York, 2006 Six people were inducted into the hall as part of its 2011 class: Lui Passaglia, football player Ray Bourque, hockey player Peter Reid, triathlete Lauren Woolstencroft, paralympian Andrea Neil, soccer player Dick Pound, International Olympic Committee memberOn October 17, 2012, the 2012 class of inductees were: Marion Lay, swimmer and 1968 Olympic bronze medalist Pierre Lueders, Olympic bobsleigh champion Charmaine Hooper, soccer player Scott Niedermayer, hockey player and 2002 & 2010 Olympic gold medalist Jamie Salé and David Pelletier, figure skaters and 2002 Olympic gold medalists Derek Porter, rower and 1992 Olympic gold & 1996 Olympic silver medalist Daryl "Doc" Seaman, part owner of the Calgary Flames, among the six businessmen who moved the Flames from Atlanta to Calgary in 1980 Jeremy Wotherspoon, speed skater and 1998 Olympic silver medalistOn October 16, 2013, the 2013 class of inductees were: Joe Sakic, ice hockey Russ Howard, curling Alison Sydor, cycling Kirsten Barnes, Jessica Monroe, Brenda Taylor, Kay Worthington, Jennifer Walinga,1992 Canadian women's Olympic coxless fours Murray Costello, ice hockey player and executive Jean-Guy Ouellet, national sport advisor and international official André Viger, wheelchair marathoner and ParalympianOn October 22, 2014, the 2014 class of inductees were: Horst Bulau, ski jumping Sarah Burke, freestyle skier Pierre Harvey and cross-country skiing Geraldine Heaney, ice hockey Elizabeth Manley, figure skating Gareth Rees, rugby Tim Frick, women's wheelchair basketball coach Kathy Shields, women's basketball coachOn October 21, 2015, the 2015 class of inductees were: Paul Coffey, ice hockey Jennifer Heil, freestyle skiing and 2006 Olympic gold & 2010 Olympic silver medalist Danielle Goyette, ice hockey and 2002 & 2006 Olympic gold & 1998 Olympic silver medalist Craig Forrest, soccer and 2000 CONCACAF Gold Cup winner Susan Auch, speed skater and 1994 & 1998 Olympic silver & 1988 Olympic bronze medalist Nicolas Gill, judo and 2000 Olympic silver & 1992 Olympic bronze medalist Michael Edgson, Paralympic swimmer and 18-time Paralympic gold medalist Sharon Firth and Shirley Firth, cross-country skiers Lori-Ann Muenzer, track cyclist and 2004 Olympic gold medalist Jocelyne Bourassa, golf Marina van der Merwe, field hockeyOn June 17, 2015, the Sport Legends class of inductees were: Canadian Sport Legends Class, athletes Canadian Sport Legend Category, builders Official website
Winter Olympic Games
The Winter Olympic Games is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years for sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympic Games, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in France; the modern Olympic Games were inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Summer Olympic Games in Athens, Greece in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The original five Winter Olympic sports were bobsleigh, ice hockey, Nordic skiing, skating; the Games were held every four years from 1924 to 1936, interrupted in 1940 and 1944 by World War II, resumed in 1948. Until 1992, the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games were held in the same year, in accordance with the 1986 decision by the IOC to place the Summer Olympic Games and the Winter Olympic Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympic Games after 1992 were held in 1994.
The Winter Olympic Games have evolved since their inception. Sports and disciplines have been added and some of them, such as Alpine skiing, short track speed skating, freestyle skiing and snowboarding, have earned a permanent spot on the Olympic programme; some others, including curling and bobsleigh, have been discontinued and reintroduced. Still others, such as speed skiing and skijoring, were demonstration sports but never incorporated as Olympic sports; the rise of television as a global medium for communication enhanced the profile of the Games. It generated income via the sale of broadcast rights and advertising, which has become lucrative for the IOC; this allowed outside interests, such as television companies and corporate sponsors, to exert influence. The IOC has had to address numerous criticisms over the decades like internal scandals, the use of performance-enhancing drugs by Winter Olympians, as well as a political boycott of the Winter Olympic Games. Countries have used the Winter Olympic Games as well as the Summer Olympic Games to proclaim the superiority of their political systems.
The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted on three continents by twelve different countries. They have been held four times in the United States, three times in France and twice each in Austria, Japan, Italy and Switzerland; the Winter Olympic Games have been held just once each in Germany and Herzegovina, Russia and South Korea. The IOC has selected Beijing, China, to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, the host of the 2026 Winter Olympics will be selected on June 23, 2019; as of 2018, no city in the Southern Hemisphere has applied to host the cold-weather-dependent Winter Olympic Games, which are held in February at the height of the Southern Hemisphere's summer. To date, twelve countries have participated in every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Sweden and the United States. Six of these countries have won medals at every Winter Olympic Games – Austria, Finland, Norway and the United States; the only country to have won a gold medal at every Winter Olympic Games is the United States.
Germany leads the all-time medal table of the Winter Olympic Games both on number of gold and overall medals won, followed by Norway and the United States. A predecessor, the Nordic Games, were organised by General Viktor Gustaf Balck in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1901 and were held again in 1903 and 1905 and every fourth year thereafter until 1926. Balck was a charter member of the IOC and a close friend of Olympic Games founder Pierre de Coubertin, he attempted to have winter sports figure skating, added to the Olympic programme but was unsuccessful until the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom. Four figure skating events were contested, at which Ulrich Salchow and Madge Syers won the individual titles. Three years Italian count Eugenio Brunetta d'Usseaux proposed that the IOC stage a week of winter sports included as part of the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden; the organisers opposed this idea because they desired to protect the integrity of the Nordic Games and were concerned about a lack of facilities for winter sports.
The idea was resurrected for the 1916 Games, which were to be held in Germany. A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned, but the 1916 Olympics was cancelled after the outbreak of World War I; the first Olympics after the war, the 1920 Summer Olympics, were held in Antwerp and featured figure skating and an ice hockey tournament. Germany, Hungary and Turkey were banned from competing in the games. At the IOC Congress held the following year it was decided that the host nation of the 1924 Summer Olympics, would host a separate "International Winter Sports Week" under the patronage of the IOC. Chamonix was chosen to host this "week" of events; the games proved to be
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000