IBM PC DOS
IBM PC DOS is a discontinued operating system for the IBM Personal Computer and sold by IBM from the early 1980s into the 2000s. Before version 6.1, PC DOS was an IBM-branded version of MS-DOS. From version 6.1 on, PC DOS became IBM's independent product. The IBM task force assembled to develop the PC decided that critical components of the machine, including the operating system, would come from outside vendors; this radical break from company tradition of in-house development was one of the key decisions that made the IBM PC an industry standard. At that time the private company Microsoft, founded five years earlier by Bill Gates, was selected for the operating system. IBM wanted Microsoft to retain ownership of whatever software it developed, wanted nothing to do with helping Microsoft, other than making suggestions from afar. According to task force member Jack Sams: The reasons were internal. We had a terrible problem being sued by people claiming, it could be horribly expensive for us to have our programmers look at code that belonged to someone else because they would come back and say we stole it and made all this money.
We had lost a series of suits on this, so we didn't want to have a product, someone else's product worked on by IBM people. We went to Microsoft on the proposition. IBM first contacted Microsoft to look the company over in July 1980. Negotiations continued over the months that followed, the paperwork was signed in early November. Although IBM expected that most customers would use PC DOS, the IBM PC supported CP/M-86, which became available six months after PC DOS, UCSD p-System operating systems. IBM's expectation proved correct: one survey found that 96.3% of PCs were ordered with the $40 PC-DOS compared to 3.4% with the $240 CP/M-86. Microsoft first licensed purchased 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, modified for the IBM PC by Microsoft employee Bob O'Rear with assistance from SCP employee Tim Paterson. O'Rear got 86-DOS to run on the prototype PC in February 1981. 86-DOS had to be converted from 8-inch to 5.25-inch floppy disks and integrated with the BIOS, which Microsoft was helping IBM to write.
IBM had more people writing requirements for the computer. O'Rear felt overwhelmed by the number of people he had to deal with at the ESD facility in Boca Raton, Florida; the first public mention of the operating system was in July 1981, when Byte discussed rumors of a forthcoming personal computer with "a CP/M-like DOS... to be called, simply,'IBM Personal Computer DOS.'" 86-DOS was rebranded IBM PC DOS 1.0 for its August 1981 release with the IBM PC. The initial version of DOS was based on CP/M-80 1.x and most of its architecture, function calls and file-naming conventions were copied directly from the older OS. The most significant difference was the fact that it introduced a different file system, FAT12. Unlike all DOS versions, the DATE and TIME commands were separate executables rather than part of COMMAND. COM. Single-sided 160 kilobyte 5.25" floppies were the only disk format supported. In late 1981 Paterson, now at Microsoft, began writing PC DOS 1.10. It debuted in May 1982 along with the Revision B IBM PC.
Support for the new double-sided drives was added. A number of bugs were fixed, error messages and prompts were made less cryptic; the DEBUG utility was now able to load files greater than 64k in size. A group of Microsoft programmers began work on PC DOS 2.0. Rewritten, DOS 2.0 added subdirectories and hard disk support for the new IBM XT, which debuted in March 1983. A new 9-sector format bumped the capacity of floppy disks to 360 kB; the Unix-inspired kernel featured file handles in place of the CP/M-derivative file control blocks and loadable device drivers could now be used for adding hardware beyond that which the IBM PC BIOS supported. BASIC and most of the utilities provided with DOS were upgraded as well. A major undertaking that took 10 months of work, DOS 2.0 was more than twice as big as DOS 1.x, occupying around 28k of RAM compared to the 12k of its predecessor. It would form the basis for all Microsoft consumer-oriented OSes until 2001, when Windows XP was released. In October 1983 DOS 2.1 debuted.
It added support for half-height floppy drives and the new IBM PCjr. In 1983, Compaq released the Compaq Portable, the first 100% IBM PC compatible and licensed their own OEM version of DOS 1.10 from Microsoft. Other PC compatibles followed suit, most of which included hardware-specific DOS features, although some were generic. In August 1984, IBM introduced its next-generation machine. Along with this was DOS 3.00. Despite jumping a whole version number, it again proved little more than an incremental upgrade, adding nothing more substantial than support for the AT's new 1.2 megabyte floppy disks. Planned networking capabilities in DOS 3.00 were judged too buggy to be usable and Microsoft disabled them prior to the OS's release. In any case, IBM's original plans for the AT had been to equip it with a proper next-generation OS that would use its extended features, but this never materialized. PC DOS 3.1 fixed the bugs in DOS 3.00 and supported IBM's Network Adapter card on the IBM PC Network. PC DOS 3.2 added support for 3½-inch double-density 720 kB floppy disk drives, supporting the IBM PC Convertible, IBM's first co
William Henry Gates III is an American business magnate, author and humanitarian. He is best known as the principal founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, while being the largest individual shareholder until May 2014. In 1975, Gates and Paul Allen launched Microsoft, which became the world's largest PC software company. Gates led the company as chief executive officer until stepping down in January 2000, but he remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself. In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the private charitable foundation that he and his wife, Melinda Gates, established in 2000, he transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie. He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014 and assumed a new post as technology adviser to support the newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics; this opinion has been upheld by numerous court rulings. Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people, an index of the wealthiest documented individuals and ranking against those with wealth, not able to be ascertained. From 1995 to 2017, he held the Forbes title of the richest person in the world all but four of those years, held it from March 2014 to July 2017, with an estimated net worth of US$89.9 billion as of October 2017. However, on July 27, 2017, since October 27, 2017, he has been surpassed by Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos, who had an estimated net worth of US$90.6 billion at the time. As of August 6, 2018, Gates had a net worth of $95.4 billion, making him the second-richest person in the world, behind Bezos. In his career and since leaving Microsoft, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, he donated large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, reported to be the world's largest private charity.
In 2009, Gates and Warren Buffett founded The Giving Pledge, whereby they and other billionaires pledge to give at least half of their wealth to philanthropy. The foundation works to save lives and improve global health, is working with Rotary International to eliminate polio. Gates was born in Seattle, Washington, on October 28, 1955, he is the son of Mary Maxwell Gates. His ancestry includes English, German and Scots-Irish, his father was a prominent lawyer, his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates' maternal grandfather was J. W. Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one older sister, a younger sister, Libby, he is the fourth of his name in his family, but is known as William Gates III or "Trey" because his father had the "II" suffix. The family lived in the Sand Point area of Seattle in a home, once damaged by a rare tornado when Gates was seven years old. Early on in his life, Gates observed; when Gates was young, his family attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.
The family encouraged competition. There was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing". At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school and wrote his first software program; when Gates was in the eighth grade, the Mothers' Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School's rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric computer for the school's students. Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, was excused from math classes to pursue his interest, he wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine; when he reflected back on that moment, he said, "There was just something neat about the machine." After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation, which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC's software in exchange for extra computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC's offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran and machine language; the arrangement with CCC continued until 1970. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in COBOL, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school's student information system software to schedule students in classes, he modified the code so that he was placed in classes with "a disproportionate number of interesting girls." He stated that "it
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Steven Anthony Ballmer is an American businessman and investor, the chief executive officer of Microsoft from January 13, 2000 to February 4, 2014, is the current owner of the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association. As of October 2018, his personal wealth is estimated at US$42.4 billion, ranking him the 18th richest person in the world. Ballmer was hired by Bill Gates at Microsoft in 1980 after dropping out of Stanford University, he became President in 1998, replaced Gates as CEO in 2000. On February 4, 2014, Ballmer was succeeded by Satya Nadella. On May 29, 2014, Ballmer placed a bid of $2 billion to purchase the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers after NBA commissioner Adam Silver forced Donald Sterling to sell the team, he became the Clippers owner on August 12, 2014. His time as Microsoft CEO was mixed, with the company tripling sales and doubling of profits, but losing its market dominance and missing out on 21st-century technology trends. Ballmer was born in Detroit, his father was a Swiss immigrant, his mother was Belarusian Jewish.
Through his mother, Ballmer is a second cousin of comedian Gilda Radner. Ballmer grew up in the affluent community of Michigan. Ballmer lived in Brussels from 1964 to 1967, where he attended the International School of Brussels. In 1973, he attended college engineering classes at Lawrence Technological University, he graduated valedictorian from Detroit Country Day School, a private college preparatory school in Beverly Hills, with a score of 800 on the mathematical section of the SAT and was a National Merit Scholar. He now sits on the school's board of directors. In 1977, he graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University with a B. A. in applied mathematics and economics. At college, Ballmer was a manager for the Harvard Crimson football team and a member of the Fox Club, worked on The Harvard Crimson newspaper as well as the Harvard Advocate, lived down the hall from fellow sophomore Bill Gates, he scored in the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, an exam sponsored by the Mathematical Association of America, scoring higher than Bill Gates.
He worked as an assistant product manager at Procter & Gamble for two years, where he shared an office with Jeffrey R. Immelt, who became CEO of General Electric. In 1980, he dropped out of the Stanford Graduate School of Business to join Microsoft. Steve Ballmer joined Microsoft on June 11, 1980, became Microsoft's 30th employee, the first business manager hired by Gates. Ballmer was offered a salary of $50,000 as well as a percentage of ownership of the company; when Microsoft was incorporated in 1981, Ballmer owned 8% of the company. In 2003, Ballmer sold 39.3 million Microsoft shares equating to $955 million, thereby reducing his ownership to 4%. The same year, he replaced. In the 20 years following his hire, Ballmer headed several Microsoft divisions, including operations, operating systems development, sales and support. From February 1992 onwards, he was Executive Vice President and Support. Ballmer led Microsoft's development of the. NET Framework. Ballmer was promoted to President of Microsoft, a title that he held from July 1998 to February 2001, making him the de facto number two in the company to the chairman and CEO, Bill Gates.
On January 13, 2000, Ballmer was named the chief executive officer. As CEO, Ballmer handled company finances and daily operations, but Gates remained chairman of the board and still retained control of the "technological vision" as chief software architect. Gates relinquished day-to-day activities when he stepped down as chief software architect in 2006, while staying on as chairman, that gave Ballmer the autonomy needed to make major management changes at Microsoft; when Ballmer took over as CEO, the company was fighting an antitrust lawsuit brought on by the U. S. government and 20 states, plus class-action lawsuits and complaints from rival companies. While it was said that Gates would have continued fighting the suit, Ballmer made it his priority to settle these saying: "Being the object of a lawsuit or a complaint from your government is a awkward, uncomfortable position to be in, it just has all downside. People assume if the government brought a complaint that there's a problem, your ability to say we're a good, moral place is tough.
It's tough though you feel that way about yourselves."Upon becoming CEO, Ballmer required detailed business justification in order to approve of new products, rather than allowing hundreds of products that sounded interesting or trendy. In 2005, he recruited B. Kevin Turner from Wal-Mart, the President and CEO of Sam's Club, to become Microsoft's Chief Operating Officer. Turner was hired at Microsoft to lead the company's sales and services group and to instill more process and discipline in the company's operations and salesforce. Since Bill Gates' retirement, Ballmer oversaw a "dramatic shift away from the company's PC-first heritage", replacing most major division heads in order to break down the "talent-hoarding fiefdoms", Businessweek said that the company "arguably now has the best product lineup in its history". Ballmer was instrumental in driving Microsoft's connected computing strategy, with acquisitions such as Skype. Under Ballmer's tenure as
History of Microsoft
Microsoft is a multinational computer technology corporation. Microsoft was founded on April 1975, by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico, its current best-selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system, Microsoft Office suite of productivity software, Xbox, a line of entertainment of games and video, Bing, a line of search engines. In 1980, Microsoft formed a partnership with IBM to bundle Microsoft's operating system with IBM computers. In 1985, IBM requested Microsoft to develop a new operating system for their computers called OS/2. Microsoft produced that operating system, but continued to sell their own alternative, which proved to be in direct competition with OS/2. Microsoft Windows overshadowed OS/2 in terms of sales; when Microsoft launched several versions of Microsoft Windows in the 1990s, they had captured over 90% market share of the world's personal computers. As of June 30, 2015, Microsoft has a global annual revenue of $86.83 Billion USD and 128,076 employees worldwide.
It develops, manufactures and supports a wide range of software products for computing devices. The idea that would spawn Microsoft was initiated when Paul Allen showed Bill Gates the first of January, 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800. Allen and Gates saw potential to develop an implementation of the programming language BASIC interpreter for the system. Bill Gates called the creators of the new microcomputer, Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems, offering to demonstrate the implementation in order to win a contract with the company. Allen and Gates had neither an interpreter nor an Altair system, yet in the eight weeks before the demo, they developed an interpreter; when Allen flew to Albuquerque to meet with MITS, the interpreter worked and MITS agreed to distribute Altair BASIC. Allen and Gates left Boston, where Allen worked for Honeywell and Gates was enrolled in Harvard, moved to Albuquerque, co-founded Microsoft there. Revenues of the company totalled $16,005 by the end of 1976.
Allen came up with the original name of a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. Hyphenated in its early incarnations, on November 26, 1976 the company was registered under that name with the Secretary of State of New Mexico; the company's first international office was founded on November 1, 1978, in Japan, entitled "ASCII Microsoft", on November 29, 1979, the term, "Microsoft" was first used by Bill Gates. On January 1, 1979, the company moved from Albuquerque to a new home in Bellevue, since it was hard to recruit top programmers to Albuquerque. Shortly before the move, eleven of the then-thirteen employees posed for the staff photo on the right. Steve Ballmer joined the company on June 11, 1980, would succeed Bill Gates as CEO from January 2000 until February 2014; the company restructured on June 25, 1981, to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington. As part of the restructuring, Bill Gates became president of the company and chairman of the board, Paul Allen became Executive Vice President.
Microsoft's early products were different variants of Microsoft BASIC, the dominant programming language in late 1970s and early 1980s home computers such as Apple II and Commodore 64, were provided with early versions of the IBM PC as the IBM Cassette BASIC. Microsoft marketed through an Apple dealer in West Palm Beach, Florida two products for the Radio-Shack TRS-80. One was "Typing Tutor"; the other was authored by a professor at the University of Hawaii called "MuMATH" and had the ability to do mathematics in long integer math to avoid floating point numbers. The first hardware product was the Z-80 SoftCard which enabled the Apple II to run the CP/M operating system, at the time an industry-standard operating system for running business software and many compilers and interpreters for several high-level languages on microcomputers; the SoftCard was first demonstrated publicly at the West Coast Computer Faire in March 1980. It was an immediate success; the first operating system publicly released by the company was a variant of Unix announced on August 25, 1980.
Acquired from AT&T through a distribution license, Microsoft dubbed it Xenix, hired Santa Cruz Operation in order to port/adapt the operating system to several platforms. This Unix variant would become home to the first version of Microsoft's word processor, Microsoft Word. Titled "Multi-Tool Word", Microsoft Word became notable for its use of "What You See Is What You Get", or WYSIWYG pioneered by the Xerox Alto and the Bravo text editor in the 1970s. Word was first released in the spring of 1983, free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it one of the first program to be distributed on-disk with a magazine. However, Xenix was never sold to end users directly although it was licensed to many software OEMs for resale, it grew to become the most popular version of Unix, measured by the number of machines running it. By the mid-1980s Microsoft had gott
MS-DOS is an operating system for x86-based personal computers developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS". MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface, in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies, used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility and capabilities. During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and evolving computer architectures, it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI, it is a flexible operating system, consumes negligible installation space. MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson. Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was a clone of Digital Research's CP/M, ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M.
This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft, which needed an operating system for the IBM Personal Computer hired Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in July of the same year. Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed it MS-DOS, they licensed MS-DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August 1981, offered it as PC DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for the IBM 5150, or the IBM PC. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, it was designed to be an OS. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible machine and an MS-DOS machine; some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT. However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance for games, which pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, before long all 8086-family computers emulated IBM's hardware, only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS, discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, in any case were similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes —with a few notable exceptions. Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, was multi-user; the company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, the LSI-11. Microsoft advertised MS-DOS and Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking, UNIX-derived operating system", promising easy
Microsoft Press is the publishing arm of Microsoft releasing books dealing with various current Microsoft technologies. Microsoft Press' first introduced books were The Apple Macintosh Book by Cary Lu and Exploring the IBM PC by Peter Norton in 1984 at the West Coast Computer Faire; the publisher has gone on to release books by other recognizable authors such as Charles Petzold, Steve McConnell, Mark Russinovich and Jeffrey Richter. Following a deal signed in 2009, O'Reilly Media became the official distributor of Microsoft Press books. In 2014, the distributor was changed to Pearson. In July 2016, Microsoft Press editorial staff was laid off. Official website