Sant'Eusebio is a titular church in Rome, devoted to Saint Eusebius of Rome, a 4th-century martyr, built in the Esquilino rione. The church is first mentioned in 474, by an inscription in the catacombs of Saints Marcellino e Pietro ad duas Lauros, recorded as the Titulus Eusebii in the acts of the 499 synod, it was consecrated "in honorem beatorum Eusebii et Vincentii" by Pope Gregory IX, after the restoration of 1238. The Romanesque style, dating back to this restoration, survived to the restorations of the 17th, 18th, 20th centuries; the Titulus Sancti Eusebii is held by Cardinal Daniel DiNardo, Archbishop of Galveston-Houston in Texas, US. The interior is separated into a nave with two flanking aisles; the present design dates to 1600 work by Onorio Longhi, who restored the presbytery, main altar, choir. The ceiling fresco is a neoclassical masterpiece of Anton Raphael Mengs depicting the Glory of Sant'Eusebio. Other paintings in the church are attributed to Giuseppe Passeri, Andreas Ruthart, Baldassarre Croce, Cesare Rossetti, Pompeo Batoni and Francesco Solimena.
The main altar has custody of the relics of St Eusebius of Rome, supposed to have commissioned and financed construction of the church in the 4th century. The church is built on the site of his house. Translated from Italian Wikipedia "Sant'Eusebio". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney
The Roman Curia comprises the administrative institutions of the Holy See and the central body through which the affairs of the Catholic Church are conducted. It acts in the Pope’s name and with his authority for the good and for the service of the particular Churches and provides the central organization for the Church to advance its objectives; the structure and organization of responsibilities within the Curia are at present regulated by the apostolic constitution Pastor bonus, issued by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988, which Pope Francis has decided to revise. Other bodies that play an administrative or consulting role in Church affairs are sometimes mistakenly identified with the Curia, such as the Synod of Bishops and regional conferences of bishops. Cardinal Gerhard Müller, former prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, wrote in 2015 that "the Synod of Bishops is not a part of the Roman Curia in the strict sense: it is the expression of the collegiality of bishops in communion with the Pope and under his direction.
The Roman Curia instead aids the Pope in the exercise of his primacy over all the Churches." Curia in medieval and Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia is sometimes anglicized as the Court of Rome, as in the 1534 Act of Parliament that forbade appeals to it from England, it assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, but only the Second Section of the Secretariat of State, known as the Section for Relations with States, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State and the Congregation for Catholic Education, can be directly compared with specific ministries of a civil government, it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have its own curia for its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the apostolic constitution Ecclesia in Urbe.
The Vicar General of Rome, traditionally a cardinal, his deputy the vicegerent, who holds the personal title of archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia, as such, than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. A distinct office, the Vicar General for Vatican City, administers the portion of the Diocese of Rome in Vatican City; until there still existed hereditary officers of the Roman Curia, holding titles denominating functions that had ceased to be a reality when the Papal States were lost to the papacy. A reorganization, ordered by Pope Pius X, was incorporated into the 1917 Code of Canon Law. Further steps toward reorganization were begun by Pope Paul VI in the 1960s. Among the goals of this curial reform were the modernization of procedures and the internationalization of the curial staff; these reforms are reflected in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. The offices of the Vatican City State are not part of the Roman Curia, composed only of offices of the Holy See.
The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See, comprise the Curia. All members of the Curia except the Cardinal Camerlengo and the Major Penitentiary resign their office after a papal death or resignation. See sede vacante. Sr. Luzia Premoli, superior general of the Combonian Missionary Sisters, was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in 2014, becoming the first woman to be appointed a member of a Vatican congregation; the principal departments of the Roman Curia are called dicasteries. The most recent comprehensive constitution of the church, Pastor bonus, provides this definition: "By the word "dicasteries" are understood the Secretariat of State, Tribunals and Offices"; those remain the five principal categories of departments, with the noteworthy change in that there is now more than a single Secretariat. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August 2016 and 1 January 2017 have been identified only as dicasteries–Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
Both are headed by a prefect. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church, it is headed by the Secretary of State, since 15 October 2013 by Cardinal Pietro Parolin, responsible for all the political and diplomatic functions of the Holy See. The Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively; the Secretariat of State was created in the 15th century and is now the department of the curia most involved in coordinating the Holy See's activities. Matters not within the competence of another dicastery are dealt with by the Secretariat of State; the Secretariat for the Economy was established by Pope Francis in 2014, with the Australian Cardinal George Pell the Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Sydney, as its Cardinal Prefect. Pell's appointment was terminated on 12 December 2018. Two departments of the Roman Curia established by Pope Francis in 2016 have been identified as "dicasteries" rather than as one of the traditional department types.
A third dicastery was named on 23 June 2018. Pope Francis announced on 15 August 2016 the creation of the Dicastery for the Laity and Life, effective 1 September 2016, it took over the responsibilities of the Pontifical Council for the Laity and the Pontifical Council for the Family. As its first Prefect, Francis named Bishop Kevin Farrell
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta and known as the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military and noble nature. It is the continuation of the medieval Order of Saint John known as the Knights Hospitaller, under international law; as a chivalric order, it was founded c. 1099 by the Blessed Gerard in medieval Jerusalem. As a subject of international law, it is an establishment of the 19th century, recognized at the Congress of Verona of 1822, since 1834 headquartered in Palazzo Malta in Rome; the order is led by Grand Master. Its motto is obsequium pauperum; the order venerates the Virgin Mary as its patroness, under the title of Our Lady of Mount Philermos. The headquarters of the Order of Saint John had been located in Malta from 1530 until 1798, it was technically a vassal of the Kingdom of Sicily, holding Malta in exchange for a nominal fee, but declared independence in 1753.
It was expelled from Malta under the French occupation in 1798 and, from 1805 to 1812, much of its possessions in Protestant Europe were confiscated, resulting in the fragmentation of the order into a number of Protestant branches, since 1961 united under the umbrella of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 confirmed the loss of Malta, but the Congress of Verona in 1822 guaranteed the continued existence of the Catholic order as a sovereign entity; the seat of the order was moved to Ferrara in 1826 and to Rome in 1834, the interior of Palazzo Malta being considered extraterritorial sovereign territory of the order. The grand priories of Lombardy-Venetia and of Sicily were restored from 1839 to 1841; the office of Grand Master was restored by Pope Leo XIII in 1879, after a vacancy of 75 years, confirming Giovanni Battista Ceschi a Santa Croce as the first Grand Master of the restored Order of Malta. The Holy See was established as a subject of international law in the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
In the following decades, the connection between the Holy See and the Order of Malta was seen as so close as to call into question the actual sovereignty of the order as a separate entity. This has prompted constitutional changes on the part of the Order, which were implemented in 1997. Since the Order has been recognized as a sovereign subject of international law in its own right, it maintains diplomatic relations with 107 states, has permanent observer status at the United Nations, enters into treaties and issues its own passports and postage stamps. Its two headquarters buildings in Rome enjoy extraterritoriality, similar to embassies, it maintains embassies in other countries; the three principal officers are counted as citizens. The Order has 13,500 Knights and auxiliary members. A few dozen of these are professed religious; until the 1990s, the highest classes of membership, including officers, required proof of noble lineage. More a path was created for Knights and Dames of the lowest class to be specially elevated to the highest class, making them eligible for office in the order.
The order employs about 42,000 doctors, nurses and paramedics assisted by 80,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries, assisting children, handicapped and terminally ill people and lepers around the world without distinction of ethnicity or religion. Through its worldwide relief corps, Malteser International, the order aids victims of natural disasters and war. In several countries, including France and Ireland, local associations of the order are important providers of medical emergency services and training, its annual budget is on the order of 1.5 billion euros funded by European governments, the United Nations and the European Union and public donors. The order has a large number of local priories and associations around the world, but there exist a number of organizations with similar-sounding names that are unrelated, including numerous fraudulent orders seeking to capitalize on the name. In the ecclesiastical heraldry of the Catholic Church, the Order of Malta is one of only two orders whose insignia may be displayed in a clerical coat of arms.
The shield is surrounded with a silver rosary for professed knights, or for others the ribbon of their rank. Members may display the Maltese cross behind their shield instead of the ribbon. In order to protect its heritage against frauds, the order has registered 16 versions of its names and emblems in some 100 countries; the birth of the order dates back to around 1048. Merchants from the ancient Marine Republic of Amalfi obtained from the Caliph of Egypt the authorisation to build a church and hospital in Jerusalem, to care for pilgrims of any religious faith or race; the Order of St. John of Jerusalem–the monastic community that ran the hospital for the pilgrims in the Holy Land–became independent under the guidance of its founder, the religious brother Gerard. With the Papal bull Pie postulatio voluntatis dated 15 February 1113, Pope Paschal II approved the foundation of the Hospital and placed it under the aegis of the Holy See, granting it the right to elect its superiors without interference from other secular or religious authorities.
By virtue of the Papal Bull
In the Roman Catholic Church a consistory is a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope. There are two kinds of consistories and ordinary. An "extraordinary" consistory is held to allow the pope to consult with the entire membership of the College of Cardinals. An "ordinary" consistory attended by cardinals resident in Rome. For example, the pope elevates new cardinals to the College at a consistory. A meeting of the College of Cardinals to elect a new pope is not a conclave; the term consistory comes from the Latin: con-sistere. Early popes conferred with their Roman presbytery which included the deacons appointed to oversee different parts of Rome; this tradition continued as deacons were replaced with cardinals and those cardinals continued to meet at the request of successive popes. Consistories became an opportunity for the pope to decide matters of state and dispense justice directly, with the support and advice of Roman bishops and those bishops from other regions who happened to be in Rome.
Pope Leo IV ordered. Pope John VIII relaxed that edict and an order of twice-monthly consistories. With the Gregorian Reform, the Church limited outside influences on the papacy and the selection of popes and the power of cardinals increased. Tradition developed that the pope would use consistories to reveal a list of those that were to be elevated to the rank of cardinal. Responsibility for matters of justice was transferred to the Roman Rota and the functions of the Church were transferred to the Roman Curia reducing the need for regular consistories. Subsequently, consistories became ceremonial in function. At a consistory for the creation of cardinals, the pope creates new cardinals in the presence of a number, if not all, of the cardinals. Though the names of the new cardinals have been announced in advance, they only become cardinals at the consistory when the pope formally publishes the decree of elevation if the new cardinal is not present. New cardinals present are presented with their rings and birette by the pope.
The zucchetto and the biretta are the distinctive color of cardinals' vesture. At the consistory new cardinals, with certain exceptions, are assigned titular churches in the Diocese of Rome. Pope Benedict XVI in 2007 and 2010 held a day-long meeting with the entire College, the cardinals designate, various advisers on the day preceding the Consistory of Creation. Francis followed this custom for his first two consistories, his 2014 consistory for creating new cardinals was preceded by an extraordinary consistory where Cardinal Walter Kasper gave an address designed to launch the discussions of the Synod on the Family held in the year. In 2015 a similar extraordinary consistory on the eve of a consistory to create cardinals discussed the reform of the Roman Curia just a few days before Francis formed the Council of Cardinals to advise him on that reform. Pope Benedict and Pope Francis have each held five consistories. List of the creations of the cardinals In pectore, a way of creating a cardinal without public announcement Additional sourcesGuido Marini, "Modifications to the Rite Approved by Benedict XVI: A Consistory between Tradition and Innovation", Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff, Retrieved 31 August 2017 "Consistory".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Roman Catholic Consistories for the creation of Cardinals form 1903 to 2005". Wedept.fiu.edu. Archived from the original on Feb 22, 2018
Roman Catholic Diocese of Tempio-Ampurias
The Diocese of Tempio-Ampurias is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Sardinia, Italy. Until 1986 it was known as Diocese of Ampurias e Tempio, it is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Sassari It had borne that name since 1506, when it was combined with the diocese of Tempio being the diocese of Ampurias. Ampurias was erected in 1113. Cività was united to Ampurias by Pope Julius II in 1506; the see was transferred to Terranuova. Pope Gregory XVI suppressed the cathedral there by the Bull Quamvis aqua, 26 August 1839, raised the Collegiate Church of St. Peter, in Tempio, to a cathedral, uniting Tempio and Ampurias, so that one bishop should govern both; the see was vacant from 1854 to 1871. Antonio Maria Contini was appointed bishop of Ogliastra, 26 September 1882, transferred to this diocese, 16 January 1893. Antonio de Alcala Francesco Manno Luis González, O. F. M. Giorgio Artea Ludovico de Cotes, O. S. A. Francisco Tomás Pedro Narro Gaspar Vicente Novella Miguel Rubio, O. Cist. Giovanni Sanna Felipe Marimón Giacomo Passamar Giovanni de La Bronda Andrea Manca Gavino Manca Figo Gaspare Litago Lorenzo Sampero Pedro de Alagón y de Cardona José Sanchís y Ferrandis, O. de M. Juan Bautista Sorribas, O. Carm.
Giuseppe Acorrà Francesco Sampero Michele Villa Diego Serafino Posulo, O. P. Angelo Galzerin, O. F. M. Conv. Giovanni Leonardo Sanna Vincenzo Giovanni Vico Torrellas Salvator Angelo Cadello Pietro Paolo Carta Francesco Ignazio Guiso Giovanni Antonio Arras Minutili Michele Pes Giuseppe Stanislao Paradiso Stanislao Mossa Diego Capece Filippo Campus Chessa Paolo Pinna Antonio Maria Contini Giovanni Maria Sanna, O. F. M. Conv. Albino Morera Carlo Re, I. M. C. Mario Ghiga Giovanni Melis Fois Carlo Urru Pietro Meloni Paolo Mario Virgilio Atzei, O. F. M. Conv. Sebastiano Sanguinetti Battandier, Ann. Pont. cath. Gams, Series episc. Ecclesiœ cathol. Martini, Storia eccles. Della Sardinia, IV, 349 Source This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank. Commander is used as a rank or title in other formal organisations, including several police forces. Commander is a generic term for an officer commanding any armed forces unit, for example "platoon commander", "brigade commander" and "squadron commander". In the police, terms such as "borough commander" and "incident commander" are used. Commander is a rank used in navies but is rarely used as a rank in armies; the title "master and commander," originated in the 18th century to describe naval officers who commanded ships of war too large to be commanded by a lieutenant but too small to warrant the assignment of a post-captain and a sailing-master. In practice, these were unrated sloops-of-war of no more than 20 guns; the Royal Navy shortened "master and commander" to "commander" in 1794. The equivalent American rank master commandant remained in use until changed to commander in 1838. A corresponding rank in some navies is frigate captain.
In the 20th and 21st centuries, the rank has been assigned the NATO rank code of OF-4. Various functions of commanding officers were styled commandeur. In the navy of the Dutch Republic, anyone who commanded a ship or a fleet without having an appropriate rank to do so, could be called a Commandeur; this included acting captains. In the fleet of the Admiralty of Zealand however, commandeur was a formal rank, the equivalent of Schout-bij-nacht in the other Dutch admiralties; the Dutch use of the title as a rank lives on in the Royal Netherlands Navy, as the equivalent of commodore. In the Royal Netherlands Air Force, this rank is known by the English spelling of commodore, the Dutch equivalent of the British air commodore; the rank of commander in the Royal Australian Navy is identical in description to that of a commander in the British Royal Navy. RAN chaplains who are in sivisions 1, 2 or 3 have the equivalent rank standing of commanders; this means that to officers and NCOs below the rank of commander, lieutenant colonel, or wing commander, the chaplain is a superior.
To those officers ranked higher than commander, the chaplain is subordinate. Although this equivalency exists, RAN chaplains who are in divisions 1, 2 or 3 do not wear the rank of commander, they hold no command privilege. In Denmark, the rank of commander exists as kommandørkaptajn, senior to kaptajn and kommandør ("commander", senior to kommandørkaptajn. In France, the rank of commander exists as capitaine de frégate, it is senior to capitaine de corvette, junior to capitaine de vaisseau. The rank of commander was used in the Imperial Japanese Navy, continues to be used in the modern Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force. Though the modern rank is translated as "commander" in English, its literal translation is "captain second rank"; the rank is equivalent to that of a commander in the U. S. Navy. Commander is a rank in the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, is denoted by the post-nominal letters CLJ; the corresponding rank in the Polish Navy is komandor porucznik. In the Russian Navy the equivalent rank to commander is "captain of the second rank".
The rank was introduced in Russia by Peter the Great in 1722. From the introduction of the Russian Table of Ranks to its abolition in 1917, "captain of the second rank" was equal to a court councillor, at the sixth level out of 14 ranks; until 1856 it was conferred hereditary nobility on the holder. The equivalent rank in the Soviet Navy from 1918 to 1935 was "first mate"; the rank returned to the Imperial Russian Navy form of "captain 2nd rank" in 1935. Commander is a naval rank in Scandinavia equivalent to the Anglo-American naval rank of captain; the Scandinavian the rank of commander is above "commander-captain", equivalent to the Anglo-American naval rank of commander. In the Spanish Navy the equivalent rank to commander is capitán de fragata. A commander in the Royal Navy is above the rank of lieutenant commander, below the rank of captain, is equivalent in rank to a lieutenant colonel in the army. A commander may command a frigate, submarine, aviation squadron or shore installation, or may serve on a staff.
Since the British Royal Air Force's mid-rank officers' ranks are modelled on those of the Royal Navy, the term wing commander is used as a rank, this is the equivalent of a lieutenant colonel in the army or a commander in the navy. The rank of wing commander is below that of group captain. In the former Royal Naval Air Service, merged with the Royal Flying Corps to form the Royal Air Force in 1918, the pilots held appointments as well as their normal ranks in the Royal Navy, they wore insignia appropriate to the appointment instead of the rank. A flight commander wore a star above a lieutenant's two rank stripes, squadron commander wore two stars above two rank stripes or two-and-a-half rank stripes, wing commander wore three rank stripes; the rank stripes had the usual Royal Navy curl, they were surmounted by an eagle. Commander is a two-star field grade officer of Vietnam People's Navy For instance, as
Roman Catholic Diocese of Ventimiglia-San Remo
The Diocese of Ventimiglia-San Remo is a Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Liguria, northern Italy. The name of the historic Diocese of Ventimiglia was changed in 1975, it was a suffragan diocese of the Metropolitanate of Milan up to 1806, when it was transferred to the Metropolitanate of Aix. It is probable. Bishop Gianfrancesco Gandolfo negotiated the peace between Savoy and Genoa, proclaimed on 10 August 1634. In 1798, at the beginning of the occupation of Ventimiglia by the French, the French Directory ordered the confiscation of all the gold and silver in the churches and convents of the diocese; the Cathedral lost its large silver chandeliers, other precious objects including the silver bust and reliquary of S. Secondo; the Biblioteca Aprosiana lost its manuscripts and incunabula. The diocese of Ventimiglia had been reduced to only thirty-six parishes: two in Monaco, nineteen in the domains of the House of Savoy, fourteen in the Republic of Geneva. In 1802, Cardinal Giovanni Battista Caprara, the Papal Legate to First Consul N. Bonaparte, wrote to the Chapter of Ventimiglia, in the absence of a bishop, demanding the surrender to the French of those parishes in territory under French control.
These included the two parishes in Monaco and the nineteen which had belonged to the Kingdom of Sardinia. The Chapter complied, the diocese was reduced to only fourteen parishes. On 5 April 1806, at the demand of Bonaparte, now Emperor Napoleon I, Pope Pius VII issued the Bull Expositum cum nobis, by which the diocese of Ventimiglia was removed from the metropolitanate of Milan, made a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Aix. On 30 May 1818, Pope Pius VII, in the Bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, returned Ventimiglia to Italian control, in the form of the House of Savoy, restored to the expanded Kingdom of Sardinia, assigned the diocese to the metropolitanate of Genoa. On 10 July 1886, the small parish of Garavano, which had fallen into French territory, was transferred by agreement between the Bishop of Ventimiglia and the Bishop of Nice from the diocese of Ventimiglia to the diocese of Nice. On 3 July 1975, the Sacred Congregation of Bishops in the Roman Curia issued a decree, requested by Bishop Angelo Raimondo Verardo, authorized by Pope Paul VI, granting a change in the name of the diocese to Ventimiglia-San Remo.
A diocesan synod was an important meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy. Its purpose was to proclaim the various decrees issued by the bishop. A diocesan synod was held by Bishop Domenico Vaccari, in which the subject of witches and the procurement of abortions figured prominently. Bishop Stefano Spinola presided over his first diocesan synod in 1608. A synod, his second, was held by Bishop Mauro Promontorio on 5–6 July 1683. In 1784 Bishop Domenico Maria Clavarini, O. P. presided over a diocesan synod. A diocesan synod was held by Bishop Lorenzo Biale on 29, 30 and 31 May 1844. Bishop Tommaso Reggio held another synod on 19, 20, 21 September 1881. Reggio held his second synod at the diocesan seminary on 3 September 1886; the Chapter of the Cathedral of S. Maria Assumpta consisted of eight Canons. On 8 June 1182 Pope Lucius III confirmed the Chapter in its possessions and privileges, granted them the right to elect their own Provost, they were granted the right of presentation of suitable persons to the churches and chapels in the diocese in their possession.
These two grants removed powers from the exercise of the bishop of the diocese and placed them in the hands of the Chapter. The Chapter had a set of Statutes, which were last codified in 1539 and remained in force down into the end of the 18th century. According to these statutes, a Canon might take leave of his Chapter duties for as long as three months per year, without having to have an explanation, so long as the time was not consecutive and a substitute priest or chorister was provided by the Canon so that his duties were carried out. In 1624, due to a diminution in the number of Canons, the regulations were tightened so that no more than three Canons could be absent at any one time. By 1787 the situation had improved, several Canons instituted proceedings against the Bishop and other Canons to return to the old rule; the Sacred Congregation of Rites in the Roman Curia granted their petitition. In 1752 a dispute arose between the Chapter of Ventimiglia; the custom had been that the Tenth, owed to the bishop and the Tenth owed to the Chapter in the town of Ventimiglia and in eight villages and rural districts, were collected at the same time by the same officials.
The collection officials were appointed in alternate years by the bishop and the Chapter, the collections were placed in one warehouse. This custom was followed up to 1716; when some of the villagers, refused to pay, the bishop sent his procurators to collect his due portion.