Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Alexandre Dumas known as Alexandre Dumas père, was a French writer. His works have been translated into many languages, he is one of the most read French authors. Many of his historical novels of high adventure were published as serials, including The Count of Monte Cristo, The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After, The Vicomte of Bragelonne: Ten Years Later, his novels have been adapted since the early twentieth century for nearly 200 films. Dumas' last novel, The Knight of Sainte-Hermine, unfinished at his death, was completed by scholar Claude Schopp and published in 2005, it was published in English in 2008 as The Last Cavalier. Prolific in several genres, Dumas began his career by writing plays, which were produced from the first, he wrote numerous magazine articles and travel books. In the 1840s, Dumas founded the Théâtre Historique in Paris, his father, General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie, was born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue to Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman, Marie-Cessette Dumas, a black slave.
At age 14 Thomas-Alexandre was taken by his father to France, where he was educated in a military academy and entered the military for what became an illustrious career. Dumas' father's aristocratic rank helped young Alexandre acquire work with Louis-Philippe, Duke of Orléans as a writer, finding early success. Decades after the election of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte in 1851, Dumas fell from favour and left France for Belgium, where he stayed for several years moved to Russia for a few years before going to Italy. In 1861, he founded and published the newspaper L'Indipendente, which supported Italian unification, before returning to Paris in 1864. Though married, in the tradition of Frenchmen of higher social class, Dumas had numerous affairs. In his lifetime, he was known to have at least four illegitimate children, he acknowledged and assisted his son, Alexandre Dumas, to become a successful novelist and playwright. They are known as Alexandre Dumas Alexandre Dumas fils. Among his affairs, in 1866, Dumas had one with Adah Isaacs Menken, an American actress less than half his age and at the height of her career.
The English playwright Watts Phillips, who knew Dumas in his life, described him as "the most generous, large-hearted being in the world. He was the most delightfully amusing and egotistical creature on the face of the earth, his tongue was like a windmill – once set in motion, you never knew when he would stop if the theme was himself." Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie was born in 1802 in Villers-Cotterêts in the department of Aisne, in Picardy, France. He had two older sisters, Louise-Alexandrine, their parents were Marie-Louise Élisabeth Labouret, the daughter of an innkeeper, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas. Thomas-Alexandre had been born in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, the mixed-race, natural son of the marquis Alexandre Antoine Davy de la Pailleterie, a French nobleman and général commissaire in the artillery of the colony, Marie-Cessette Dumas, a slave of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. At the time of Thomas-Alexandre's birth, his father was impoverished, it is not known whether his mother was born in Saint-Domingue or in Africa, nor is it known from which African people her ancestors came.
Brought as a boy to France by his father and freed there, Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Davy was educated in a military school and joined the army as a young man. As an adult, Thomas-Alexandre used his mother's name, Dumas, as his surname after a break with his father. Dumas was promoted to general by the age of 31, the first soldier of Afro-Antilles origin to reach that rank in the French army, he served with distinction in the French Revolutionary Wars. He became general-in-chief of the Army of the first man of colour to reach that rank. Although a general under Bonaparte in the Italian and Egyptian campaigns, Dumas had fallen out of favour by 1800 and requested leave to return to France. On his return, his ship had to put in at Taranto in the Kingdom of Naples, where he and others were held as prisoners of war. In 1806, when Alexandre was four years of age, his father, Thomas-Alexandre, died of cancer, his widowed mother, Marie-Louise, could not provide her son with much of an education, but Dumas read everything he could and taught himself Spanish.
Although poor, the family had their father's distinguished reputation and aristocratic rank to aid the children's advancement. In 1822, after the restoration of the monarchy, the 20-year-old Alexandre Dumas moved to Paris, he acquired a position at the Palais Royal in the office of Duke of Orléans. While working for Louis-Philippe, Dumas began writing articles for magazines and plays for the theatre; as an adult, he used his slave grandmother's surname of Dumas. His first play, Henry III and His Courts, produced in 1829 when he was 27 years old, met with acclaim; the next year, his second play, was popular. These successes gave him sufficient income to write full-time. In 1830, Dumas participated in the Revolution that ousted Charles X and replaced him with Dumas' former employer, the Duke of Orléans, who ruled as Louis-Philippe, the Citizen King; until the mid-1830s, life in France remained unsettled, with sporadic riots by disgruntled R
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Tournai, known in Dutch as Doornik and as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt. In the province of Hainaut, Tournai is part of Eurometropolis Lille–Kortrijk–Tournai, which had 2,155,161 residents in 2008. Tournai is one of the oldest cities in Belgium and has played an important role in the country's cultural history. Tournai is located in the Wallonia and Romance Flanders region of Belgium, at the southern limit of the Flemish plain, in the basin of the River Scheldt. Administratively, the town is part of the Province of Hainaut, itself part of Wallonia, it is a municipality, part of the French-speaking Community of Belgium. Tournai has its own arrondissements, both judicial, its area of 213.75 square kilometres makes it the largest municipality in size in Belgium. The municipality of Tournai consists of the former municipalities of Ere, Saint-Maur, Esplechin, Froidmont, Ramegnies-Chin, Chercq, Hertain, Marquain, Gaurain-Ramecroix, Beclers, Barry, Vaulx, Kain, Quartes, Mont-Saint-Aubert and Warchin.
Rocks from the Tournai area date from the Carboniferous Period and have been used to define the Tournaisian Age, a subdivision of the Carboniferous lasting from 359 to 345 million years ago. Tournai stone is a dark limestone which takes a polish and was used in the Romanesque period for sculpted items such as Tournai fonts, it is hard enough to have been used locally for pavements and kerb-stones. It is sometimes called Tournai marble. Tournai, known as Tornacum, was a place of minor importance in Roman times, a stopping place where the Roman road from Cologne on the Rhine to Boulogne on the coast crossed the river Scheldt, it was fortified under Maximian in the 3rd century AD, when the Roman limes was withdrawn to the string of outposts along the road. It came into the possession of the Salian Franks in 432. Under king Childeric I, whose tomb was discovered there in 1653, Tournai was the capital of the Frankish empire. In 486, Clovis moved the center of power to Paris. In turn, a native son of Tournai, became bishop of the newly created bishopric of Tournai, extending over most of the area west of the Scheldt.
In 862 Charles the Bald, first king of Western Francia and still to become Holy Roman Emperor, would make Tournai the seat of the County of Flanders. After the partition of the Frankish empire by the Treaties of Verdun and of Meerssen, Tournai remained in the western part of the empire, which in 987 became France; the city participated in 11th-century rise of towns in the Low Countries, with a woollen cloth industry based on English wool, which soon made it attractive to wealthy merchants. An ambitious rebuilding of the cathedral was initiated in 1030; the commune's drive for independence from the local counts succeeded in 1187, the city was henceforth directly subordinated to the French Crown, as the seigneurie de Tournaisis, as the city's environs are called. The stone Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with defensive towers at either end, was built in 1290, replacing an earlier wooden structure. During the 15th century, the city's textile trade boomed and it became an important supplier of tapestry.
The art of painting flourished too: Jacques Daret, Robert Campin and Rogier van der Weyden all came from Tournai. It was captured in 1513 by Henry VIII of England, making it the only Belgian city to have been ruled by England, it was represented in the 1515 Parliament of England. The city was handed back following the Treaty of London. In 1521, Emperor Charles V added the city to his possessions in the Low Countries, leading to a period of religious strife and economic decline. During the 16th century, Tournai was a bulwark of Calvinism, but it was conquered by the Spanish governor of the Low Countries, the Duke of Parma, following a prolonged siege in 1581. After the fall of the city, its Protestant inhabitants were given one year to sell their possessions and emigrate, a policy, at the time considered humane, since often religious opponents were massacred. One century in 1668, the city returned to France under Louis XIV in the Treaty of Aachen. After the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, under terms of the Treaty of Utrecht the former Spanish Netherlands, including Tournai, came into possession of the Austrian Habsburgs.
In 1794, France annexed the Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars and Tournai became part of the department of Jemmape. From 1815 on, following the Napoleonic Wars, Tournai formed part of the United Netherlands and after 1830 of newly independent Belgium. Badly damaged in 1940, Tournai has since been restored. Tournai is considered to be one of the most important cultural sites in Belgium; the mixed Romanesque- and Gothic-style cathedral of Notre Dame de Tournai and the belfry, considered the oldest in Belgium, have been designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. Inside the cathedral, the Châsse de Notre-Dame flamande, a beautifully ornate 12th-century reliquary, gives witness to Tournai's wealth in the Middle Ages. Other places of interest are the 13th-century Scheldt bridge and the main square, as well as several old city gates, historic warehouses, a variety of museums. On rue Barre-St-Brice are two of the oldest private houses in Europe, dating from between 1175 and 1200 a
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Martine is the title character in a series of books for children written in French by the Belgians Marcel Marlier and Gilbert Delahaye and edited by Casterman. The first one, Martine à la ferme, was published in 1954, followed by 59 other books, which have been translated into many different languages; the book series is one of the best-selling book series. When the author Gilbert Delahaye died in 1997, Jean-Louis Marlier, the son of Marcel Marlier, continued to write the stories; the series was interrupted in 2011 when the illustrator Marcel Marlier died at the age of 80. The last book is the 60th, Martine et le prince mystérieux, published in 2010. Two video games were released in Europe based on the character, however the character has been renamed "Emma" for English-speaking audiences; the games are based on the eighth books respectively. The games were announced for the U. S