A piano accordion is an accordion equipped with a right-hand keyboard similar to a piano or organ. Its acoustic mechanism is more that of an organ than a piano, as they are both wind instruments, but the term "piano accordion"—coined by Guido Deiro in 1910—has remained the popular name, it may be equipped with any of the available systems for the left-hand manual. In comparison with a piano keyboard, the keys are more rounded and lighter to the touch; these go vertically down the side, pointing inward, toward the bellows, making them accessible to only one hand while handling the accordion. The bass piano accordion is a variation of a piano accordion without bass buttons and with the piano keyboard in an octave lower, they have around 3 octaves. The first accordion to feature a piano keyboard was the instrument introduced in 1852 by Bouton of Paris. Another source claimed the first piano accordion was introduced in 1854 at the Allegemeine Deutsche Industrieausstellung in Munich, it was showcased by the instrument builder Mattäus Bauer and became a serious competitor to button accordions.
The first chromatic piano-like accordions in Russia were built in 1871 by Nikolay Ivanovich Beloborodov. In the United States, the piano accordion increased in popularity between 1900 and 1930 because of its familiarity to students and teachers, its uniformity, whereby accordion dealers and instructors did not have to support different styles of accordions for many European immigrant groups; the piano keyboard layout was promoted by the fame of Vaudeville performers Guido Deiro and his brother Pietro who premiered the instrument on stage and radio. After the Deiro's success, popular chromatic button accordionist Pietro Frosini chose to disguise his accordion's buttons to look like a piano keyboard so as not to appear "old-fashioned." The piano accordion is the official city instrument of San FranciscoAs of 1972 it could be said that the piano system dominated the English-speaking North American continent and certain East European countries, while differing button systems are to be found in Scandinavia, France and former Soviet countries.
The piano accordion is predominant in Italy, New Zealand and South Africa. Compared to a chromatic button layout, the advantages of using a piano layout on an accordion would be the layout's logical simplicity, the relative size of the buttons for fast legato flows, its similarity in form to other keyboard instruments, its layout compared to standard notation. However, it has a smaller range, is too big to reach notes far apart, such as two octaves, requires more finger movement to operate, requires learning twelve fingering patterns to play in every possible key, instead of three as on the chromatic button accordion. List of All-Ireland piano accordion champions Button accordion Bandoneon Squeezebox Piano accordion at Curlie Piano Accordion - Videos And Links
St Mary's Cathedral College, Sydney
St Mary's Cathedral College is a private Roman Catholic secondary day school for boys located in the central business district of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Founded in 1824, it is the oldest Catholic school in Australia and among the oldest schools in the country catering for 770 students from Years 3 to 12, it operates as a systemic school. It is attached to St Mary's Cathedral; the school is the responsibility of the Congregation of Christian Brothers and was the last school in Sydney to be served by Christian Brothers as both principal and deputy principal. St Mary's Cathedral College was established in 1824 as an elementary school by the Rev. John Therry; the high school was established in 1828. It is the oldest Roman Catholic school in Australia. St Mary's Cathedral College was conducted by the Christian Brothers and is administered by Sydney Catholic Schools, Eastern Region; the Christian Brothers association with the school dates back to 1911. Catholic education on the same site as St Mary's Cathedral has been continuous since 1824, except during the construction of the existing college buildings and the associated bishop's quarters.
Schools on the site have been provided with staff by the Benedictine monks, the Marist Brothers, Sisters of Charity and the Christian Brothers from 1910. The staff lay staff; the replacement of the Marist order by the Christian Brothers in 1911 was controversial. The Marist Brothers had complained to the Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal Patrick Francis Moran, about their working and living conditions; the cardinal ordered them to leave the college. He directed the Christian Brothers to take over the college in their place; the cardinal granted to the Christian Brothers the requests that the Marist Brothers had been denied. The college celebrated 100 years of Christian Brothers administration in 2011. Beginning in 2016, Michael Kelleher is the school principal alongside the assistant principal, Natalie Devenish; the college supports a musical tradition, with close ties to the St Mary's Cathedral Choir and the cathedral liturgies. It supports sporting sides in all CBSA sports and carnivals. Students at the college have the option to participate in debating, public speaking, mock trial, Duke of Edinburgh Award, assisting at the Matthew Talbot Hostel in Woolloomooloo.
The school has a Fairtrade program through to Year 10. All students are encouraged to participate in altar serving at the Cathedral and to attend Wednesday morning Mass on a daily basis. Student leadership is of high regard at the college with 12 prefects from Year 12, including a captain and a vice-captain, who are allocated to ministry, house & community and other areas. Additionally, each year group nominates four to. Five class captains from each different homeroom and two members of the Student Representative Council to represent the form throughout the college. College Concert at Sydney Town Hall College Swimming Carnival College Athletics Carnival Edmund Rice Day CBSA Sports and Carnivals CCC Carnivals School Camps Year 12 Retreat Anthony Albanese - Australian Labor Party politician. List of Christian Brothers schools List of Non-Government schools in New South Wales St Mary's Cathedral Choir, Sydney St Mary's Cathedral College Website
Accordions are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox. A person who plays the accordion is called an accordionist; the concertina and bandoneón are related. The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds; these vibrate to produce sound inside the body. Valves on opposing reeds of each note are used to make the instrument's reeds sound louder without air leaking from each reed block; the performer plays the melody on buttons or keys on the right-hand manual, the accompaniment, consisting of bass and pre-set chord buttons, on the left-hand manual. The accordion is spread across the world. In some countries it is used in popular music, whereas in other regions it tends to be more used for dance-pop and folk music and is used in folk music in Europe, North America and South America.
In Europe and North America, some popular music acts make use of the instrument. Additionally, the accordion is used in cajun, jazz music and in both solo and orchestral performances of classical music; the piano accordion is the official city instrument of California. Many conservatories in Europe have classical accordion departments; the oldest name for this group of instruments is harmonika, from the Greek harmonikos, meaning "harmonic, musical". Today, native versions of the name accordion are more common; these names refer to the type of accordion patented by Cyrill Demian, which concerned "automatically coupled chords on the bass side". Accordions have many types. What may be technically possible to do with one accordion could be impossible with another: Some accordions are bisonoric, producing different pitches depending on the direction of bellows movement Others are unisonoric and produce the same pitch in both directions; the pitch depends on its size. Some use a chromatic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Others use a diatonic buttonboard for the right-hand manual Yet others use a piano-style musical keyboard for the right-hand manual Some can play in different registers Craftsmen and technicians may tune the same registers differently, "personalizing" the end result, such as an organ technician might voice a particular instrument The bellows is the most recognizable part of the instrument, the primary means of articulation.
Similar to a violin's bow, the production of sound in an accordion is in direct proportion to the motion of the player. The bellows is located between the right- and left-hand manuals, is made from pleated layers of cloth and cardboard, with added leather and metal, it is used to create pressure and vacuum, driving air across the internal reeds and producing sound by their vibrations, applied pressure increases the volume. The keyboard touch is not expressive and does not affect dynamics: all expression is effected through the bellows. Bellows effects include: Volume control and fade Repeated change of direction, popularized by musicians such as Renato Borghete and Luiz Gonzaga, extensively used in Forró, called resfulengo in Brazil Constant bellows motion while applying pressure at intervals Constant bellows motion to produce clear tones with no resonance Using the bellows with the silent air button gives the sound of air moving, sometimes used in contemporary compositions for this instrument The accordion's body consists of two wooden boxes joined together by the bellows.
These boxes house reed chambers for the right- and left-hand manuals. Each side has grilles in order to facilitate the transmission of air in and out of the instrument, to allow the sound to project better; the grille for the right-hand manual is larger and is shaped for decorative purposes. The right-hand manual is used for playing the melody and the left-hand manual for playing the accompaniment; the size and weight of an accordion varies depending on its type and playing range, which can be as small as to have only one or two rows of basses and a single octave on the right-hand manual, to the standard 120-bass accordion and through to large and heavy 160-bass free-bass converter models. The accordion is an aerophone; the manual mechanism of the instrument either enables the air flow, or disables it: The term accordion covers a wide range of instruments, with varying components. All instruments have reed ranks of some format. Not all have switches; the most typical accordion is the piano accordion, used for many musical genres.
Another type of accordion is the button accordion, used in several musical traditions, including Cajun and Tejano music and Austro-German Alpine music, Argentinian tango music. Different systems exist for the right-hand manual of an accordion, used for playing the melody; some use a button layout arranged in another, while others use a piano-style keyboard. Each system has different claimed benefits by those, they are used to define one accordion or another as a different "type": Chromatic button accordions and the bayan, a Russian variant, use a buttonboard where notes are arranged chromatically. Two major systems exist, referred to as the B-
Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, piano, double bass, at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world. Though present forms developed in Argentina and Uruguay from the mid 19th century, there are records of 19th and early 20th century Tango styles in Cuba and Spain, while there is a flamenco Tangos dance that may share a common ancestor in a minuet-style European dance. All sources stress the influence of the African communities and their rhythms, while the instruments and techniques brought in by European immigrants in the 20th century played a major role in its final definition, relating it to the Salon music styles to which Tango would contribute back at a stage.
Angel Villoldo's 1903 tango El Choclo was first recorded no than 1906 in Philadelphia. Villoldo himself recorded it in Paris. Villoldo had to record in Paris. Early tango was played by immigrants in Buenos Aires later in Montevideo; the first generation of tango players was called "Guardia Vieja". It took time to move into wider circles: in the early 20th century it was the favorite music of thugs and gangsters who visited the brothels, in a city with 100,000 more men than women; the complex dances that arose from such rich music reflects how the men would practice the dance in groups, demonstrating male sexuality and causing a blending of emotion and aggressiveness. The music was played on portable instruments: flute and violin trios, with bandoneón arriving at the end of the 19th century; the organito, a portable player-organ, broadened the popularity of certain songs. Eduardo Arolas was the major instrument of the bandoneón's popularization, with Vicente Greco soon standardizing the tango sextet as consisting of piano, double bass, two violins and two bandoneóns.
Like many forms of popular music, tango was associated with the underclass, attempts were made to restrict its influence. In spite of the scorn, like writer Ricardo Güiraldes, were fans. Güiraldes played a part in the international popularization of tango, which had conquered the world by the end of World War I, wrote a poem which describes the music as the "all-absorbing love of a tyrant, jealously guarding his dominion, over women who have surrendered submissively, like obedient beasts". One song that would become the most known of all tango melodies dates from this time; the first two sections of La Cumparsita were composed as a march instrumental in 1916 by teen-aged Gerardo Matos Rodríguez of Uruguay. Besides the global influences mentioned above, early Tango was locally influenced by Payada, the Milonga from Argentine and Uruguay Pampas, Uruguayan Candombe. In Argentina there was Milonga "from the country" since the mid eighteenth century; the first "payador" remembered is Santos Vega. The origins of Milonga seem to be in the Pampa with strong African influences though the local Candombe.
It is believed that this candombe existed and was practised in Argentina since the first slaves were brought into the country. Although the word "tango" to describe a music/dance style had been printed as early as 1823 in Havana, the first Argentinian written reference is from an 1866 newspaper, that quotes the song "La Coqueta". In 1876 a tango-candombe called "El Merenguengué" became popular, after its success in the Afro-Argentines carnival held in February of that year, it is played with harp and flute in addition to the Afro-Argentine Candombe drums. This has been considered as one of the strong points of departure for the birth and development of Tango; the first "group" of tango, was composed of two Afro-Argentines, "the black" Casimiro Alcorta and "the mulatto" Sinforoso. They did small concerts in Buenos Aires since the early 1870s until the early 1890s. "The black Casimiro" is author of "Entrada Prohibida" signed by the brothers Teisseire, "la yapa". It must be said, though that this duo was the author and performer of many of the early tangos now listed as "anonymous", since at that time were not used to signing works.
Before the 1900s, the following tangos were being played: "El queco", "Señora casera", "Andate a la recoleta", "El Porteñito", "Tango Nº1", "Dame la lata", "Que polvo con tanto viento", "No me tires con la tapa de la olla", "El Talar". One of the first women to write tango scores was Eloísa D’Herbil, she wrote such pieces as Y a mí qué, Che no calotiés! and others, between 1872 and 1885. The first is in the Museum of the City Score Rosario. On the other hand, the first copyrighted tango score is "El entrerriano", released in 1896 and printed in 1898 – by Rosendo Mendizabal, an Afro-Argentine; as for the transiti
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales
Sydney Conservatorium of Music
The Sydney Conservatorium of Music is a heritage-listed music school in Macquarie Street, New South Wales, Australia. It is one of the most prestigious music schools in Australia. Located adjacent to the Royal Botanic Gardens on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, the Conservatorium is a faculty of the University of Sydney, incorporates the community-based Conservatorium Open Academy and the Conservatorium High School. In addition to its secondary, post-graduate and community education teaching and learning functions, the Conservatorium undertakes research in various fields of music; the building was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 14 January 2011. The land belonged to the Aboriginal people who lived around Sydney coast called the "Eora", they lived off the land by relying on its natural resources including the rich plants, birds and marine life surrounding the Harbour within what is now the City of Sydney local government area the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the "Eora".
There is no written record of the name of their language spoken and there are debates as to whether these people spoke a separate language or a dialect of the Dharug language. Governor Arthur Phillip arrived in 1788 with a pre-fabricated building, assembled as his Government House, now on the current site of the Museum of Sydney and under Bridge Street. In its varied additions and permutations, it survived as the Sydney residence of the Governor until completion of the new Government House. Governor Lachlan Macquarie took control of the colony in 1810 using that building as his Sydney residence. On 18 March 1816, he reported that he had postponed any changes to convert Sydney Government House into adequate accommodation, he noted the poor condition of the building saying that "All the Offices, exclusive of being in a decayed and rotten State, are ill Constructed in regard to Plan and on Much too Small a Scale. No private Gentleman ion the Colony is so Very ill Accommodated with Offices as I am at this Moment, Not having Sufficient Room in the to lodge a Very Small Establishment of Servants.
He noted that he wished to erect a new Government House and Offices in the Domain as soon as the Barracks was complete at the expense of the Police Fund. Bathurst soon responded writing on 30 January 1817 that he needed to see a plan and estimate of costs before he could approve the erection. In 1817, Macquarie resumed the sites of a mill on the proposed site. On 4 July 1817, he instructed former convict, Francis Greenway to prepare plans of offices and stables. Work commenced on the stables on 9 August 1817. Macquarie replied to Bathurst on 12 December that he was disappointed with the lack of approval but claimed that no construction had commenced due to heavy rains. Macquarie laid the foundation stone for the stables on 16 December 1817. Though Francis Greenway was the designer, it was not his work. In December 1819, Greenway noted that Macquarie saw the elevation before work began but that Mrs Macquarie gave him details of the number of rooms needed so that he could make a suitable plan. By 1819, according to Greenway, the stables were planned though the barn in the range had become a stable.
It held 30 horses plus the stallions in the octagonal Towers. He estimated the cost of the stables to be £9,000. In a letter to the Australian of 28 April 1825, he identified Thornbury Castle as his model. A relative of Mrs Macquarie, Archibald Campbell had been a pioneer of the Gothic architectural style in the late eighteenth century when he erected Inveray Castle and it may have had a greater influence on the design by Greenway, yet on 7 February 1821, Major Druitt reported that Governor Macquarie had not liked the ornamentation of the towers and the rich Cornish around the battlements. It was not until 24 March 1819 that Macquarie informed the Colonial Office that he had commenced building the stables, in contravention of a firm order from Bathurst. "I had so long Suffered such great Inconvenience from the want of a Secure Stables for my Horses and decent sleeping places for my Servants, that I had been under the Necessity of building a regular Suite of Offices of this Description in a Situation Contiguous to and sufficiently Convenient for the present Old Government House, in one that will suit and New Government House that my Successors may he hereafter Authorised to Erect.
These Stables are built on a Commodious tho" not expensive Plan, I expect they will be Completed in about three Months hence.' Horses were prized possessions and valuable. They needed to be made secure from thieves. Early in 1819 Lt John Watts was sent from England with plans and estimates but these do not appear to have serviced. On 26 September 1819, Commissioner John Thomas Bigge arrived in the colony to report the effectiveness of transportation to NSW as a publishment for criminals, he was soon examining Macquarie's programme of public works and his policy of fostering former criminals to fill positions of authority. Bigge objected to the construction of the stables in October 19819 but noted that the work was so far advanced that to halt it would be a waste. An 1820bplan held at the Mitchell Library is not a construction plan, but seem to show it in its finished state, it depicted the towers as accommodation for servants, plus a dairy next to one of th