Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history. It is one of the communities and language areas of Belgium, the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming, while the corresponding adjective is Flemish. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although Brussels itself has an independent regional government, in historical contexts, Flanders originally refers to the County of Flanders, which around AD1000 stretched from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the area was made two political entities, the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region. These entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a cultural mandate, covers Brussels. Flanders has figured prominently in European history, as a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution, Flanders is generally flat, and has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a density of almost 500 people per square kilometer. It touches France to the west near the coast, and borders the Netherlands to the north and east, the Brussels Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own, Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands. It comprises 6.5 million Belgians who consider Dutch to be their mother tongue, the political subdivisions of Belgium, the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community. The first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels, the political institutions that govern both subdivisions, the operative body Flemish Government and the legislative organ Flemish Parliament.
The two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders, a feudal territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic. Until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of France, one of the regions conquered by the French in Flanders, namely French Flanders in the Nord department. French Flanders can be divided into two regions, Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking already in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century, the city of Lille identifies itself as Flemish, and this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The region conquered by the Dutch Republic in Flanders, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland, the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the part of the Low Countries
Piazza del Popolo
Piazza del Popolo is a large urban square in Rome. The piazza lies inside the gate in the Aurelian Walls, once the Porta Flaminia of ancient Rome. This was the point of the Via Flaminia, the road to Ariminum. At the same time, before the age of railroads, it was the travellers first view of Rome upon arrival, for centuries, the Piazza del Popolo was a place for public executions, the last of which took place in 1826. Peters Square, replacing the original cramped trapezoidal square centred on the Via Flaminia, an Egyptian obelisk of Sety I from Heliopolis stands in the centre of the Piazza. Three sides of the obelisk were carved during the reign of Sety I, the obelisk, known as the Flaminio Obelisk or the Popolo Obelisk, is the second oldest and one of the tallest obelisks in Rome. The obelisk was brought to Rome in 10 BC by order of Augustus and it was re-erected here in the piazza by the architect-engineer Domenico Fontana in 1589 as part of the urban plan of Sixtus V. The piazza formerly contained a fountain, which was moved to the Piazza Nicosia in 1818.
The twin churches of Santa Maria dei Miracoli and Santa Maria in Montesanto, begun by Carlo Rainaldi and completed by Bernini and Carlo Fontana, define the junctions of the roads. The Via del Babuino, linking to Piazza di Spagna, takes its name from a sculpture of Silenus that gained the popular name of the Baboon. To the north of the stands the Porta del Popolo, beyond which lies the Piazzale Flaminio. Opposite Santa Maria del Popolo stands a Carabinieri station, with a dome reflecting that of the church, in his urbanistic project, Valadier constructed the matching palazzi that provide a frame for the scenography of the twin churches and hold down two corners of his composition. Valadier outlined this newly defined oval forecourt to the city of Rome with identical sweeps of wall, behind the western one, a screen of trees masks the unassorted fronts of buildings beyond. Ever since the Renaissance such terminal fountains provided an occasion for the terminal water show called in Rome a mostra or a show.
What makes a fountain a mostra is not essentially its size or splendor, Valadier had planned fountains in the upper tier of the Pincio slope, but these were not carried out, in part for lack of water. The Fontana del Nettuno stands on the west side, Neptune with his trident is accompanied by two dolphins, Rome between the Tiber and the Aniene on the east side, against the steep slope of the Pincio, represents the terminal mostra of the aqueduct. Dea Roma armed with lance and helmet, and in front is the she-wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, at the center of the piazza is the Fontana dell Obelisco, a group of four mini fountains, each comprising a lion on a stepped plinth, surround the obelisk. Valadiers masterstroke was in linking the piazza with the heights of the Pincio, the Pincian Hill of ancient Rome and he swept away informally terraced gardens that belonged to the Augustinian monastery connected with Santa Maria del Popolo
Flavius Belisarius was a general of the Byzantine Empire. He was instrumental to Emperor Justinians ambitious project of reconquering much of the Mediterranean territory of the former Western Roman Empire, one of the defining features of Belisarius career was his success despite varying levels of support from Justinian. His name is given as one of the so-called Last of the Romans. Born into an Illyrian or Thracian family of possible Gothic ancestry, he spoke Latin as a tongue and became a Roman soldier as a young man. He came to the attention of Justin and his nephew, Justinian, as a promising and he was given permission by the emperor to form a bodyguard regiment, of heavy cavalry, which he expanded into a personal household regiment,1,500 strong. Belisarius bucellarii were the nucleus around which all the armies he would command were organized, armed with a lance, composite bow, and broadsword, they were fully armoured to the standard of heavy cavalry of the day. A multi-purpose unit, they were capable of skirmishing at a distance with bow, like the Huns, or could act as shock cavalry, charging an enemy with lance.
In essence, they combined the best and most dangerous aspects of both of Romes greatest enemies, the Huns and the Goths. Following Justins death in 527, the new emperor, Justinian I and he quickly proved himself an able and effective commander, defeating the larger Sassanid army through superior generalship. This led to the negotiation of an Eternal Peace with the Persians and this freed resources for redeployment elsewhere. In 532, he was the military officer in the Imperial capital of Constantinople when the Nika riots broke out in the city. For his efforts, Belisarius was rewarded by Justinian with the command of a land and sea expedition against the Vandal Kingdom, the Romans had political and strategic reasons for such a campaign. The pro-Roman Vandal king Hilderic had been deposed and murdered by the usurper Gelimer, the Arian Vandals had periodically persecuted the Nicene Christians within their kingdom, many of whom made their way to Constantinople seeking redress. The Vandals had launched many pirate raids on Roman trade interests, in the late summer of 533, Belisarius sailed to Africa and landed near Caput Vada.
He ordered his fleet not to lose sight of the army, ten miles from Carthage, the forces of Gelimer and Belisarius finally met at the Battle of Ad Decimum on September 13,533. It nearly turned into a defeat for the Romans, Gelimer had chosen his position well and had some success along the main road. The Romans, seemed dominant on both sides of the road to Carthage. At the height of the battle, Gelimer became distraught upon learning of the death of his brother in battle and this gave Belisarius a chance to regroup, and he went on to win the battle and capture Carthage
Louis V of France
Louis V, was the king of West Francia from 986 until his premature death a year later. He died childless and was the last monarch in the Carolingian line in West Francia. The eldest son of King Lothair and his wife Emma of Italy, daughter of Lothair II of Italy, Louis was born c. Louis V was the last Carolingian King of West Francia and reigned in Laon from 2 March,986 until his death, at the age of 20, in 21 May,987. Immediately after their wedding and Adelaide-Blanche were crowned King, without suspecting the artifice, yielded to the advice of his wife, and went with her. When they were in Aquitaine, she left her husband to join his family, despite being recorded by relative contemporary and sources, the existence of this marriage was recently challenged by historian Carlrichard Brülh. Upon his fathers death on 2 March 986, the already-crowned Louis V became the undisputed King of the Franks, in addition, the young monarch inherited a battle between his fathers line of elected kings, and the Ottonian house of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.
As defender of Rome, Otto I had the power to name the clergy in Carolingian territory, the escape of the Archbishop was perceived by Louis V as treason, he turned violently against Adalberon and threatened him with a siege of Reims. The matter was settled in a trial court at Compiègne. Before all these events were resolved, Louis V died on 21 May 987 from a fall while hunting in the Forest of Halatte near the town of Senlis. He was buried in the Abbey of Saint-Corneille in Compiègne and he left no legitimate heirs, so his uncle Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine, was nominated as the hereditary successor to the throne. Capet was elected to the Frankish throne and Adalberon crowned him, thus the rule of the Carolingian dynasty ended and the Capetian era had begun. Gwatkin, H. M. Whitney, J. P. et al, the Cambridge Medieval History, Volume III. Frantz Funck-Brentano, National History of France, ferdinand Lot, Les derniers Carolingiens, Louis V, Charles de Lorraine, Paris 1891. Walther Kienast, Deutschland und Frankreich in der Kaiserzeit, vol
The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the Goths. They built an empire stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic, the Ostrogoths were probably literate in the 3rd century, and their trade with the Romans was highly developed. Their Danubian kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, who is said to have committed suicide at an old age when the Huns attacked his people and subjugated them in about 370. After their annexation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths for about 80 years, after the collapse of the Hun empire after the Battle of Nedao, Ostrogoths migrated westwards towards Illyria and the borders of Italy, while some remained in the Crimea. During the late 5th and 6th centuries, under Theodoric the Great most of the Ostrogoths moved first to Moesia, in 493, Theodoric the Great established a kingdom in Italy. A period of instability ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian to declare war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Initially, the Byzantines were successful, but under the leadership of Totila, the war lasted for almost 20 years and caused enormous damage and depopulation of Italy. The remaining Ostrogoths were absorbed into the Lombards who established a kingdom in Italy in 568, a division of the Goths is first attested in 291. The Tervingi are first attested around that date, the Greuthungi, the Ostrogoths are first named in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Claudian mentions that they together with the Greuthungi inhabit Phrygia, according to Herwig Wolfram, the primary sources either use the terminology of Tervingi/Greuthungi or Vesi/Ostrogothi and never mix the pairs. All four names were used together, but the pairing was always preserved, as in Gruthungi, Ostrogothi and that the Tervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is supported by Jordanes. This interpretation, though common among scholars today, is not universal. Both Herwig Wolfram and Thomas Burns conclude that the terms Tervingi and Greuthungi were geographical identifiers used by each tribe to describe the other and this terminology therefore dropped out of use after the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions.
In support of this, Wolfram cites Zosimus as referring to a group of Scythians north of the Danube who were called Greuthungi by the north of the Ister. Wolfram asserts that it was the Tervingi who remained behind after the Hunnic conquest and he further believes that the terms Vesi and Ostrogothi were used by the peoples to boastfully describe themselves. On this understanding, the Greuthungi and Ostrogothi were more or less the same people, the nomenclature of Greuthungi and Tervingi fell out of use shortly after 400. In general, the terminology of a divided Gothic people disappeared gradually after they entered the Roman Empire, the term Visigoth, was an invention of the sixth century. Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theodoric the Great, invented the term Visigothi to match Ostrogothi, the western-eastern division was a simplification and a literary device of sixth-century historians where political realities were more complex
After leaving Ottoman service, he led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in Albania. Skanderbeg always signed himself as Lord of Albania, and claimed no other titles, a member of the noble Kastrioti family, he was sent as a hostage to the Ottoman court, where he was educated and entered the service of the Ottoman sultan for the next twenty years. He rose through the ranks, culminating in the appointment as sanjakbey of the Sanjak of Dibra in 1440, in 1443, he deserted the Ottomans during the Battle of Niš and became the ruler of Krujë, and Modrič. In 1444, he was appointed the commander of the short-lived League of Lezhë that consolidated nobility throughout what is today Albania. Skanderbegs rebellion was not a general uprising of Albanians, because he did not gain support in the Ottoman-controlled south or Venetian-controlled north and his followers included, apart from Albanians, Slavs and Greeks. For 25 years, from 1443 to 1468, Skanderbegs 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against consistently larger and better supplied Ottoman forces, for which he was admired.
In 1451, he recognized de jure the suzerainty of the Kingdom of Naples through the Treaty of Gaeta, to ensure a protective alliance, in 1460–61, he participated in Italys civil wars in support of Ferdinand I of Naples. In 1463, he became the commander of the crusading forces of Pope Pius II. Together with Venetians he fought against the Ottomans during the Ottoman–Venetian War until his death in January 1468, Skanderbegs military skills presented a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion, and he was considered by many in western Europe to be a model of Christian resistance against the Ottoman Muslims. In 1450 his full name was written in Old Slavic Cyrillic as Đurađ Kastriot, in 1463, his name was written in Latin as Zorzi Castrioti. His given name was spellt Đurađ and Đorđe in Slavic within some correspondences of the based in Albania. The original, Latin form of the surname, Castrioti, is rendered in modern Albanian historiography as Kastrioti, Gjergj is the modern Albanian equivalent of the name George.
Charles du Fresne, writing in Latin, used Georgius Castriotus Scanderbegus in his work, C. C. Moore in his biographical work on Skanderbeg used Castriot. The surname is derived from the Latin castrum via the Greek word κάστρο, according to Fan Noli, the surname is a toponym, of Kastriot in modern northeastern Albania. In the 1450 letter in Slavic and Cyrillic sent to Ragusa by Skanderbeg, he was signed as Скедерь бегь, there have been many theories on the place where Skanderbeg was born. Fan Nolis placement of the year of birth in 1405 is now largely agreed upon, after earlier disagreements, Skanderbegs father Gjon Kastrioti was the lord of a province that included Mat, Mirditë and Dibër in north-central Albania. His mother was Voisava, from the Polog valley, most probably a princess of the Brankovic dynasty. There was a total of nine children, of whom Gjergj was the youngest son, his brothers were Stanisha and Kostandin
Charles I, Count of Flanders
Blessed Charles the Good was Count of Flanders from 1119 to 1127. He is most remembered for his murder and its aftermath, which were chronicled by Galbert of Bruges, Charles was born in Denmark, only son of the three children of King Canute IV and Adela of Flanders. His father was assassinated in Odense Cathedral in 1086, and Adela fled back to Flanders, taking the very young Charles with her but leaving her twin daughters Ingeborg, Charles grew up at the comital court of his grandfather Robert I and uncle Robert II. In 1092 Adela went to southern Italy to marry Roger Borsa, duke of Apulia, Charles was a knight in the crusades from 1108 to 1110, although his role in the conflict is uncertain. Charles travelled to the Holy Land in 1107 or 1108 with a fleet of English and this is possibly the fleet of Guynemer of Boulogne, described similarly. He was offered the crown of the Kingdom of Jerusalem but refused for reasons unknown, in 1111 Robert II died, and Charles cousin Baldwin VII became count.
Charles was an advisor to the new count, who around 1118 arranged Charles marriage to the heiress of the count of Amiens, Margaret of Clermont, daughter of Renaud II. The childless count Baldwin was wounded fighting for the king of France in September 1118, in 1125 Charles expelled Jews from Flanders, attributed to them the great famine which afflicted his domains in that year. During the famine, Charles distributed bread to the poor, and took action to prevent grain from being hoarded, prodded by his advisors, he began proceedings to reduce the influential Erembald family, which was heavily engaged in this activity, to the status of serfs. Bertulf FitzErembald, provost of the church of St. Donatian, the Erembalds, who had planned and carried out the murder of Charles, were arrested and tortured to death by the enraged nobles and commoners of Bruges and Ghent. King Louis VI of France, who had supported the revolt against the Erembalds, used his influence to select his own candidate, William Clito, as the next Count of Flanders
A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by attrition or assault. This derives from sedere, Latin for to sit, Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characterized by one party holding a strong, static defensive position. Consequently, an opportunity for negotiation between combatants is not uncommon, as proximity and fluctuating advantage can encourage diplomacy, a siege occurs when an attacker encounters a city or fortress that cannot be easily taken by direct assault and refuses to surrender. Failing a military outcome, sieges can often be decided by starvation, thirst, or disease and this form of siege, can take many months or even years, depending upon the size of the stores of food the fortified position holds. During the process of circumvallation, the force can be set upon by another force of enemies due to the lengthy amount of time required to starve a position. During the Warring States era of ancient China, there is textual and archaeological evidence of prolonged sieges and siege machinery used against the defenders of city walls.
Siege machinery was a tradition of the ancient Greco-Roman world, during the Renaissance and the early modern period, siege warfare dominated the conduct of war in Europe. Leonardo da Vinci gained as much of his renown from the design of fortifications as from his artwork, Medieval campaigns were generally designed around a succession of sieges. In the Napoleonic era, increasing use of more powerful cannon reduced the value of fortifications. In the 20th century, the significance of the classical siege declined, with the advent of mobile warfare, a single fortified stronghold is no longer as decisive as it once was. Modern sieges are more commonly the result of smaller hostage, the Assyrians deployed large labour forces to build new palaces and defensive walls. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were fortified, by about 3500 BC, hundreds of small farming villages dotted the Indus River floodplain. Many of these settlements had fortifications and planned streets, mundigak in present-day south-east Afghanistan has defensive walls and square bastions of sun-dried bricks.
City walls and fortifications were essential for the defence of the first cities in the ancient Near East, the walls were built of mudbricks, wood, or a combination of these materials, depending on local availability. They may have served the purpose of showing presumptive enemies the might of the kingdom. The great walls surrounding the Sumerian city of Uruk gained a widespread reputation, the walls were 9.5 km in length, and up to 12 m in height. Later, the walls of Babylon, reinforced by towers, moats, in Anatolia, the Hittites built massive stone walls around their cities atop hillsides, taking advantage of the terrain. In Shang Dynasty China, at the site of Ao, large walls were erected in the 15th century BC that had dimensions of 20 m in width at the base and enclosed an area of some 2,100 yards squared
Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment. The word assassin is believed to derive from the word Hashshashin. It referred to a group of Nizari Shia Persians who worked against various Arab, founded by the Persian Hassan-i Sabbah, the Assassins were active in the fortress of Alamut in Iran from the 8th to the 14th centuries, and controlled the castle of Masyaf in Syria. The group killed members of the Persian, Seljuq, the word for murder in many Romance languages is derived from this same root word. Assassination is one of the oldest tools of power politics and it dates back at least as far as recorded history. The Old Testament story of Judith illustrates how a woman frees the Israelites by tricking and assassinating Holofernes, a warlord of the rival Assyrians, with whom the Israelites were at war. King Joash of Judah was recorded as being assassinated by his own servants, Joab assassinated Absalom, King Davids son, chanakya wrote about assassinations in detail in his political treatise Arthashastra.
His student Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations against some of his enemies, other famous victims are Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander the Great, and Roman consul Julius Caesar. Emperors of Rome often met their end in this way, as did many of the Muslim Shia Imams hundreds of years later, the practice was well known in ancient China, as in Jing Kes failed assassination of Qin king Ying Zheng in 227 BC. Whilst many assassination were performed by an individual or a small group, the earliest were the sicarii in 6 A. D. who predated the Middle Eastern assassins and Japanese ninjas by centuries. In the Middle Ages, regicide was rare in Western Europe and strangling in the bathtub were the most commonly used procedures. With the Renaissance, tyrannicide—or assassination for personal or political reasons—became more common again in Western Europe and this account is, contentious among historians, it being most commonly asserted that he died of natural causes.
The myth of the Curse of King Zvonimir is based on the legend of his assassination, in 1192, Conrad of Montferrat, the de facto King of Jerusalem, was killed by an assassin. The reigns of King Przemysł II of Poland, William the Silent of the Netherlands, in Russia alone, two emperors, Paul I and his grandson Alexander II, were assassinated within 80 years. In the United Kingdom, only one Prime Minister of the United Kingdom has ever been assassinated—Spencer Perceval on May 11,1812. In the United States, within 100 years, four presidents—Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield, William McKinley, there have been at least 20 known attempts on U. S. presidents lives. Huey Long, a Senator, was assassinated in September of 1935, the Polish Home Army conducted a regular campaign of assassinations against top Nazi German officials in occupied Poland. Adolf Hitler, was almost killed by his own officers, indias Father of the Nation, Mohandas K. Gandhi, was shot to death on January 30,1948, by Nathuram Godse