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Old Vicksburg Bridge

The Old Vicksburg Bridge known as Mississippi River Bridge, is a cantilever bridge carrying one rail line across the Mississippi River between Delta and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Until 1998, the bridge was open to motor vehicles and carried U. S. Route 80 across the Mississippi River, it is now only a railroad bridge, though one road lane runs through the bridge for inspection by workers. It was replaced by the new Vicksburg Bridge, a short distance for vehicle crossings, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. It was built by the Vicksburg Bridge & Terminal Co. during 1928-1930 and has three cantilevered truss spans and three Parker truss spans. During the period when the bridge was open to regular traffic a rather unusual system was used to handle the tractor-trailer truck traffic which used the bridge. Located at each end of the bridge, there were a pair of railroad styled signal towers, which required trucks to stop. At one time trucks were allowed to traverse the bridge along with other train traffic.

In order to do this the truck driver would pull the passenger side mirror in and position his front passenger side tire against a rail located just off the roadway surface. Using this method trucks could meet and pass each other while traveling east or west; the most unnerving was going east and meeting a train moving westward on the trucks passenger side and another truck west bound on the drivers side. The signal towers prevented this from occurring anymore. Once stopped, the towers would close off traffic for all vehicles in both directions, allow trucks to cross the bridge alone, using the full width of both of the narrow lanes, as opposed to staying in just one lane. Due to numerous safety concerns, crossings by trucks were limited to day time only operation, with trucks being required to wait until dawn before being allowed on the bridge. Transport portal Engineering portal United States portal Mississippi portal List of crossings of the Lower Mississippi River National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison Parish, Louisiana National Register of Historic Places listings in Warren County, Mississippi

League of Lezhë

The League of Lezhë was a military alliance of Albanian feudal lords forged in Lezhë on 2 March 1444, with Skanderbeg as leader of the regional Albanian and Serbian chieftains united against the Ottoman Empire. Skanderbeg was proclaimed "Chief of the League of the Albanian people"; the main members of the league were the Arianiti, Balšić, Muzaka, Spani and Crnojevići. The members contributed to the League with men and money, while Skanderbeg had no right to interfere with the affairs of their domains. All earlier and many modern historians accepted Marin Barleti's news about this meeting in Lezhë, although no contemporary Venetian document mentions it. Barleti referred to the meeting as the generalis universum concilium. After the death of Serbian Emperor Stefan Dušan in 1355, the magnates in Albania established their own dominions; when Ottoman forces entered Albania, they were faced with small principalities that were engaged in vicious fights among themselves. The first battle against the Ottoman forces in Albania was that of Balša II, the Lord of Zeta, when one of the Albanian rulers, Karlo Thopia, invited Ottomans who defeated and killed Balša II in the battle of Savra which happened on 18 September 1385.

In the 15th century, the Ottoman Empire established itself in the Balkans with no significant resistance offered by local Christian nobles. Many of them were still fighting amongst themselves and didn't see the Ottoman advance as a threat to their power. Although a civil war broke out between Bayezid I's sons in 1402–13, none of the Christian noblemen in the Balkans at the time seized the opportunity to repel the Ottomans. After the Ottoman civil war was over in favour of Mehmed I, his forces captured Kruja from the Thopia in 1415, Berat in 1417 from the Muzaka and Kanina in 1417 from the widow of Balša III and Gjirokastër in 1418 from the Zenevisi. Under pressure from the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice, the Albanian principalities began to vacillate; some Albanian nobility revolted in 1432–36. In November 1443, Skanderbeg captured Kruja with his troops and declared its independence from the Sultan; the League of Lezhë was founded on 2 March 1444 by: Lekë Zaharia, his vassals Pal and Nicholas Dukagjini Peter Spani Lekë Dushmani George Strez and Gojko Balšić Andrea Thopia with his nephew Tanush Gjergj Arianiti Theodor Corona Musachi Stefan Crnojević Delegates from Venice were present at the meeting.

The military alliance was made up of the feudal lords in Albania, who had to contribute to the League with men and money. Skanderbeg was proclaimed "Chief of the League of the Albanian people". Thus, he was the League's leader and commander-in-chief of its combined armed forces numbering 8,000 warriors. All the territorial lords had their own affairs. Barleti referred to the meeting as the generalis universum concilium. Initiated and organised under Venetian patronage, through treaties, the league was put under King Alfonso V, with Skanderbeg as captain general; the League's forces had victories against the Ottomans at Torvioll, Otonetë, Oranik, a loss at Svetigrad, victory at Krujë. On 4 October 1448, the Albanian–Venetian War ended when Skanderbeg and Nicholas Dukagjini signed a peace treaty with Venice, which would keep its possessions in Albania, including Dagnum, under the conditions that Venice pay a yearly sum of 1,400 ducats, that some league members would benefit from certain trade privileges, etc.

The alliance was precarious. Though an official date of dissolution is unknown, the League of Lezhë fragmented soon after its founding, with many of its members breaking away. By 1450 it had ceased to function as intended, only the core of the alliance under Skanderbeg and Arianiti continued to fight against the Ottomans; some members preferred to act in line with their own interests. During the attack of the sultan in 1450, they kept changing their position between supporting the Ottomans and joining Skanderbeg. After Peter Spani and George Dushmani left the alliance, after the Arianiti and Dukagjini left it in 1450, members of Dukagjini family concluded peace with the Ottoman Empire and began to plot against Skanderbeg. For 25 years, from 1443–68, Skanderbeg's 10,000 man army marched through Ottoman territory winning against larger and better supplied Ottoman forces. Threatened by Ottoman advances in their homeland and Naples and Venice – their former enemies – provided the financial backbone and support for Skanderbeg's army.

After Skanderbeg's death in 1468, the sultan "easily subdued Albania," but Skanderbeg's death did not end the struggle for independence. The League of Lezhë was the basis for an Albanian state; the formation of the League meant that for the first time Albania was united under an Albanian leader. Some historians regard the League as an independent Albanian state. Others do not accept this view. However, the League provided the basic elements of Albania

Diego Ramírez de Fuenleal

Diego Ramírez de Fuenleal was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Bishop of Cuenca, Bishop of Málaga, Bishop of Astorga. Diego Ramírez de Fuenleal was born on 7 December 1459. In 1498, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Alexander VI as Bishop of Astorga. On 7 February 1500, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Alexander VI as Bishop of Málaga. In 1518, he was appointed during the papacy of Pope Leo X as Bishop of Cuenca, he served as Bishop of Cuenca until his death in 1537. While bishop, he was the principal co-consecrator of Bishop of Elne. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Astorga". Retrieved March 25, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Astorga". Retrieved March 25, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Málaga". Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Málaga". Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Cuenca". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Cuenca". Retrieved June 16, 2018

Orphans of the Sahara

Orphans of the Sahara is a three-part documentary series, produced by Al Jazeera, aired on January 2014. Series follows the story of the Tuareg people of the Sahara desert, from their involvement in war in Libya, fighting for Muammar Gaddafi, to their return home to crushing poverty in Mali and Niger as they launched a Tuareg Rebellion of 2012 for an independent country in the Sahara, Azawad; as the Northern Mali conflict escalated their dreams were crushed once again, first by al-Qaeda by French military intervention in Mali and Niger, with a help of military coalitions established by EU nations and US. Show brought to light problems caused by French corporation Areva's mining operations on the Tuareg lands in Niger, claims that company's uranium mining and consequent radiations causing diseases and high death rate among Tuareg people among children and elderly. Soon enough Areva issued response, Al Jazeera published it on its website, in which the company claims it submits regular reports on its environmental monitoring of water and soil to the Nigerien Office of Environmental Assessments and Impact Studies, which indicate that there is no pollution around the sites in question.

Orphans of the Sahara, a three-part documentary series about the Tuareg people of the Sahara desert. Uranium mining in Niger: AREVA responds, Al Jazeera website'Orphans of the Sahara' - Behind the name, Al Jazeera English

Pittsfield Cubs

The Pittsfield Cubs, located in Pittsfield, were a minor league baseball team that played in the Eastern League from 1985 to 1988. They were affiliated with the Chicago Cubs. On the field, the Cubs were successful. In 1987, the team finished first during the regular season, although they failed to win the championship. In addition to Eastern League all-star selections, the team had two Eastern League Most Valuable Players, Rafael Palmeiro in 1986 and Mark Grace in 1987; the team had two no-hitters during their existence. On August 1, 1985, Johnny Abrego threw a no-hitter against the Nashua Pirates winning by a 1-0 score. On July 18, 1988, Kris Roth pitched a no-hitter against the Harrisburg Senators, winning by a 3-0 score. Off the field, the Cubs were plagued by attendance problems, they finished last or next to last in Eastern league attendance during each of their four years of existence. The Pittsfield Cubs moved to Williamsport, Pennsylvania after the 1988 season, becoming the Williamsport Bills and affiliating with the Seattle Mariners.

The community of Pittsfield gained the Pittsfield Mets for the 1989 season. The Chicago Cubs transferred their AA level affiliation to the Charlotte Knights. Jeff Cornell Steve Hammond Jeff Jones Dickie Noles Al Chambers First Base: Phil Stephenson, Mark Grace Shortstop: Mike Brumley, Paul Noce Outfield: Rafael Palmeiro, Dwight Smith, Jerome Walton Pitcher: Dean Wilkins Winning Percentage:.813, David Masters.818 Michael Harkey Batting Average:.331, Jerome Walton Runs: 87, Paul Noce 111, Dwight Smith 82, Ced Landrum Hits: 156, Rafael Palmeiro Runs Batted In: 95, Rafael Palmeiro 101, Mark Grace Notes Sources