Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX was Pope from May 1024 to his death in 1032. Born Romanus in Rome as the son of Gregory I, Count of Tusculum, he succeeded his brother Pope Benedict VIII, both members of the powerful house of Tusculum. Prior to being elected Pope, he was a layman and was therefore ordained a bishop in order to enable him to ascend the papal chair, having previously been a consul. He played a role in the leading to the Schism of 1054 by rejecting a proposal by Patriarch Eustathius of Constantinople to recognise that Patriarchates sphere of interest in the east. Against the grain of ecclesiastical history, John XIX agreed, upon being paid a large bribe, this proposal excited general indignation throughout the Church, compelling him almost immediately to withdraw from the agreement. On the death of the Emperor Henry II in 1024, he gave his support to Emperor Conrad II, in 1025 he sent the crown to Poland and blessed the coronation of the Polish king Bolesław I the Brave. In fact, the patriarch took precedence over all Italian bishops, in 1029, John revoked his decision and reaffirmed all the dignities of Grado.
John enacted a Papal Bull endowing Byzantius, Archbishop of Bari and he was said to have been killed by a mob of angry peasants, but there is no evidence to support this. The actual cause of death is unknown, the next Pope named John was Pope John XXI, there is no Pope John XX. Herbermann, Charles, ed. Pope John XIX, Charles, ed. Pope Benedict IX
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, the Roman Republic, and as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.
The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD
Duchy of Brittany
The Duchy of Brittany was a medieval feudal state that existed between approximately 939 and 1547. The Duchy was established after the expulsion of Viking armies from the region around 939, the Duchy, in the 10th and 11th centuries, was politically unstable, with the dukes holding only limited power outside their own personal lands. The Duchy had mixed relationships with the neighbouring Duchy of Normandy, sometimes allying itself with Normandy, Henry II of England invaded Brittany in the mid-12th century and became Count of Nantes in 1158 under a treaty with Duke Conan IV. Henrys son, became Duke through his marriage to Constance, the Angevins remained in control until the collapse of their empire in northern France in 1204. The French Crown maintained its influence over the Duchy for the rest of the 13th century, civil war broke out in the 14th century, as rival claimants for the Duchy vied for power during the Breton War of Succession, with different factions supported by England and France.
The independent sovereign nature of the Duchy began to come to an end upon the death of Francis II in 1488, the Duchy was inherited by his daughter, but King Charles VIII of France had her existing marriage annulled and married her himself. As a result, the King of France acquired the title of Duke of Brittany - jure uxoris, the Duchy was finally merged into the Kingdom of France in 1532 through a vote of the Estates of Brittany. The Ducal crown became united with the French crown in the person of Henry II of France, in modern times the departments have joined into administrative regions although the administrative region of Brittany does not encompass the entirety of the medieval duchy. The Duchy of Brittany that emerged in the early 10th century was influenced by several earlier polities and these Gallic tribes – termed the Armorici in Latin – had close relationships with the Britonnes tribes in Roman Britain. The reasons for these migrations remain uncertain and these migrations from Britain contributed to Brittanys name.
Brittany fragmented into small, warring regna, each competing for resources, the Frankish Carolingian Empire conquered the region during the 8th century, starting around 748 taking the whole of Brittany by 799. The Carolingians tried to create a unitary administration around the centres of Rennes and Vannes using the local rulers, Carolingian technology and culture began to influence Brittany, and the church in Brittany began to emulate the Frankish model. The greatest influence on the Duchy, was the formation of a unitary Brittany kingdom in the 9th century, in 831 Louis the Pious appointed Nominoe, the Count of Vannes, ruler of the Bretons, imperial missus, at Ingelheim in 831. After the death of Louis in 840, Nominoe rose to challenge the new emperor, Charles the Bald, Charles the Bald created the Marches of Neustria to defend Western Francia from the Bretons and the Vikings. Erispoe fought Charles the Bald, who felt that an attack would successfully challenge the new Breton leader. Erispoe won a victory at the Battle of Jengland and, under their Treaty of Angers in 851, the new kingdom proved fragile and collapsed under Viking attack.
In 853 the Viking Godfried left the Seine with his fleet, sailed around the Breton peninsula, Erispoe entered into an alliance with the leader of another Viking fleet, who betrayed him, resulting in Erispoes defeat at the hands of the Vikings. A weakened Erispoe ruled until 857 when he was assassinated and followed as Breton ruler by his cousin and rival, Alan Is military success resulted in a period of peace from Viking invasions and few raids from the Vikings were recorded from 900 through to 907
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub, known as Saladin, was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish origin, Saladin led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant, at the height of his power, his sultanate included Egypt, Upper Mesopotamia, the Hejaz and other parts of North Africa. When Saladins uncle Shirkuh died in 1169, al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, in the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestine, commissioned the successful conquest of Yemen, and staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt. Not long after Nur ad-Dins death in 1174, Saladin launched his conquest of Syria, by mid-1175, Saladin had conquered Hama and Homs, inviting the animosity of his former Zengid lords, who had been the official rulers of Syria. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army at the Battle of the Horns of Hama and was proclaimed the Sultan of Egypt. Saladin made further conquests in northern Syria and Jazira, escaping two attempts on his life by the Assassins, before returning to Egypt in 1177 to address issues there.
By 1182, Saladin completed the conquest of Muslim Syria after capturing Aleppo, although the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem continued to exist until the late 13th century, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region. Saladin died in Damascus in 1193, having given away much of his wealth to his subjects. He is buried in an adjacent to the Umayyad Mosque. Saladin has become a prominent figure in Muslim, Arab and Kurdish culture, Saladin was born in Tikrit in modern-day Iraq. His personal name was Yusuf, Salah ad-Din is a laqab and his family was of Kurdish ancestry, and had originated from the city of Dvin in medieval Armenia. The Rawadid tribe he hailed from had been assimilated into the Arabic-speaking world by this time. Ayyub provided ferries for the army and gave refuge in Tikrit. According to Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, Saladin was born on the night his family left Tikrit. In 1139, Ayyub and his moved to Mosul, where Imad ad-Din Zengi acknowledged his debt.
After the death of Zengi in 1146, his son, Nur ad-Din, became the regent of Aleppo, who now lived in Damascus, was reported to have a particular fondness for the city, but information on his early childhood is scarce. About education, Saladin wrote children are brought up in the way in which their elders were brought up, several sources claim that during his studies he was more interested in religion than joining the military. Another factor which may have affected his interest in religion was that, during the First Crusade, in addition to Islam, Saladin had a knowledge of the genealogies and histories of the Arabs, as well as the bloodlines of Arabian horses
Later Liang (Five Dynasties)
The Later Liang was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Zhu Wen, posthumously known as Taizu of Later Liang, the Later Liang would last until 923 when it was destroyed by Later Tang. Zhu Wen initially allied himself as Huang Chao’s lieutenant, however, he took Huang’s best troops and established his own power base as a warlord in Kaifeng. By 904, he had exerted control over both of the twin Tang Dynasty capitals of Changan and Luoyang, Tang emperor Zhaozong was ordered murdered by Zhu in 904 and the last Tang emperor, Ai Di, was deposed three years later. Emperor Ai of Tang was murdered in 908, ordered by Zhu, Zhu Wen declared himself emperor of the new Later Liang in Kaifeng in 907. The name Liang refers to the Henan region in which the heart of the regime rested, the Later Liang controlled most of northern China, though much of Shaanxi as well as Hebei and Shanxi remained largely outside Later Liang control. The Later Liang maintained a relationship with the Shatuo Turks.
After Li Keyong’s death, his son, Li Cunxu, continued to expand his State of Jin, Li was able to destroy the Later Liang in 923 and found Later Tang. Generally through Chinese history, it was historians of kingdoms whose histories bestowed the Mandate of Heaven posthumously on preceding dynasties and this was typically done for the purpose of strengthening the present rulers ties to the Mandate themselves. Song Dynasty historian Xue Juzheng did exactly this in his work History of the Five Dynasties, several justifications were given for this, and successive Five Dynasties regimes, to be conferred the Mandate of Heaven. Among these was that these dynasties all controlled most of the traditional Chinese heartland, jiedushi Tang Dynasty Huang Chao Mote, F. W
Zhu was able to conquer much of central China, but most of Shaanxi and Hebei remained outside his reach, controlled by rival states Qi, and Yan respectively. The rulers in the south largely were nominally submissive to him with the exception of major states Wu, Emperor Taizus reign lasted until 912 when he was killed by his son Zhu Yougui. Zhu Yougui was subsequently overthrown by his brother Zhu Youzhen the next year, the Later Liang would last until 923. Details on Zhu Wens origin are scarce and he was born the youngest of three sons, Quanyu and Wen, his father, Zhu Cheng was an instructor in the Five Classics in Dangshan County, which at that time belonged to Songzhou. Zhu Cheng died while Wen was still a boy, likely about 864 and his widow brought her three sons to live in the household of Liu Chong of Xiao County, Xuzhou. Zhu Chengs mother is known to have been surnamed Liu and it is therefore possible that Liu Chong was a relative of Zhu Wens grandmother. If this was in fact the case, Zhu Chengs origin can not have been too obscure since the Liu family was the family in the area.
The marriage of the daughter into the Yuan family indicate a family of some standing, Zhu instead went on to form his own bandit gang, one of many operating between the Yellow and Huai Rivers. In about 877 Zhu Wen and the brother, Zhu Cun. Cun was killed in battle, but Wen rose through the ranks until given a command following Huang Chaos capture of the imperial capital Changan in January 881. With this army Zhu Wen attacked and captured nearby Tong Prefecture, many of the military governors had submitted to Huang Chao following his capture of Changan, but soon reverted to the Tang court once they realized that cause was not yet lost. By 882 Huang Chao was effectively surrounded, controlling only two prefectures outside Changan, one of which was Zhu Wens Tong Prefecture, Wen now found the time opportune to change sides. After first assassinating his military overseer Yan Shi, sent by Huang Chao to guard against just such a possibility, Zhu Wen surrendered to the Hezhong Circuit s military governor, Wang Chongrong.
On 3 May 883 Zhu was appointed prefect of Bian Prefecture and military governor of Xuanwu Circuit and it was already known that Huang planned to escape east to Henan through the Lantian pass and the court needed someone to defend the canal route from the south-eastern granaries. As a former rebel with local knowledge of the area in question and it could not have hurt his chances either that Quanzhong had actively sought the patronage of Wang Chongrong, one of the chief architects of the imperial offensive, who he took to calling “uncle”. Tang forces entered Changan half a month after Zhus appointment and on 9 August Zhu duly arrived at Bian, as seen above Zhu Quanzhong arrived at Bian more than three months after his appointment. These retainers would provide crucial leadership in his years at Bian. The majority of them had served with Zhu under Huang Chao
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire. From an autocracy in Carolingian times the title evolved into an elected monarchy chosen by the Prince-electors, until the Reformation the Emperor elect was required to be crowned by the Pope before assuming the imperial title. The title was held in conjunction with the rule of the Kingdom of Germany, in theory, the Holy Roman Emperor was primus inter pares among the other Catholic monarchs, in practice, a Holy Roman Emperor was only as strong as his army and alliances made him. Various royal houses of Europe, at different times, effectively became hereditary holders of the title, after the Reformation many of the subject states and most of those in Germany were Protestant while the Emperor continued to be Catholic. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last Emperor as a result of the collapse of the polity during the Napoleonic wars, from the time of Constantine I the Roman emperors had, with very few exceptions, taken on a role as promoters and defenders of Christianity.
In the west, the title of Emperor was revived in 800, as the power of the papacy grew during the Middle Ages and emperors came into conflict over church administration. The best-known and most bitter conflict was known as the Investiture Controversy. After Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III, no pope appointed an emperor again until the coronation of Otto the Great in 962. Under Otto and his successors, much of the former Carolingian kingdom of Eastern Francia fell within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, the various German princes elected one of their peers as King of the Germans, after which he would be crowned as emperor by the Pope. After Charles Vs coronation, all succeeding emperors were called elected Emperor due to the lack of papal coronation, the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was first used in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa. Charles V was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope, the final Holy Roman Emperor-elect, Francis II, abdicated in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars that saw the Empires final dissolution.
The standard designation of the Holy Roman Emperor was August Emperor of the Romans, the word Holy had never been used as part of that title in official documents. In German-language historiography, the term Römisch-deutscher Kaiser is used to distinguish the title from that of Roman Emperor on one hand, the English term Holy Roman Emperor is a modern shorthand for emperor of the Holy Roman Empire not corresponding to the historical style or title. Successions to the kingship were controlled by a variety of complicated factors, elections meant the kingship of Germany was only partially hereditary, unlike the kingship of France, although sovereignty frequently remained in a dynasty until there were no more male successors. The Electoral council was set at seven princes by the Golden Bull of 1356, another elector was added in 1690, and the whole college was reshuffled in 1803, a mere three years before the dissolution of the Empire. After 1438, the Kings remained in the house of Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine, with the exception of Charles VII.
Maximilian I and his successors no longer travelled to Rome to be crowned as Emperor by the Pope, Maximilian therefore named himself Elected Roman Emperor in 1508 with papal approval. This title was in use by all his uncrowned successors, of his successors only Charles V, the immediate one, received a papal coronation
Combat of the Thirty
The Combat of the Thirty was an episode in the Breton War of Succession, a war fought to determine who would rule the Duchy of Brittany. It was a fight between picked combatants from both sides of the conflict. After a hard-fought battle, the Franco-Breton Blois faction emerged victorious, the combat was celebrated by medieval chroniclers and balladeers as a noble display of the ideals of chivalry. In the words of Jean Froissart, the warriors held themselves as valiantly on both sides as if they had been all Rolands and Olivers and this idealised account conflicts with a version according to which the combat arose from the mistreatment of the local population by Bemborough. The Breton War of Succession was a struggle between the House of Montfort and House of Blois for control of the Duchy of Brittany. It came to be absorbed into the larger Hundred Years War between France and England, with England supporting the Montforts and France supporting the Blois family, the motivation for the combat is unclear.
These women were leading the two factions at the time, as Joans husband was in captivity and Joannas was dead. This is the account given by the contemporary chroniclers Jean le Bel and Jean Froissart, Le Bel states that he had his information from one of the combatants. Froissart appears to simply copy le Bels version, popular ballads portrayed the cause differently. Beaumanoir is depicted as a coming to the aid of the defenceless people. The poet portrays Beaumanoir as a model of Christian piety and it was organised in the manner of a tournament, with refreshments on hand and a large gathering of spectators. The words are recorded by Froissart, the saying may not be authentic, Johan Huizinga remarks, Beaumanoir commanded thirty Bretons, Bemborough a mixed force of twenty Englishmen, six German mercenaries and four Breton partisans of Montfort. It is unclear whether Bemborough himself was English or German and his name is spelled in many variant forms, and is given as Brandebourch by Froissart, and appears as Bembro.
His first name is given as Robert, sometimes as Richard. Both Le Bel and Froissart say he was a German knight, all the Blois-faction knights can be identified, though Jean de Beaumanoirs given name is Robert in some versions. The names and identities of the Montforists are much more confused, according to Froissart, the battle was fought with great gallantry on both sides. After several hours of fighting there were four dead on the French side, both sides were exhausted and agreed to a break for refreshments and bandaging of injuries. After the battle resumed, the English leader Bemborough was wounded and killed, at this point the English faction formed a tight defensive body, which the French repeatedly attacked
An Emir, sometimes transliterated Amir, Amier, or Ameer, is an aristocratic or noble title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means commander, general, or prince, when translated as prince, the word emirate is analogous to a sovereign principality. Amir, meaning Lord or commander-in-chief, is derived from the Arabic root a-m-r, the word entered English in 1593, from the French émir. It was one of the titles or names of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, the monarchs of UAE, Qatar and Kuwait are currently titled Emirs. All members of the House of Saud have the title of Emir, the caliphs first used the title Amir al-Muminin or Commander of the Faithful, stressing their leadership over the Islamic Empire, especially over the militia. The title has been assumed by various other Muslim rulers, including Sultans, for Shia Muslims, they still give this title to the Caliph Ali as Amir al Muminin. Note that the title was held by Christians as well, the word Emir is used less formally for leaders in certain contexts.
For example, the leader of a group of pilgrims to Mecca is called an Emir hadji, where an adjectival form is necessary, Emiral suffices. Amirzade, the son of a prince, hence the Persian princely title Mirza, the temporal leader of the Yazidi people is known as an Emir or Prince. From the start, Emir has been a military title, in certain decimally-organized Muslim armies, Amir was an officer rank. For example, in Mughal India Amirs commanded 1000 horsemen, ten of them under one Malik, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, and Abdullah Bughra declared themselves Emirs of the First East Turkestan Republic. Amir is a name in the Persian language and a prefix name for many masculine names such as Amir Ali. Amir-i-Iel designates the head of an Il in imperial Persia, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the female name Emira, often interpreted as princess, is a derivative of the male name Emir. Abdul Abulbul Amir, both character and song, wat Tambor in Star Wars, Episode II – Attack of the Clones took the title of Emir.
In the Star Wars universe the title may relate to Tambors military command, Emir Karim, a character in Wild At Heart, a Latin American drama. Specific emirates of note List of emirs of Harar List of emirs of Kuwait List of emirs of Qatar List of Emirs of Mosul Emirate of Afghanistan
Theodosius (son of Maurice)
Theodosius was the eldest son of Byzantine Emperor Maurice and was co-emperor from 590 until his deposition and execution during a military revolt in November 602. Along with his father-in-law Germanus, he was proposed as successor to Maurice by the troops. Sent in a mission to secure aid from Sassanid Persia by his father. Theodosius was the first child of Maurice and his wife, the Augusta Constantina and he was born on August 4,583 or 585. He was the first son to be born to a reigning emperor since Theodosius II in 401, the papal envoy, or apocrisiarius, to Constantinople, the future Pope Gregory the Great, acted as his godfather. The scholar Evagrius Scholasticus composed a work celebrating Theodosius birth, for which he was rewarded by Maurice with the rank of consul. A few years after his birth, possibly in 587, Theodosius was raised to the rank of Caesar and thus became his fathers heir-apparent, while on March 26,590, he was publicly proclaimed as co-emperor. In November 601 or early February 602, Maurice married Theodosius to a daughter of the patrician Germanus, the historian Theophylact Simocatta, the major chronicler of Maurices reign, records that on February 2,602, Germanus saved Theodosius from harm during food riots in Constantinople.
Later in the year, during the revolt of the Danubian armies in autumn, Theodosius. There they received a letter from the troops, in which they demanded Maurices resignation, a redress of their grievances. They presented the letter to Maurice, who rejected the armys demands, the emperor however began suspecting Germanus of playing a part in the revolt. On the very next day however and his family and closest associates fled the capital before the rebel army under Phocas. From there, Theodosius was dispatched along with the praetorian prefect Constantine Lardys to seek the aid of Khosrau II, Maurice however soon recalled him, and on his return Theodosius fell into the hands of Phocas men and was executed at Chalcedon. His father and younger brothers had been executed a few days earlier on November 27, rumours emerged of Theodosiuss survival and spread far and wide. It was alleged that his father-in-law Germanus had bribed his executioner, in this story, Theodosius fled, eventually reaching Lazica, where he died.
Theophylact Simocatta reports that he thoroughly investigated these rumours and found them false, the general Narses, who rose against Phocas in Mesopotamia, exploited these rumours, he produced a false Theodosius, and claimed to be fighting in his name. The imposter was presented to Khosrau II by Narses, ^ a, Germanuss identity is unclear
Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, and across from the Sinai Peninsula lies Saudi Arabia, although Jordan and it is the worlds only contiguous Afrasian nation. Egypt has among the longest histories of any country, emerging as one of the worlds first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt experienced some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. One of the earliest centres of Christianity, Egypt was Islamised in the century and remains a predominantly Muslim country. With over 92 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, and the fifteenth-most populous in the world.
The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, the large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypts territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypts residents live in areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria. Modern Egypt is considered to be a regional and middle power, with significant cultural and military influence in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world. Egypts economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, Egypt is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Miṣr is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern name of Egypt. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew מִצְרַיִם, the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian