Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Flavius Ricimer was a Romanized Germanic general who effectively ruled the remaining territory of the Western Roman Empire from 456 until his death in 472. Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimers military office and his dominance over the empire led to historians such as J. B. Bury to conclude that he was a link between previous magistri militum, such as the Vandal Stilicho, and the Germanic King of Italy, Odoacer deposed Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476, in an act often considered to mark the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Ricimer was the son of Rechila, the Suevic King of Galicia and his mother was the daughter of Wallia, King of the Visigoths. As entry into the Western Empires military was an option for losers of struggles for leadership among the barbarians. Ricimers younger sister married Gondioc, the King of the Burgundians, according to Sidonius Apollinaris, Ricimer served under the magister militum Flavius Aetius alongside the comes domesticorum Majorian, whom he befriended.
After the assassinations, the Roman Senator Petronius Maximus proclaimed himself emperor, however, was killed by a Roman mob immediately prior to the Vandal sacking of the city in 455. After the sack, the Visigothic King Theodoric II proclaimed as Emperor Avitus, in return for Theodorics support, Avitus agreed to allow the Visigoths to enter Suevi-controlled Hispania. Theodoric consented to Avituss offers and the new emperor, with the Visigoths under his command, Avitus named the Visigoth Remistus as magister militum, a position which had been vacant since Aetiuss death. Following the arrival of Avitus in Rome, Majorian gave his support, albeit reluctantly, Avitus subsequently appointed Ricimer as a comes, or count of the empire, a prominent military position. By this point, the Western Empire encompassed only the Italian Peninsula and portions of southern Gaul, Ricimer raised an army and navy from the Germanic mercenaries available to him, and commenced campaigns directed against barbarian tribes in conflict with the empire.
Ricimer achieved his first important victory in 456, when he defeated the Vandals in a naval battle, although Priscus wrote that Avitus had sent him to Sicily to engage the Vandals, Hydatius states he defeated the Vandals near Corsica. Ricimer used his new position to assist his colleague Majorian in plotting against Avitus, who had not yet recognized as Emperor of the West by Marcian. Ricimer and Majorian convinced the Roman Senate to authorize an expedition against Avitus. The two led an army against a force commanded by the magister militum Remistus and defeated it at Piacenza on October 16,456. They besieged Avitus in Ravenna, which fell, Avitus was captured, forced to assume the bishopric of Piacenza, and finally executed. With the Western throne vacant, the new Eastern Emperor, Leo I, granted Ricimer the title of patrician, Leo appointed Majorian to replace Ricimer in his Italian command. Without a Western Emperor, Leo hoped to use Ricimer as his effective viceregent in the West, as a Germanic tribesman, Ricimer could not assume the imperial throne himself, but as magister militum he gained influence over the Germanic peoples occupying Gaul and Northern Africa
Principality of Wales
The Principality of Wales existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267 and 1277. For most of its history it was annexed and united to the English Crown, the Principality was formally founded in 1216 at the Council of Aberdyfi and recognised by the 1218 Treaty of Worcester between Llywelyn the Great of Wales and Henry III of England. The treaty gave substance to the reality of 13th century Wales and England. Although it owed fealty to the Angevin king of England, the principality was de facto independent and its existence has been seen as proof that all the elements necessary for the growth of Welsh statehood were in place. The period of de facto independence ended with Edward Is conquest of the Principality between 1277 and 1283, under the Statute of Rhuddlan the Principality lost its independence and became effectively an annexed territory of the English crown. From 1301, the lands in north and west Wales formed part of the appanage of Englands heir apparent.
On accession of the Prince to the English throne, the lands, on two occasions Welsh claimants to the title rose up in rebellion during this period, although neither ultimately succeeded. Additional lands were acquired through vassalage or conquest, and by regaining lands lost to Marcher lords, particularly that of the Perfeddwlad, Powys Fadog, Powys Wenwynwyn, and Ceredigion. Previous Welsh rulers had styled themselves in a variety of ways, the most powerful were often referred to as King of the Britons. The Aberffraw family had long claimed primacy over all other Welsh lords, including over those rulers of Powys, Gruffudd ap Cynans biography was first written in Latin and intended for a wider audience outside Wales. Llywelyn had been at pains to ensure that his heirs and successors would follow the system of inheritance which excluded illegitimate sons. In so doing he excluded his elder bastard son Gruffydd ap Llywelyn from the inheritance, in 1240 Llywelyn died and Henry III of England promptly invaded large areas of his former realm, usurping them from him.
However, the two came to peace and Henry honoured at least part of the agreement and bestowed upon Dafydd ap Llywelyn the title Prince of Wales. This title would be granted to his successor Llywelyn in 1267 and was claimed by his brother Dafydd. The traditional numbering of the Princes of Wales begins with Owain Gwynedd who ruled from 1137 until 1170. He was never acknowledged as Prince of Wales, and in fact never used that title and this was demonstrated when Owain Glyndŵr was explicitly crowned as Owain IV of Wales in 1404. The English viewed it differently and considered the title to be bestowed by them and with their grace on only Dafydd ap Llywelyn in 1240. After 1301 the title was granted to the eldest son and heir of an English sovereign, the prodigious Owain Gwynedd succeeded in retaining for his family the primary position in Wales which his father had achieved
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Abul-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad, popularly known as Akbar I and Akbar the Great, was a Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, a strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river. His power and influence, extended over the country because of Mughal military, cultural. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture, holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion.
Akbars courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts and architecture. A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema, many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this religion was Birbal. Akbars reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history, during his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation.
Thus, the foundations for an empire under Mughal rule was laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539–40 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh. There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humauyuns younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh
The Bengalis, spelled as the Bangalees, are a major Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group. They are native to the region of Bengal in South Asia and they speak the Bengali language, the most easterly branch of the Indo-European language family. Bengalis are the third largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese, apart from Bangladesh and West Bengal, Bengali-majority populations reside in Indias Tripura state, the Barak Valley in Assam state and the union territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The global Bengali diaspora has well-established communities in Pakistan, the United States, the United Kingdom and they have four major religious subgroups, including Bengali Muslims, Bengali Hindus, Bengali Christians and Bengali Buddhists. Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,000 years old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, however evidence of much older Palaeolithic human habitations are found in the form of a Stone Implement and a Hand Axe in Rangamati and Feni districts of Bangladesh.
The origin of the word Bangla ~ Bengal is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from a tribe called Bang that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Kingdoms of Anga and Magadha were formed in and around Bengal and were first described in the Atharvaveda around 1000 BCE as well as in Hindu epic Mahabharata, from the 6th century BCE, Magadha expanded to include most of the Bihar and Bengal regions. It was one of the four kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai by the Greeks around 100 BCE, the word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd in reference to an area in Bengal. Later from the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire, one of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal was Shashanka, reigning around the early 7th century. After a period of anarchy, Gopala came to power in 750, atisha was a renowned Bengali Buddhist teacher who was instrumental in revival of Buddhism in Tibet and held the position of Abbot at the Vikramshila university.
Tilopa was from Bengal region, the Pala dynasty was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region, bakhtiar Khilji, a Turkic general of the Slave dynasty of Delhi Sultanate, defeated Lakshman Sen of the Sena dynasty and conquered large parts of Bengal. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the few hundred years. Islam was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim saint Shah Jalal in the early 14th century, Mughal general Man Singh conquered parts of Bengal including Dhaka during the time of Emperor Akbar. Few Rajput tribes from his army permanently settled around Dhaka and surrounding lands, on, in the early 17th century, Islam Khan conquered all of Bengal. Other figures have been considered to be part of the Renaissance and he is considered one of the fathers of radio science, and is considered the father of Bengali science fiction
Andrea Palladio was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is considered to be the most influential individual in the history of architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, the city of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Palladio was born on 30 November 1508 in Padua and was given the name and his father, called Della Gondola, was a miller. From early on, Andrea Palladio was introduced into the work of building, in Padua he gained his first experiences as a stonecutter in the sculpture workshop of Bartolomeo Cavazza da Sossano, who is said to have imposed particularly hard working conditions. At the age of sixteen he moved to Vicenza where he would reside for most of his life, here he became an assistant in the Pedemuro studio, a leading workshop of stonecutters and masons. He joined a guild of stonemasons and bricklayers and he was employed as a stonemason to make monuments and decorative sculptures.
These sculptures reflected the Mannerist style of the architect Michele Sanmicheli, perhaps the key moment that sparked Palladios career was being employed by the Humanist poet and scholar, Gian Giorgio Trissino, from 1538 to 1539. While Trissino was reconstructing the Villa Cricoli, he took interest in Palladios work, Trissino was heavily influenced by the studies of Vitruvius, who influenced Palladios own ideals and attitudes toward classical architecture. It was Trissino who gave him the name by which he became known, indeed, the word Palladio means Wise one. The powerful Barbaros introduced Palladio to Venice, where he finally became Proto della Serenissima after Jacopo Sansovino, in addition to the Barbaros, the Corner and Pisani families supported Palladios career. Andrea Palladio began to develop his own architectural style around 1541, the Palladian style, named after him, adhered to classical Roman principles he rediscovered and explained in his works. Andrea Palladio is known to be one of the most influential architects in Western architecture and his architectural works have been valued for centuries as the quintessence of High Renaissance calm and harmony.
He designed many palaces and churches, but Palladios reputation, the palladian villas are located mainly in the province of Vicenza, while the palazzi are concentrated in the city of Vicenza and the churches in Venice. A number of his works are now protected as part of the World Heritage Site City of Vicenza, other buildings by Palladio are to be found within the Venice and its Lagoon World Heritage Site. Palladios first major public project began when his designs for building the loggias for the town hall and he proposed an addition of two-storey stone buttresses reflecting the Gothic style of the existing hall while using classical proportions. The construction was completed in 1617 after Palladios death, aside from Palladios designs, his publications contributed to Palladianism. During the second half of his life, Palladio published many books, above all, Palladio is most known for his designs of villas and palaces as well as his books
The Teatro Olimpico is a theatre in Vicenza, northern Italy, constructed in 1580-1585. The theatre was the design by the Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio and was not completed until after his death. The full Roman-style scaenae frons back screen across the stage is made from wood and it was the home of the Accademia Olimpica, which was founded there in 1555. The Teatro Olimpico is, along with the Teatro allantica in Sabbioneta, both these theatres were based, in large measure, on the Teatro Olimpico. It is still used several times a year, since 1994, the Teatro Olimpico, together with other Palladian buildings in and around Vicenza, has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto. The Teatro Olimpico is the last work by Palladio, and ranks amongst his highest masterworks, as well, Palladios papers include plans for the imagined reconstruction of the ruined Roman theatres in Pola and Verona. Palladio, a founder of the Olympic Academy, had already designed temporary theatre structures at various locations in the city, the most notable of these had been erected some seventeen years previously in the great hall of the Basilica Palladiana.
In order to fit a stage and seating area into the wide, shallow space, Palladio died in August 1580, only six months after construction had started on the theatre. Despite this setback, construction continued, with Palladios sketches and drawings serving as a guide, the other prominent Vicentine architect, Vincenzo Scamozzi was called upon to complete the project. Scamozzi had already stepped in to complete Palladios other great unfinished project and it is a mark of Scamozzis genius that both these projects are today regarded as being among Palladios most successfully executed works. Scamozzis contributions include the Odèo and Antiodèo rooms, as well as the entrance archway which leads from the street, the entrance archway was rusticated to make it fit with the rough and well-worn wall into which it was being inserted. However, Scamozzis most famous and most original contribution to the theatre was his elaborate stage set, aside from a single sketch of the scaenae frons, Palladio left no plans as to what kind of scenery should be used onstage.
His illustration of an idealized Roman scaenae frons for Barbaros edition of Vitruvius had shown perspective street views similar to those which would be built in the Teatro Olimpico. But the sketch of the scaenae frons for the Teatro Olimpico shows no such street scenes, the space behind the central archway. The simplest explanation for the absence of any scenes in this drawing is that the Academy had not yet obtained the land on which the scenery would be built. This land was acquired in 1582, after Scamozzi had taken charge of the project and this made it possible to extend the building. But it is appropriate to regard Scamozzi as the technical genius behind their remarkably successful execution. Scamozzis stage set was the first practical introduction of perspective views into Renaissance theatre, the scenery consists of seven hallways decorated to create the illusion of looking down the streets of a city from classical antiquity
Vicenza listen is a city in northeastern Italy. It is in the Veneto region at the base of the Monte Berico. Vicenza is approximately 60 kilometres west of Venice and 200 kilometres east of Milan, Vicenza is a thriving and cosmopolitan city, with a rich history and culture, and many museums, art galleries, villas and elegant Renaissance palazzi. With the Palladian Villas of the Veneto in the area, and his renowned Teatro Olimpico. In December 2008, Vicenza had an population of 115,927. Additionally, about one fifth of the gold and jewelry is made in Vicenza. Another important sector is the engineering/computer components industry, vicentia was settled by the Italic Euganei tribe and by the Paleo-Veneti tribe in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The Romans allied themselves with the Paleo-Veneti in their fight against the Celtic tribes that populated north-western Italy, the Roman presence in the area grew exponentially over time and the Paleo-Veneti were gradually assimilated. In 157 BC, the city was a de facto Roman centre and was given the name of Vicetia or Vincentia, the citizens of Vicetia received Roman citizenship and were inscribed into the Roman tribe Romilia in 49 BC.
It was an important Lombard city and a Frankish center, numerous Benedictine monasteries were built in the Vicenza area, beginning in the 6th century. In 899, Vicenza was destroyed by Magyar raiders, in 1001, Otto III handed over the government of the city to the bishop, and its communal organization had an opportunity to develop, separating soon from the episcopal authority. When peace was restored, the old rivalry with Padua and other cities was renewed, besides there were the internal factions of the Vivaresi. The tyrannical Ezzelino III from Bassano drove the Guelphs out of Vicenza, the independent commune joined the Second Lombard League against Emperor Frederick II, and was sacked by that monarch, after which it was annexed to Ezzelinos dominions. Vicenza came under rule of Venice in 1404, and its subsequent history is that of Venice and it was besieged by the Emperor Sigismund, and Maximilian I held possession of it in 1509 and 1516. Vicenza was a candidate to host the Council of Trent, after 1797, under Napoleonic rule, it was made a duché grand-fief within Napoleons personal Kingdom of Italy for general Caulaincourt, imperial Grand-Écuyer.
After 1814, Vicenza passed to the Austrian Empire, in 1848, the populace rose against Austria, more violently than in any other Italian centre apart from Milan and Brescia. As a part of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, it was annexed to Italy after the Third War of Italian independence, after the end of the latter, what followed was a period of depression following the devasatation caused by two world wars. In the following years, the development grew vertiginously
Glycerius was a Western Roman Emperor from 473 to 474. Elevated by his Magister militum Gundobad, Glycerius was rejected by the court at Constantinople and he served as the bishop of Salona. Sources on Glycerius are scarce and scanty and it is known that at the time of his elevation to the throne he was the comes domesticorum, the commander of the Imperial guard of the court at Ravenna. Previous to this posting, he had been the commander in Dalmatia. In 472, the Western Roman Empire was plagued by a war between Emperor Anthemius and his Magister militum, Ricimer. Ricimer killed the Emperor and put Olybrius on the throne, little is known about the short reign of Glycerius. A single law issued by Glycerius survives, concerning simony, dated 11 March 473 and addressed to Himilco, ralph Mathisen speculates that Glycerius tried to stay on good terms with the Eastern Roman Empire. For most of his rule, Glycerius lived in Northern Italy, evidenced by the fact that the coins issued in his name bear the mintmarks of Milan.
In 473, King of the Visigoths, ordered the invasion of Italy, despite the victorious defence of Italy, Glycerius could do nothing to prevent the Visigoths from conquering Arelate and Marseille, in Gaul. At the same time, the Ostrogoths led by King Widimir began marching to Italy, the possibility that the two Gothic armies would merge was disastrous. While this strategy prevented Vincentius from receiving reinforcements, it led to the convergence of both Gothic armies against Gaul. Therefore, Leo chose a candidate on his own, Julius Nepos, Magister militum in Dalmatia, the election was delayed, however, so Julius Nepos could not leave immediately, as the ports were closed for the winter. Leo I died in January 474 and was succeeded by his grandson, the young Leo II, Zeno continued the official position of Constantinople to deny any recognition of Glycerius, whom the court continued to view as a usurper. Regardless, Glycerius tried to reconcile with the Eastern court or, at least, for example, he did not choose a second Consul in order to allow Leo II to be Consul alone for the year 474.
In spring 474, the ports re-opened and Julius Nepos crossed the Adriatic Sea to Italy to depose Glycerius. Glycerius probably left Ravenna for Rome to resist the invader, he had a coin minted in Rome, claiming himself as Emperor together with Leo II and Zeno. However, Julius Nepos disembarked at Portus in July 474 AD, Glycerius was sent to Dalmatia as Bishop of Salona, serving a religious life until his death. Glycerius deposition was thus without any bloodshed, and historians investigated the reasons why the Western Emperor