Copernicus was born and died in Royal Prussia, a region that had been part of the Kingdom of Poland since 1466. A polyglot and polymath, he obtained a doctorate in law and was a mathematician, physician, classics scholar, governor, diplomat. In 1517 he derived a quantity theory of money – a key concept in economics –, Nicolaus Copernicus was born on 19 February 1473 in the city of Toruń, in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. His father was a merchant from Kraków and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Toruń merchant, Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. His brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork and his sister Barbara, named after her mother, became a Benedictine nun and, in her final years, prioress of a convent in Chełmno, she died after 1517. His sister Katharina married the businessman and Toruń city councilor Barthel Gertner and left five children, Copernicus fathers family can be traced to a village in Silesia near Nysa.
The villages name has been variously spelled Kopernik, Copernic, Coprirnik, in the 14th century, members of the family began moving to various other Silesian cities, to the Polish capital, Kraków, and to Toruń. The father, Mikołaj the Elder, likely the son of Jan, Nicolaus was named after his father, who appears in records for the first time as a well-to-do merchant who dealt in copper, selling it mostly in Danzig. He moved from Kraków to Toruń around 1458, Nicolaus father was actively engaged in the politics of the day and supported Poland and the cities against the Teutonic Order. In 1454 he mediated negotiations between Polands Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki and the Prussian cities for repayment of war loans, Copernicuss father married Barbara Watzenrode, the astronomers mother, between 1461 and 1464. The Modlibógs were a prominent Polish family who had been known in Polands history since 1271. The Watzenrode family, like the Kopernik family, had come from Silesia from near Świdnica and they soon became one of the wealthiest and most influential patrician families.
Lucas Watzenrode the Elder, a merchant and in 1439–62 president of the judicial bench, was a decided opponent of the Teutonic Knights. In 1453 he was the delegate from Toruń at the Grudziądz conference that planned the uprising against them, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger, the astronomers maternal uncle and patron, was educated at the University of Kraków and at the universities of Cologne and Bologna. He was an opponent of the Teutonic Order, and its Grand Master once referred to him as the devil incarnate. In 1489 Watzenrode was elected Bishop of Warmia against the preference of King Casimir IV, as a result, Watzenrode quarreled with the king until Casimir IVs death three years later. Watzenrode was able to close relations with three successive Polish monarchs, John I Albert, Alexander Jagiellon, and Sigismund I the Old. He was a friend and key advisor to each ruler, Watzenrode came to be considered the most powerful man in Warmia, and his wealth and influence allowed him to secure Copernicus education and career as a canon at Frombork Cathedral
The Livonian Order was an autonomous branch of the Teutonic Order, formed in 1237. It was a member of the Livonian Confederation, from 1435 to 1561, the Order was formed from the remnants of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword after their defeat by Samogitians in 1236 at the Battle of Schaulen. They were incorporated into the Teutonic Knights and became known as the Livonian Order in 1237, in 1298 Lithuanians took Karkus castle north of Riga, and defeated the order in the Battle of Turaida, killing Livonian Land Master Bruno and 22 knights. In 1346, the Order bought the Duchy of Estonia from King Valdemar IV of Denmark, life within the Orders territory is described in the Chronicle of Balthasar Russow. The Livonian Orders defeat in the Battle of Swienta on September 1,1435, during the Livonian War, the Order suffered a decisive defeat by troops of Muscovite Russia in the Battle of Ergeme in 1560. After coming to an agreement with Sigismund II Augustus and his representatives, in the southern part of the Brothers lands he created the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia for his family.
Most of the lands were seized by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The north of Estonia was taken back by Denmark and Sweden, the Livonian Master, like the grandmaster of the Teutonic Order, was elected by his fellow knights for a life term. The grandmaster exercised supervisory powers and his advice was considered equal to a command, the grandmaster of Teutonic knights did not limit local autonomy, he rarely visited Livonia or sent ambassadors for oversight
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes from Aukštaitija, the Grand Duchy expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine and Russia. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe and it was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages and cultural heritage. Consolidation of the Lithuanian lands began in the late 12th century, the first ruler of the Grand Duchy, was crowned as Catholic King of Lithuania in 1253. The pagan state was targeted in the crusade by the Teutonic Knights. The multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state emerged only at the reign of Gediminas. The reign of Vytautas the Great marked both the greatest territorial expansion of the Grand Duchy and the defeat of the Teutonic Knights in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 and it marked the rise of the Lithuanian nobility.
After Vytautass death, Lithuanias relationship with the Kingdom of Poland greatly deteriorated, Lithuanian noblemen, including the Radvila family, attempted to break the personal union with Poland. However, the unsuccessful Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars with the Grand Duchy of Moscow forced the union to remain intact, the Union of Lublin of 1569 created a new state, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In this federation, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania maintained its political distinctiveness and had separate government, army, shortly after, the unitary character of the state was confirmed by adopting the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The newly reformed Commonwealth was invaded by Russia in 1792 and partitioned between the neighbours, with a truncated state remaining only nominally independent, after the Kościuszko Uprising, the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria in 1795. The Statutes of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania name the name of the state as Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia.
The title of Grand Duchy was consistently applied to Lithuania from the 14th century onward, in the 12th century, Slavic chronicles refer to Lithuania as one of the areas attacked by the Rus. Pagan Lithuanians initially paid tribute to Polotsk, but they grew in strength. The sudden spark of military raids marked consolidation of the Lithuanian lands in Aukštaitija, the Livonian Order and Teutonic Knights, crusading military orders, were established in Riga in 1202 and in Prussia in 1226. The Christian orders posed a significant threat to pagan Baltic tribes, the peace treaty with Galicia–Volhynia of 1219 provides evidence of cooperation between Lithuanians and Samogitians. This treaty lists 21 Lithuanian dukes, including five senior Lithuanian dukes from Aukštaitija, although they had battled in the past, the Lithuanians and the Žemaičiai now faced a common enemy. Likely Živinbudas had the most authority and at least several dukes were from the same families, the formal acknowledgment of common interests and the establishment of a hierarchy among the signatories of the treaty foreshadowed the emergence of the state
Julian's Persian War
Julians Persian War, or the Perso-Roman War of 363, was the last undertaking of the Roman emperor Julian, begun in March 363. It was a war against the Persian Empire ruled by the Sassanian king Shapur II. Shapur is believed to have expected an invasion by way of the Tigris valley, Julian sent a detachment to join with his ally Arshak II of Armenia and take the Tigris route. In one of the skirmishes Julian was wounded and died of his wounds leaving his successor along with his army trapped in Persian territory, the leaderless Roman army chose Jovian as Julians successor. Thus Arsaces II of Armenia was left without any military or diplomatic support and he was captured and imprisoned by Shapur in 368, he committed suicide in 369 or 370 whilst in Persian captivity. A devout believer in the old Roman religion, Julian asked several major oracles about the outcome of his expedition. The philosopher Sallustius, a friend of Julian, wrote advising him to abandon his plan, and numerous adverse omens were reported, at the urging of other advisers he went ahead.
He instructed Arshak II of Armenia to prepare a large army and these preparations are thought by scholars to have suggested to Shapur that an invasion from the north, by way of the Tigris valley, was Julians plan. Julian had wintered at Antioch in Roman Syria, on 5 March 363 he set out north-west with his army by way of Aleppo and Manbij, where fifty soldiers were killed in the collapse of a portico while they were marching under it. He sent a detachment under Procopius and Sebastianus towards the Tigris where they were to join Arshak and they were to attack the Persians from the north. Julian himself, with the part of his army turned south towards the lower Euphrates, reaching Callinicum on 27 March. There he was met by leaders of the Saraceni, who offered Julian a gold crown and he refused to pay the traditional tribute in return. The army followed the Euphrates downstream to Circesium and crossed the river Aboras with the help of a pontoon bridge assembled for the purpose, teitler and Historical Commentary on Ammianus Marcellinus XXIV.
Kriterien einer Katastrophe in Richard Klein, ed. Julian Apostata p.455 ff
Henry VII of England
Henry VII was King of England from seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, and the first monarch of the House of Tudor. He ruled the Principality of Wales until 29 November 1489 and was Lord of Ireland, Henry won the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle and he cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the civil war and his supportive stance of the islands wool industry and stand off with the Low Countries had long lasting benefits to all the British Isles economy. However, the capriciousness and lack of due process that many would tarnish his legacy and were soon ended upon Henry VIIs death. According to the contemporary historian Polydore Vergil, simple greed underscored the means by which royal control was over-asserted in Henrys final years, Henry VII was born at Pembroke Castle on 28 January 1457 to Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond.
His father, Edmund Tudor, 1st Earl of Richmond, died three months before his birth, Henrys paternal grandfather, Owen Tudor, originally from the Tudors of Penmynydd, Isle of Anglesey in Wales, had been a page in the court of Henry V. He rose to one of the Squires to the Body to the King after military service at the Battle of Agincourt. Owen is said to have married the widow of Henry V. One of their sons was Edmund Tudor, father of Henry VII, Edmund was created Earl of Richmond in 1452, and formally declared legitimate by Parliament. Henrys main claim to the English throne derived from his mother through the House of Beaufort, Henrys mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III, and his third wife Katherine Swynford. Katherine was Gaunts mistress for about 25 years, when married in 1396, they already had four children. Thus Henrys claim was somewhat tenuous, it was from a woman, in theory, the Portuguese and Castilian royal families had a better claim as descendants of Catherine of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt and his second wife Constance of Castile.
Gaunts nephew Richard II legitimised Gaunts children by Katherine Swynford by Letters Patent in 1397, in 1407, Henry IV, who was Gaunts son by his first wife, issued new Letters Patent confirming the legitimacy of his half-siblings, but declaring them ineligible for the throne. Henry IVs action was of doubtful legality, as the Beauforts were previously legitimised by an Act of Parliament, but it further weakened Henrys claim. Henry made political capital out of his Welsh ancestry, for example in attracting military support. He came from an old, established Anglesey family that claimed descent from Cadwaladr and he took it, as well as the standard of St George, on his procession through London after the victory at Bosworth. A contemporary writer and Henrys biographer, Bernard André, much of Henrys Welsh descent
He was born in Qabodiyon, a village in middle-age Bactria in the ancient Greater Iranian province of Khorasan, now in modern Tajikistan and died in Yamagan, now Afghanistan. He is considered one of the poets and writers in Persian literature. The Safarnama, an account of his travels, is his most famous work, Nasir Khusraw was born in 1004 AD, in Qabodiyon. He chose Merv for his residence, and was the owner of a house and garden there. Until A. H.437, he worked as a secretary and revenue collector for the Seljuk sultan Toghrul Beg, or rather for his brother Jaghir Beg, the emir of Khorasan. The minute sketches of Jerusalem and its environs are even today of practical value. D. and he died in Yamagan in present-day northern Afghanistan. Safarnama Safarnama is his most famous work, after 1000 years, his Safarnama is still readable for Persian-speaking people. Gushayish wa Rahayish Another work of Nasir Khusraw is the Persian philosophical work Gushayis wa Rahayish which has translated into English by F. M.
Hunzai under the title and Liberation, the work discusses creation, questions related to the soul, epistemology and Ismaili Islamic doctorines. From a linguistic point of view, the work is an example of philosophical writing in new Persian. It is the strain which runs, although in a somewhat lower key. It concludes with a vision of a beautiful work of spirits who have stripped off the fetters of earthly cares and sorrows and revel in the pure light of divine wisdom. Book on Mathematics Nasir Khusraw wrote a book on mathematics which has now been lost and he states in his other work that he could, not find one single scholar throughout all of Khorasan and eastern lands like myself could grapple with the solutions to these problems. The following poem speaks to this aspect of Khusraws poetry, by Nasir-i Khusrau Translated by Iraj Bashiri Copyright, Iraj Bashiri,2004 Reproach not the Firmament deep and blue, Forget thy stubborn nature to reveal a clue. Neither expect from the Firmament any joy, When your own star you knowingly destroy, Fruitless trees are, at best, fuel for fire, Fruitless men, alike, to oblivion retire.
Forget about fragrant tresses and lips sweet, About hedges, lavish not praise on a filthy creature, With dastardly deeds as its only feature. Adore not with verse the Lie or the Greed, Smite down the infidels’ most cherished creed, be not Unsuri, who groveling worshiped Mahmud, Lavished on him all flattery and paean he could. I pledge never to sprinkle before the swine, These precious, the poetry of Nasir Khusraw is replete with advice and wisdom
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. The book, first printed in 1543 in Nuremberg, Holy Roman Empire, offered a model of the universe to Ptolemys geocentric system. Copernicus initially outlined his system in a short, anonymous manuscript that he distributed to several friends, a physicians library list dating to 1514 includes a manuscript whose description matches the Commentariolus, so Copernicus must have begun work on his new system by that time. Most historians believe that he wrote the Commentariolus after his return from Italy, possibly only after 1510, Copernicus used three of them in De revolutionibus, giving only longitudes, and erroneously attributing them to Schöner. Copernicus values differed slightly from the published by Schöner in 1544 in Observationes XXX annorum a I. A manuscript of De revolutionibus in Copernicus own hand has survived, after his death, it was given to his pupil, who for publication had only been given a copy without annotations.
Via Heidelberg, it ended up in Prague, where it was rediscovered and studied in the 19th century, close examination of the manuscript, including the different types of paper used, helped scholars construct an approximate timetable for its composition. Apparently Copernicus began by making a few observations to provide new data to perfect his models. He may have begun writing the book while still engaged in observations, by the 1530s a substantial part of the book was complete, but Copernicus hesitated to publish. In 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus, a mathematician from Wittenberg. Rheticus friend and mentor Achilles Gasser published an edition of the Narratio in Basel in 1541. Rheticus published it in Copernicus name and it was published just before Copernicus death, in 1543. The book is dedicated to Pope Paul III in a preface that argues that mathematics, not physics, the world is spherical, as is the earth, and the land and water make a single globe. The celestial bodies, including the earth, have regular circular, the earth rotates on its axis and around the sun.
Answers to why the ancients thought the earth was central, the order of the planets around the sun and their periodicity. Chapters 12-14 give theorems for chord geometry as well as a table of chords, Book II describes the principles of spherical astronomy as a basis for the arguments developed in the following books and gives a comprehensive catalogue of the fixed stars. Book III describes his work on the precession of the equinoxes and treats the apparent movements of the Sun, Book IV is a similar description of the Moon and its orbital movements. Book V explains how to calculate the positions of the wandering stars based on the heliocentric model, Book VI deals with the digression in latitude from the ecliptic of the five planets
Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient Greco-Roman city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. Its ruins lie near the city of Antakya, Turkey. Antioch was founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, the citys geographical and economic location benefited its occupants, particularly such features as the spice trade, the Silk Road, and the Persian Royal Road. It eventually rivaled Alexandria as the city of the Near East. It was the center of Hellenistic Judaism at the end of the Second Temple period. Most of the development of Antioch was done during the Roman Empire. Antioch was called the cradle of Christianity as a result of its longevity, the Christian New Testament asserts that the name Christian first emerged in Antioch. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis, a single route proceeds south in the Orontes valley. The settlement of Meroe pre-dated Antioch, a shrine of the Semitic goddess Anat, called by Herodotus the Persian Artemis, was located here. This site was included in the suburbs of Antioch.
There was a village on the spur of Mount Silpius named Io and this name was always adduced as evidence by Antiochenes anxious to affiliate themselves to the Attic Ionians—an eagerness which is illustrated by the Athenian types used on the citys coins. Io may have been an early colony of trading Greeks. John Malalas mentions a village, Bottia, in the plain by the river. Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great is said to have camped on the site of Antioch and this account is found only in the writings of Libanius, a 4th-century orator from Antioch, and may be legend intended to enhance Antiochs status. But the story is not unlikely in itself, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, his generals divided up the territory he had conquered. Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four sister cities in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch and he is reputed to have built sixteen Antiochs. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means, an eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering.
Seleucus did this on the 22nd day of the month of Artemisios in the year of his reign
Julian, known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum. In 360 in Lutetia he was proclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, before the two could face each other in battle, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter, Julian was a man of unusually complex character, he was the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters. He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and it was his desire to bring the Empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to, as he saw it, save it from dissolution.
He purged the state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the expense of Christianity. His anti-Christian sentiment and promotion of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be remembered as Julian the Apostate by the church and he was the last emperor of the Constantinian dynasty, the empires first Christian dynasty. Both of his parents were Christians and his paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus, praetorian prefect of the East under emperor Licinius from 315 to 324, the name of Julians maternal grandmother is unknown. Constantius II, Constans I, and Constantine II were proclaimed joint emperors and Gallus were excluded from public life, were strictly guarded in their youth, and given a Christian education. They were likely saved by their youth and at the urging of the Empress Eusebia, if Julians writings are to be believed, Constantius would be tormented with guilt at the massacre of 337.
After Eusebius died in 342, both Julian and Gallus were exiled to the estate of Macellum in Cappadocia. Here Julian met the Christian bishop George of Cappadocia, who lent him books from the classical tradition, at the age of 18, the exile was lifted and he dwelt briefly in Constantinople and Nicomedia. He became a lector, an office in the Christian church. Julian studied Neoplatonism in Asia Minor in 351, at first under Aedesius, the philosopher and he was summoned to Constantius court in Mediolanum in 354 and kept there for a year, in the summer and fall of 355, he was permitted to study in Athens. While there, Julian became acquainted with two men who became both bishops and saints, Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil the Great
Battle of Aizkraukle
The order suffered a great defeat,71 knights, including the grand master, Ernst von Rassburg, and Eilart Hoberg, leader of the knights from Danish Estonia, were killed. It was the second-largest defeat of the order in the 13th century, after this battle Duke Nameisis of the Semigallians recognized Traidenis as his suzerain. In 1273 the order built Dinaburga Castle on lands nominally controlled by Traidenis, Traidenis besieged the castle for a month, but failed to capture it. Historiography often claims that the order started the campaign into Lithuania in retaliation for the siege, newer research by Edvardas Gudavičius and Artūras Dudonis deny a direct cause and effect relationship between the siege and the campaign, as the siege is dated 1274. They claim that the campaign was a result of a peace treaty between Lithuania and Livonia. The peace was concluded so that Traidenis could concentrate on his war with Galicia–Volhynia and Lithuania competed for trade along the Daugava River and influence in the Principality of Polotsk.
The Livonian campaign, which opened in February 1279, involved a chevauchée into Lithuanian territory, the Livonian army included men from the Livonian Order, Archbishopric of Riga, Danish Estonia, and local Curonian and Semigallian tribes. At the time of the campaign, Lithuania suffered a famine, the Livonian army reached as far as Kernavė, the center of the Grand Dukes lands. They did not meet any resistance and plundered many villages. On their way home the knights were followed by a force of Traidenis troops. When the enemies approached Aizkraukle, the Grand Master sent most of the local warriors home with their share of loot, at that point the Lithuanians attacked. Semigallians were one of the first to retreat from the battlefield, the order lost its achievements over six preceding years, Semigallians rebelled once again and submitted to Traidenis for protection. However, Traidenis died ca.1282 and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was unable to reap all the benefits, the order decided to elect one grand master with the Teutonic Knights so that any future attacks would be carried out simultaneously from the west and north
To mark the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Cabots expedition, both the Canadian and British governments elected Cape Bonavista, Newfoundland, as Cabots first landing site. However, alternative theories have been proposed, Giovanni Caboto was born in Italy, the son of Giulio Caboto and his wife, he had a brother Piero. He is known today as Giovanni Caboto in Italy, in English as John Cabot, in French as Jean Cabot, the non-Italian forms are derived from how his name was recorded in related 15th-century documents. In Venice he signed his names as Zuan Chabotto, Zuan being a form of John typical to Venice and he continued to use this form in England, at least among Italians. He was referred to by his Italian banker in London as Giovanni Chabbote and Castiglione Chiavarese have both been proposed as birthplaces. The main evidence for Gaeta are records of a Caboto family residing there until the mid-15th century, pedro de Ayala, the Spanish envoy and Cabots contemporary in London, described him in a letter to the Spanish Crown in 1498 as another Genoese like Columbus.
John Cabots son, said his father came from Genoa. In 1476 Cabot was made a citizen of the Republic of Venice and he may have been born slightly earlier than 1450, which is the approximate date most commonly given for his birth. In 1471 Caboto was accepted into the confraternity of St John the Evangelist. Since this was one of the citys prestigious confraternities, his acceptance suggests that he was already a member of the community. He presumably entered this trade shortly thereafter, a 1483 document refers to his selling a slave in Crete whom he had acquired while in the territories of the Sultan of Egypt, which comprised most of what is now Israel and Lebanon. This is not sufficient to prove Cabots assertion that he had visited Mecca, in this Mediterranean trade, he may have acquired better knowledge of the origins of the oriental merchandise he would have been dealing in than most Europeans at that time. Zuan Cabotto is mentioned in a variety of Venetian records of the 1480s and these indicate that by 1484 he was married to Mattea and already had at least two sons.
Cabots sons are Ludovico and Sancto, the Venetian sources contain references to Cabots being involved in house building in the city. He may have relied on this experience when seeking work in Spain as a civil engineer, Cabot appears to have got into financial trouble in the late 1480s and left Venice as an insolvent debtor by 5 November 1488. He moved to Valencia, where his creditors attempted to have him arrested by sending a lettera di raccomandazione a giustizia to the authorities, while in Valencia, John Cabot Montecalunya proposed plans for improvements to the harbour. Early in 1494 he moved on to Seville, where he proposed, was contracted to build and, for five months and this project was abandoned following a decision of the City Council on 24 December 1494. After this Cabot appears to have support in Seville and Lisbon for an Atlantic expedition, before moving to London to seek funding