A military dictatorship is a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority. A military dictatorship is different from civilian dictatorship for a number of reasons: their motivations for seizing power, the institutions through which they organize their rule and the ways in which they leave power. Viewing itself as saving the nation from the corrupt or myopic civilian politicians, a military dictatorship justifies its position as "neutral" arbiters on the basis of their membership within the armed forces. For example, many juntas adopt titles such as "Committee of National Restoration", or "National Liberation Committee". Military leaders rule as a junta, selecting one of themselves as a head. Military dictatorship is called khakistocracy; the term is a portmanteau word combining kakistocracy with khaki, the tan-green camouflage colour used in most modern army uniforms. Most military dictatorships are formed. Military dictatorships may restore significant components of civilian government while the senior military commander still maintains executive political power.
In Pakistan, ruling Generals Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and Pervez Musharraf have held referendums to elect themselves President of Pakistan for additional terms forbidden by the constitution. In the past, military juntas have justified their rule as a way of bringing political stability for the nation or rescuing it from the threat of "dangerous ideologies". For example the threat of communism and Islamism was used. Military regimes tend to portray themselves as non-partisan, as a "neutral" party that can provide interim leadership in times of turmoil, tend to portray civilian politicians as corrupt and ineffective. One of the universal characteristics of a military government is the institution of martial law or a permanent state of emergency. Algeria Benin Burkina Faso Burundi Central African Republic Chad Ciskei Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Côte d'Ivoire Egypt Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Togo Transkei Uganda Venda Zimbabwe Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela Afghanistan Bangladesh Brunei Burma Khmer Republic Indonesia Iran Iraq Empire of Japan South Korea Kingdom of Laos Maldives Pakistan Philippines Syria Republic of China /Republic of China Thailand South Vietnam North Yemen Kingdom of Bulgaria Cyprus Kingdom of England France German Empire Greece Poland Portugal Kingdom of Romania Russian Empire San Marino Spain Turkey Ukraine Fiji Military rule St
Fujiwara no Hirotsugu rebellion
The Fujiwara no Hirotsugu rebellion was an unsuccessful Nara period rebellion led by Fujiwara no Hirotsugu in the Japanese islands, in the year 740. Hirotsugu, dissatisfied with the political powers, raised an army in Dazaifu, Kyushu but was defeated by government forces; the Fujiwara no Hirotsugu Rebellion is sparsely documented and most of what is known about it, including exact dates, derives from a single historical source, the Shoku Nihongi. Completed in 797, this is one of the imperially commissioned Six National Histories and covers the time from 697 to 791, it is a valuable document for historians. The Fujiwara clan had influenced Japanese politics since its founder, Nakatomi no Kamatari, assisted in a coup d'état in 645, in which the Soga clan was overthrown and shortly thereafter a reform program was launched, aimed at reinforcing imperial authority. In the 730s, the imperial advisory body known as the Council of State was controlled by four sons of Fujiwara no Fuhito known as the "Fujiwara Four": Fujiwara no Muchimaro, minister of the right since 729.
Together they held four out of ten positions of this important council, placed directly under the emperor and in charge of all kinds of secular affairs. In addition, the Fujiwara were related with the emperor as both Shōmu's mother and his consort Empress Kōmyō, were daughters of Fujiwara no Fuhito. In 735 a devastating smallpox epidemic, which killed about one third of the Japanese population, broke out on Kyushu and subsequently spread north-east. While most victims were from the producer populace of western and central Japan, by 737, the epidemic reached the capital at Heijō-kyō causing death and terror among the aristocracy. Emperor Shōmu was spared, but by the 8th month of 737 ten officials of fourth rank or higher were dead, including the "Fujiwara Four"; the death of their top figures and heads of the four Fujiwara branches weakened the influence of the Fujiwara clan. The following appointments brought about a shift in power towards nobles related to the emperor and away from non-imperial clans such as the Fujiwara.
In 737 Prince Suzuka, brother of Prince Nagaya, was appointed to Chancellor, the highest position of the Council of State. In the beginning of the following year, Tachibana no Moroe, half-brother of Empress Kōmyō, took the position of minister of the right, held by Muchimaro before his death; the only Fujiwara in the council at the time was Muchimaro's son, Fujiwara no Toyonari who had a low rank. In addition, all the clans that had opposed the Fujiwara Four such as the Ōtomo, the Saeki or the Agata Inukai were Moroe backers. Unlike under the Fujiwara Four, the Emperor was not opposed by a single strong faction anymore as members of this new council originated from various clans. Kibi no Makibi and Genbō were promoted to important posts, despite lacking prestigious family backgrounds. Both had spent 17 years in Tang China and returned to Japan in 735. Makibi who had brought several important Confucian texts to Japan would advise the Emperor on the latest continental developments in legal codes and music.
He became Imperial professor at court. In 736, 2nd month, the monk Genbō who had returned with more than 5000 Buddhist scrolls and commentaries was given a large plot of land, eight servants and a purple kesa by the court; when the plague reached the court in 737, he was asked to perform healing rituals for the imperial family. His influence at court increased and in 737, 8th month Genbō became chief priest of Kōfuku-ji, head of the northern branch of the Hossō sect of Buddhism, he gained the highest monastic rank sōjō. Several Fujiwara were exiled to posts in distant provinces. Fujiwara no Hirotsugu, the oldest son of Umakai and nephew of Empress Kōmyō, was the leader of the Shikike branch of the Fujiwara family. Hermann Bohner describes him as a "knight" talented in warfare, music and science, but as daredevil, looking for enemies to attack and for risks to take. Seeing the Fujiwara influence waning, Hirotsugu impeached vocally opposed Makibi; however Shōmu confided in his most influential advisors and had Hirotsugu demoted from his position as governor of the central Yamato Province, which he had assumed a year earlier, to remote Kyushu where he became vice-governor of Dazaifu in 738.
In a memorial sent to the Emperor in September 740, Hirotsugu declared that he held Kibi no Makibi and the priest Genbō responsible for corruption and general discontent at the capital. He pointed out "failures of recent policy, described catastrophes of heaven and earth" and demanded their dismissal. Four days after the court received his message, he declared himself in rebellion not unlike what Iwai did some 200 years before. At the time the people on Kyushu were experiencing hard times after the smallpox epidemics, years of drought and bad harvest; the government had responded to this situation with a large scale temple building project aimed at appeasing the gods. However farmer families could not afford the imposed corvée on temple construction. Hirotsugu's cause was supported by discontented farmers, local district chiefs and members of the Hayato minority of southern Kyushu. Making use of his official position at Dazaifu, Hirotsugu soon had an army of about 10,000 to 15,000
Prime Minister of Japan
The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government of Japan. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the National Diet and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office, he dismisses the other Ministers of State. The literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Minister for the Comprehensive Administration of the Cabinet. Before the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system known as ritsuryō was enacted in the late Asuka period and early Nara period, it described a government based on an elaborate and rational meritocratic bureaucracy, serving, in theory, under the ultimate authority of the Emperor. Theoretically, the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. Under this system, the Daijō-daijin was the head of the Daijō-kan, the highest organ of Japan's pre-modern Imperial government during the Heian period and until under the Meiji Constitution with the appointment of Sanjō Sanetomi in 1871.
The office was replaced in 1885 with the appointment of Itō Hirobumi to the new position of Prime Minister, four years before the enactment of the Meiji Constitution, which mentions neither the Cabinet nor the position of Prime Minister explicitly. It took its current form with the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947. To date, 62 people have served this position; the current Prime Minister is Shinzō Abe, who re-took office on December 26, 2012. He is the first former Prime Minister to return to office since 1948, the 4th longest serving Prime Minister to date; the Prime Minister is designated by both houses of the Diet, before the conduct of any other business. For that purpose, each conducts a ballot under the run-off system. If the two houses choose different individuals a joint committee of both houses is appointed to agree on a common candidate. However, if the two houses do not agree within ten days, the decision of the House of Representatives is deemed to be that of the Diet. Therefore, the House of Representatives can theoretically ensure the appointment of any Prime Minister it wants.
The candidate is presented with his or her commission, formally appointed to office by the Emperor. In practice, the Prime Minister is always the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives, or the leader of the senior partner in the governing coalition. Must be a member of either house of the Diet. Must be a "civilian"; this excludes serving members of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. Former military persons may be appointed prime minister despite the "civilian" requirement, Yasuhiro Nakasone being one prominent example. Exercises "control and supervision" over the entire executive branch. Presents bills to the Diet on behalf of the Cabinet. Signs laws and Cabinet orders. Appoints all Cabinet ministers, can dismiss them at any time. May permit legal action to be taken against Cabinet ministers. Must make reports on foreign relations to the Diet. Must report to the Diet upon demand to provide explanations. May advise the Emperor to dissolve the Diet's House of Representatives. Presides over meetings of the Cabinet.
Commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. May override a court injunction against an administrative act upon showing of cause. In most other constitutional monarchies, the monarch is nominal chief executive, while being bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabinet. In contrast, the Constitution of Japan explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader, his signature is required for Cabinet orders. While most ministers in parliamentary democracies have some freedom of action within the bounds of cabinet collective responsibility, the Japanese Cabinet is an extension of the Prime Minister's authority. Located near the Diet building, the Office of the Prime Minister of Japan is called the Kantei; the original Kantei served from 1929 until 2002, when a new building was inaugurated to serve as the current Kantei. The old Kantei was converted into the Official Residence, or Kōtei; the Kōtei lies to the southwest of the Kantei, is linked by a walkway.
The Prime Minister of Japan travels in a Lexus LS 600h L, the official transport for the head of government, or an unmodified Toyota Century escorted by a police motorcade of numerous Toyota Celsiors. For long distance air travel, Japan maintains two Boeing 747-400 aircraft for the Prime Minister of Japan, the Emperor and other members of the Imperial Family, operated by the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, they have the radio callsigns Japanese Air Force One and Japanese Air Force Two when operating on official business, Cygnus One and Cygnus Two when operating outside of official business. The aircraft always fly together on government missions, with one serving as the primary transport and the other serving as a backup with maintenance personnel on board; the aircraft are referred to as Japanese government exclusive aircraft. The aircraft were constructed at the Boeing factory at the same time as the U. S. Air Force One VC-25s, though the U. S. aircraft wer
Tokugawa Art Museum
The Tokugawa Art Museum is a private art museum, located on the former Ōzone Shimoyashiki compound in Nagoya, central Japan. Its collection contains more than 12,000 items, including swords, Noh costumes and masks, lacquer furniture and Japanese ceramics and paintings from the Chinese Song and Yuan dynasties. Unlike many private museums in Japan, which are based on collections assembled in the modern era by corporations or entrepreneurs, the Tokugawa Art Museum houses the hereditary collection of the Owari branch of the Tokugawa clan, which ruled the Owari Domain in what is now Aichi Prefecture; the museum is operated by the Tokugawa Reimeikai Foundation, founded in 1931 by Yoshichika Tokugawa, 19th head of the Owari clan, in order to preserve the clan's priceless collection of art objects and heirlooms. The architectural plan for the museum main building and southern archives were drawn up by Yoshio Yoshimoto, construction was completed in 1935; the architecture is in the Imperial Crown style, in which the roof and exterior follow a classic Japanese design over a Western style building.
The permanent exhibition shows historical reproduction of the Nagoya Castle Ninomaru palace living quarters of the Owari Tokugawa daimyō, allowing visitors to view the objects as they were used in settings such as a Japanese tea-house or the Noh stage of the palace. The museum mounts temporary exhibitions in a building, declared a national cultural property; the most important and valuable treasures are the Genji Monogatari Emaki, three Heian period illustrated handscrolls of The Tale of Genji, dating to the 1130s. Along with one other scroll from the same set, now preserved at the Gotoh Museum, they are the earliest extant depictions of the epic tale and are National Treasures of Japan; the scrolls are so fragile. Since at least 2001, they have been displayed in the Tokugawa Museum for one week in November; the Hōsa Library is located next to the museum and houses 110,000 items, including classic literature belonging to the Owari branch. Located next to the museum is the Tokugawa Garden. Daimyo collection List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan List of National Treasures of Japan The Tokugawa Art Museum.
Nagoya: The Tokugawa Art Museum. 1988. ASIN B000VQ5F9O; the Shogun Age Exhibition From The Tokugawa Art Museum. Nagoya: Shogun Age Exhibition Committee. 1985. ASIN B000UDO9BS. Media related to Tokugawa Art Museum at Wikimedia Commons Official site of the Tokugawa Art Museum
Hirohito was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989. He was succeeded by Akihito. In Japan, reigning emperors are known as "the Emperor" and he is now referred to by his posthumous name, Emperor Shōwa; the word Shōwa is the name of the era coinciding with the Emperor's reign, after which he is known according to a tradition dating to 1912. The name Hirohito means "abundant benevolence". At the start of his reign, Japan was one of the great powers—the ninth-largest economy in the world, the third-largest naval power, one of the four permanent members of the council of the League of Nations, he was the head of state under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan during Japan's imperial expansion and involvement in World War II. After Japan's surrender, he was not prosecuted for war crimes as many other leading government figures were, his degree of involvement in wartime decisions remains controversial.
During the post-war period, he became the symbol of the new state under the post-war constitution and Japan's recovery, by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy. Born in Tokyo's Aoyama Palace on 29 April 1901, Hirohito was the first son of 21-year old Crown Prince Yoshihito and 17-year old Crown Princess Sadako, he was the grandson of Yanagihara Naruko. His childhood title was Prince Michi. On the 70th day after his birth, Hirohito was removed from the court and placed in the care of the family of Count Kawamura Sumiyoshi, a former vice-admiral, to rear him as if he were his own grandchild. At the age of 3, Hirohito and his brother Chichibu were returned to court when Kawamura died – first to the imperial mansion in Numazu, Shizuoka back to the Aoyama Palace. In 1908, he began elementary studies at the Gakushūin; when his grandfather, Emperor Meiji, died on 30 July 1912, Hirohito's father, assumed the throne and Hirohito became the heir apparent. At the same time, he was formally commissioned in both the army and navy as a second lieutenant and ensign and was decorated with the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum.
In 1914, he was promoted to the ranks of lieutenant in the army and sub-lieutenant in the navy to captain and lieutenant in 1916. He was formally proclaimed Crown Prince and heir apparent on 2 November 1916. Hirohito attended Gakushūin Peers' School from 1908 to 1914 and a special institute for the crown prince from 1914 to 1921. In 1920, Hirohito was promoted to the rank of Major in the army and Lieutenant Commander in the navy. In 1921, Hirohito took a six-month tour of Western Europe, including the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium. After his return to Japan, Hirohito became Regent of Japan on 29 November 1921, in place of his ailing father, affected by a mental illness. In 1923, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the army and Commander in the navy, to army Colonel and Navy Captain in 1925. During Hirohito's regency, a number of important events occurred: In the Four-Power Treaty on Insular Possessions signed on 13 December 1921, the United States and France agreed to recognize the status quo in the Pacific, Japan and Britain agreed to terminate formally the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
The Washington Naval Treaty was signed on 6 February 1922. Japan withdrew troops from the Siberian Intervention on 28 August 1922; the Great Kantō earthquake devastated Tokyo on 1 September 1923. On 27 December 1923, Daisuke Namba attempted to assassinate Hirohito in the Toranomon Incident but his attempt failed. During interrogation, he claimed to be a communist and was executed but some have suggested that he was in contact with the Nagacho faction in the Army. Prince Hirohito married his distant cousin Princess Nagako Kuni, the eldest daughter of Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni, on 26 January 1924, they had five daughters. The daughters who lived to adulthood left the imperial family as a result of the American reforms of the Japanese imperial household in October 1947 or under the terms of the Imperial Household Law at the moment of their subsequent marriages. On 25 December 1926, Hirohito assumed the throne upon Yoshihito's, death; the Crown Prince was said to have received the succession. The Taishō era's end and the Shōwa era's beginning were proclaimed.
The deceased Emperor was posthumously renamed Emperor Taishō within days. Following Japanese custom, the new Emperor was never referred to by his given name, but rather was referred to as "His Majesty the Emperor", which may be shortened to "His Majesty". In writing, the Emperor was referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor". In November 1928, the Emperor's ascension was confirmed in ceremonies which are conventionally identified as "enthronement" and "coronation"; the first part of Hirohito's reign took plac
The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai means "large", myō stands for myōden, meaning private land. Subordinate to the shōgun, nominally to the Emperor and the kuge, daimyō were powerful feudal rulers from the 10th century to the middle 19th century in Japan. From the Shugo of the Muromachi period through the Sengoku to the daimyō of the Edo period, the rank had a long and varied history; the backgrounds of daimyō varied considerably. The term daimyō sometimes refers to the leading figures of such clans called "Lord", it was though not from these warlords that a shōgun arose or a regent was chosen. Daimyō hired samurai to guard their land and they paid the samurai in land or food as few could afford to pay samurai in money; the daimyō era ended soon after the Meiji Restoration with the adoption of the prefecture system in 1871. The shugo daimyō were the first group of men to hold the title daimyō.
They arose from among the shugo during the Muromachi period. The shugo-daimyō held not only military and police powers, but economic power within a province, they accumulated these powers throughout the first decades of the Muromachi period. Major shugo-daimyō came from the Shiba and Hosokawa clans, as well as the tozama clans of Yamana, Ōuchi, Akamatsu; the greatest ruled multiple provinces. The Ashikaga shogunate required the shugo-daimyō to reside in Kyoto, so they appointed relatives or retainers, called shugodai, to represent them in their home provinces; some of these in turn came to reside in Kyoto, appointing deputies in the provinces. The Ōnin War was a major uprising. During this and other wars of the time, kuni ikki, or provincial uprisings, took place as locally powerful warriors sought independence from the shugo-daimyō; the deputies of the shugo-daimyō, living in the provinces, seized the opportunity to strengthen their position. At the end of the fifteenth century, those shugo-daimyō who succeeded remained in power.
Those who had failed to exert control over their deputies fell from power and were replaced by a new class, the sengoku-daimyō, who arose from the ranks of the shugodai and ji-samurai. Among the sengoku daimyō were many, shugo-daimyō, such as the Satake, Takeda, Rokkaku, Ōuchi, Shimazu. New to the ranks of the daimyō were the Asakura, Nagao, Miyoshi, Chōsokabe, Jimbō, Hatano and Matsunaga; these came from the ranks of their deputies. Additional sengoku-daimyō such as the Mōri, Ryūzōji arose from the ji-samurai; the lower officials of the shogunate and rōnin, provincial officials, kuge gave rise to sengoku-daimyō. The Battle of Sekigahara in the year 1600 marked the beginning of the Edo period. Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu reorganized 200 daimyō and their territories into han, which were assessed by rice production; those heading han assessed at 10,000 koku or more were considered daimyō. Ieyasu categorized the daimyō according to their relation to the ruling Tokugawa family: the shinpan were related to the Tokugawa.
The shinpan were collaterals of Ieyasu, such as the Matsudaira, or descendants of Ieyasu other than in the main line of succession. Several shinpan, including the Tokugawa of Owari and Mito, as well as the Matsudaira of Fukui and Aizu, held large han. A few fudai daimyō, such as the Ii of Hikone, held large han; the shogunate placed many fudai at strategic locations to guard the trade routes and the approaches to Edo. Many fudai daimyō took positions in the Edo shogunate, some rising to the position of rōjū; the fact that fudai daimyō could hold government positions while tozama in general, could not was a main difference between the two. Tozama daimyō held large fiefs far away from the capital, with e.g. the Kaga han of Ishikawa Prefecture, headed by the Maeda clan, assessed at 1,000,000 koku. Other famous tozama clans included the Mori of Chōshū, the Shimazu of Satsuma, the Date of Sendai, the Uesugi of Yonezawa, the Hachisuka of Awa; the Tokugawa regarded them as rebellious, but for most of the Edo period, marriages between the Tokugawa and the tozama, as well as control policies such as sankin-kōtai, resulted in peaceful relations.
Daimyō were required to maintain residences in Edo as well as their fiefs, to move periodically between Edo and their fiefs spending alternate years in each place, in a practice called sankin-kōtai. In 1869, the year after the Meiji Restoration, the daimyō, together with the kuge, formed a new aristocracy, the kazoku. In 1871, the han were abolished and prefectures were established, thus ending the daimyō era in Japan. In the wake of this change, many daimyō remained in control of their lands, being appointed as prefectural governors. Despite this, members of former daimyō families remained prominent in government and society, in some cases continue to re