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March of Pannonia

The Eastern March or March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of Pannonia. It was erected in the mid-ninth century in the lands of the former Avar Khaganate against the threat of Great Moravia and lasted only as long as the strength of that state, it was referred to in some documents as terminum regni Baioariorum in Oriente or "the end of the kingdom of the Bavarians in the east" and from this is sometimes called the " eastern march," a term more used to refer to the Margraviate of Austria, established in 976 as a sort of late successor state. The East Frankish rulers appointed margraves to govern the March. Charlemagne, temporarily allied with Khan Krum of Bulgaria, from 791 onwards had launched several military campaigns against the Avars and had established the Avar March on the southeastern frontier of his realm, ruled by his brother-in-law Prefect Gerold of Bavaria; when the Avar Khaganate collapsed in 804, Emperor Charlemagne re-arranged Avaria into: Upper Pannonia, stretching from the Enns River and the Vienna Woods in the north down to the Drava River in the south which became the Balaton Principality, Lower Pannonia, between the Drava and Sava rivers ruled by semi-autonomous Dukes of Pannonia seated at Sisak, as vassals of the Frankish Dukes of Friuli.

The eastern part of the former Khaganate between the Danube and Tisza Rivers was occupied by the Bulgars. In 817 Emperor Louis the Pious granted Bavaria with Avaria to his minor son Louis the German; when the Avars disappeared in the 820s, they were replaced by West Slavs, who settled Pannonia from the state of Great Moravia. From 819 Lower Pannonia was the site of a rebellion led by Duke Ljudevit Posavski against the rule of Duke Cadolah of Friuli and his successor Baldric. By resolution of an 828 Imperial Diet, Baldric of Friuli was deposed and the March of Pannonia was set apart as a frontier march against Moravia within the Frankish regnum of Bavaria; this march called marcha orientalis, corresponded to a frontier along the Danube, from the Traungau and the former Slavic principality of Carantania to Szombathely and the Rába River including the Vienna basin. The Bavarian prefects had to face the rising threat by the Moravian ruler Mojmir I, who pursued separatist policies in the Eastern March.

In turn, King Louis the German had the Slavic Duchy of Lower Pannonia established in 839, ruled by Mojmir's opponent Prince Pribina with his residence at Zalavár on Lake Balaton. By the 843 Treaty of Verdun, the Pannonian march together with Bavaria became part of Louis' kingdom of East Francia. Meanwhile the Moravian threat continued. Two years King Louis ceded the march directly to his son Carloman of Bavaria, who had the fortifications of Herzogenburg and Wilhelmsburg erected along the Traisen River by the Wilhelminer margraves William and Engelschalk I; the castle of Tulln on the Danube is documented in 859. In 871 William and Engelschalk died in battle against the Moravians, whereafter Carloman vested their rival Aribo of Austria with Upper Pannonia; when his father Louis died in 876, Carloman succeeded him as East Frankish king and gave Lower Pannonia to his son Arnulf of Carinthia. From 882, the rule was enfeebled by the Wilhelminer War of Margrave Engelschalk II against the Aribonids, whereafter Prince Svatopluk I of Moravia took the occasion to invade the Pannonian lands.

In 893 Arnulf, East Frankish king since 887, installed Margrave Luitpold. By the 890s, the Pannonian march seems to have disappeared, along with the threat from Great Moravia, during the Hungarian invasions of Europe. Upon the defeat of Margrave Luitpold at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, all East Frankish lands beyond the Enns river were lost; the Pannonian march. Radbod, prefect or margrave of the Eastern March or Pannonia, 833–854 Carloman of Bavaria, from 856 William, until 871, jointly with his brother Engelschalk I, until 871 Aribo, 871–909 Engelschalk II, son of Engelschalk I, in opposition to Aribo until 893 Luitpold, 893–907 Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991. Medieval Lands Project: Nobility of Austria

Michael Brandon (pornographic actor)

Michael Brandon is an American, pornographic actor and director who specializes in gay pornography. He has had his own subdivision at Raging Stallion called "Monster Bang" and has participated in some charitable efforts. Brandon helped set up Raging Stallion Studios and has stated that he started in porn after answering an ad in Frontiers magazine, he began his career in porn in the late 1980s as a young man, but he fell into drugs and prison and did not return until 1999. He directed and wrote Passport to Paradise. Brandon appeared in nearly 200 films between 1999 and 2006, he directed his own line of films known as the "MonsterBang videos", he has engaged in what appeared to be a busy escorting career, documented on his website and on an online escort review site. Brandon won the "Performer of the Year" at the 2001 GayVN Awards and tied for that same award in 2002 with Colton Ford. At the 2002 Adult Erotic Video Awards, he was named, with Chad Hunt, as "Best Performers". Brandon was added to the "Grabby Wall of Fame" in 2003 and received a "Surprise Award" Grabby for "Hottest Cock" in 2005.

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Smarthinking is an academic online tutoring service, provided by Pearson Education. The service provides on-demand support from tutors in over 25 subjects. Smarthinking uses a pedagogical approach along with whiteboard interface technology to connect students and tutors. Smarthinking launched in 1999 to provide real-time assistance for students in postsecondary education. In 2007, Smarthinking was honored with the Software & Information Industry Association CODie award for Best Instruction Solutions for Students at Home. In an effort to expand its offerings, Pearson Education acquired Smarthinking in February 2011. December 1, 2011 Smarthinking launched its new discipline of support for reading. Tutors could perform live sessions in core areas of vocabulary and comprehension. In 2012, Pearson reported the addition of Liberal Arts Math to its Math services. To date Smarthinking has over 1500 tutors, has completed between 6 and 7 million tutoring sessions. It's headquartered in 1919 M. St. NW Suite 600 Washington, DC 20036.

Smarthinking leadership team is composed of former college professors and experts in their disciplines. Christa Ehmann Powers, Ph. D. has served as Vice President & Chief Education Officer since Smarthinking’s launch in 1999, heads the development of online tutoring and instructional services in the United States and internationally. Pearson- conducted efficacy studies on the effectiveness of Smarthinking have shown the impact of usage, including: • Students using Smarthinking at Volunteer State Community College were eight times more to complete their courses. Nelson-Royes, A. M.. Why Tutoring?: A Way to Achieve Success in School. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Pp. 98–102. ISBN 978-1-4758-0749-3. Retrieved July 30, 2016. Berg, G. A.. Cases on Online Tutoring and Educational Services: Practices and Applications: Practices and Applications. IGI Global research collection. Information Science Reference. Pp. 144–145... ISBN 978-1-60566-877-2. Retrieved July 30, 2016. Maeroff, G. I.. A Classroom of One: How Online Learning Is Changing our Schools and Colleges.

St. Martin's Press. Pp. 140–141... ISBN 978-1-4668-9025-1. Retrieved July 30, 2016. "Students are "Smarthinking" with online tutoring". Lompoc Record. Retrieved July 30, 2016. "Online: Tutoring services attracting more customers". Register-Guard. August 29, 2005. Pp. D1–D2. Retrieved 30 July 2016. Hornet, Yarcenia Garcia - State. "Smarthinking offers students online tutoring 24/7". The State Hornet. Retrieved July 30, 2016. Official website


Kukawa is a town and Local Government Area in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno, close to Lake Chad. The town was founded in 1814 as capital of the Kanem-Bornu Empire by the Muslim scholar and warlord Muhammad al-Amin al-Kanemi after the fall of the previous capital, Ngazargamu; the town had great strategical importance, being one of the southern terminals of trans-Saharan trade routes to Tripoli. The town was visited by German explorer Heinrich Barth in 1851 who arrived from Tripoli seeking to open trade with Europe and explore Africa, again in 1892 by the French explorer Parfait-Louis Monteil, checking the borders between areas of West Africa assigned to the French and the British; the town was captured and sacked in 1893 by the Sudanese warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, by the British in 1902. The city was much larger than today, with a population estimated by the British at 50,000-60,000 in the late nineteenth-century. On 16 January 2015, "caretaker chairman of Kukawa Local Government Area, Musa Alhaji Bukar Kukawa", speaking on behalf of the Kukawa residents who were displaced to Maiduguri following the 2015 Baga massacre, "called on the federal government to intensify military operations so that they can return to their homes."Towns in the Kukawa Local Government Area include Cross Kauwa and Baga.but there is no place called kukawa apart from the local government It is one of the sixteen LGAs that constitute the Borno Emirate, a traditional state located in Borno State, Nigeria

Marlin (firmware)

Marlin is a open source firmware designed for RepRap project based FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling 3D-printers using the Arduino platform. The firmware runs coded commands and instruction sets as a robot software on the 3D printer's control board which manages all of the machine's real-time activities including sending movement coordinates to stepper motors through the stepper drivers, controlling heater elements, lights, tracking bed levelling, LC displays and buttons. Marlin supports many different boards and many designs of 3D printer robot platforms, including Cartesian, Delta and SCARA printers, as well as some other less conventional designs like Hangprinter. Other than for 3D printing, Marlin is used for many other kinds of machine including SLA and SLS 3D printers, CNC mills and egg painting robots. Marlin was first created in 2011 for the Ultimaker printers. Marlin 2.0 was released on the 2nd of December 2019 as the first official version or the Marlin firmware to support 32-bit based controller boards.

The firmware is created with Scott Laheine as the main developer. Marlin uses a GPL license which requires that organisations and individuals share their source code when modifying or expanding the code, some users have not been compliant with the license which has led to distributors removing their products. Marlin firmware is used by many different manufacturers, most of which comply with its open source license, but some do not. RepRap project Marlin official website Marlin GitHub repository Marlin Patreon page How it's Made: The Marlin Firmware!, an interview with Scott Laheine, YouTube


OVN is a system to support virtual network abstraction. OVN complements the existing capabilities of Open vSwitch to add native support for virtual network abstractions, such as virtual L2 and L3 overlays and security groups. OVN is a network virtualization platform that separates the physical network topology from the logical one. Users are able to connect virtual and physical interfaces with logical switches and routers, regardless of the underlying physical topology. Users are able to define security policies and load-balancing to these logical instances. OVN uses Open vSwitch for its switching fabric and uses tunnels to provide the logical/physical separation. Open source bindings for OVN are available for a number of platforms, such as OpenStack and Kubernetes. OVN is the SDN platform used in a number of Red Hat products, including Red Hat Virtualization, OpenStack, OpenShift. OVN is written in platform-independent C language, which provides easy portability to various environments; the source code is licensed under the Apache License 2.0.

As of May 2018, features provided by OVN include the following: Logical switches Flexible L2/L3/L4 security policies Distributed logical IPv4 and IPv6 routers Native support for NAT, load-balancing, DHCP L2 and L3 gateways Network virtualization Open vSwitch Software-defined networking