Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe. A peninsula with the Gulf of Finland to the south and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west, the country has borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north. Estonia is south of the country across the Gulf of Finland, Finland is a Nordic country situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia, which includes Scandinavia. Finlands population is 5.5 million, and the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region,88. 7% of the population is Finnish people who speak Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages, the second major group are the Finland-Swedes. In terms of area, it is the eighth largest country in Europe, Finland is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, and an autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, from the late 12th century, Finland was an integral part of Sweden, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status.
In the spirit of the notion of Adolf Ivar Arwidsson, we are not Swedes, we do not want to become Russians, let us therefore be Finns, nevertheless, in 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the nation in the world to give the right to vote to all adult citizens. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent, in 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Reds supported by the equally new Soviet Russia, fighting the Whites, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought repeatedly to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia and Kuusamo, Petsamo and some islands, Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and established an official policy of neutrality. The Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era, Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialization, remaining a largely agrarian country until the 1950s.
It rapidly developed an advanced economy while building an extensive Nordic-style welfare state, resulting in widespread prosperity, Finnish GDP growth has been negative in 2012–2014, with a preceding nadir of −8% in 2009. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, a large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, though freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution. The first known appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three rune-stones. Two were found in the Swedish province of Uppland and have the inscription finlonti, the third was found in Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. It has the inscription finlandi and dates from the 13th century, the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, which is mentioned first known time AD98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, in addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian
Polytechnic University of Milan
The Politecnico di Milano is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 42,000 students. It offers undergraduate and higher education courses in engineering, founded in 1863, it is the oldest university in Milan. The central offices and headquarters are located in the campus of Città Studi in Milan. The university was ranked the best for Engineering and among the top big universities in Italy in the CENSIS-Repubblica Italian University rankings for 2014-2015. According to the QS World University Rankings, it is the 20th best technical university in the world, ranking 11th for Design, 24th for Engineering and its notable alumni include Giulio Natta, Nobel laureate in chemistry in 1963. The Politecnico was founded on 29 November 1863 by Francesco Brioschi, secretary of the Ministry of Education and it is the oldest university in Milan. Its original name was Istituto Tecnico Superiore and only Civil and Industrial Engineering were taught, the second main line of study at Politecnico, was introduced in 1865 in cooperation with the Brera Academy.
There were only 30 students admitted in the first year, over the decades, most of students were men, the first female graduate from the university was in 1913. In 1927 the Politecnico moved to piazza Leonardo da Vinci, in the now known as Città studi. At the time, it was named Regio Politecnico, the word Regio was removed as Italy was proclaimed a republic at the end of World War II. The historical building still in use today was designed and built by engineers, the present logo, based on a detail of the preparatory sketch of Raphaels School of Athens, was adopted in 1942. Until then, there was no official logo for the institution, in 1954, the first European centre of electronic computation was opened in Politecnico by Gino Cassinis and Ercole Bottani. In 1963 Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on crystalline polymers, in 1977, the satellite Sirio, jointly developed by Politecnico and other companies, was launched. Since the end of the 1980s, the Politecnico has begun a process of expansion that would have resulted in the opening of its satellite campuses in Lombardy.
A university programme in industrial design was started in 1993, in April 2012, the university announced that, beginning in 2014, all graduate courses would be taught only in English. The University is spread over seven campuses, two campuses in Milan and another five satellite campuses across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. Milan Leonardo is the oldest of the Politecnico campuses still in use, the first buildings on Piazza Leonardo da Vinci were inaugurated in 1927. Over the years, the complex has expanded and is now generally referred to as Città Studi, City of Studies
Jean Todt is a French motor sport executive. Since 23 October 2009 he has been President of the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, on 29 April 2015, Todt was appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations as his Special Envoy for Road Safety. Under his direction, Peugeot won 4 World Rally Championship titles, won the Paris-Dakar Rally 4 times, during his time at Ferrari, the Scuderia won 14 Formula One World Championship titles. Todt was born in Pierrefort, a southern Cantal village in the Auvergne region of France, Todt was always enthusiastic about cars and motor racing. After High School, Todt studied at the Ecole des Cadres School of Economics and he represented the drivers in the FISA Rally Commission from 1975 to 1981. The young Todt was fascinated by motor sport and had respect for drivers like Jim Clark. Borrowing the parental Mini Cooper to drive in rallies, he decided his greatest strength was as a co-driver. He first co-drove with Guy Chasseuil in 1966 and his talent for calculation, strategy, by 1969, Todt was involved with world-class rally stars such as Jean-Pierre Nicolas, Rauno Aaltonen, Ove Andersson, Hannu Mikkola and Guy Fréquelin.
In 1981, as Guy Fréquelin’s co-driver with Talbot, a Peugeot subsidiary, at the same time, he was increasingly moving out from his role as a co-driver by participating in the management of the team and in relations with the FIA. He applied his abilities as an organiser and strategist to the creation of Peugeot Talbot Sport and he was the mastermind behind the Peugeot 205 Turbo 16, Peugeot 405 Turbo 16 and Peugeot 905. In 1986 Henri Toivonen died driving a Lancia Delta during the Tour de Corse rally, in 1987, Todt adapted the 205 Turbo 16 to off-road rallies with the aim of competing in the showcase Paris-Dakar Rally. From 1987 to 1990, he oversaw four successive victories in the Paris-Dakar with Ari Vatanen, Peugeot subsequently decided to withdraw from off-road rallying and left the field open to Citroën who won the event with the Citroën ZX Rallye-Raid, based on the Peugeot 405 chassis. In 1993, at the age of 47, Todt’s 12 years with Peugeot Talbot Sport came to an end and he was recruited by Luca di Montezemolo, the new CEO of Scuderia Ferrari.
On 1 July of that year at the French Grand Prix at Magny-Cours and he was the first non-Italian ever to head the Scuderia. His challenge was to lead Ferrari back to success at a time when the renowned Italian Formula One stable was experiencing some of the worst days in its history, the Italian team was undermined by internal quarrels and a production system that was partly delocalised. The Scuderia had won no driver’s championship since 1979, Todt set about restructuring the management of the Racing Division. In 1994, barely a year after Todt took up the challenge, even so, Michael Schumacher’s Benetton-Ford and the Williams-Renault cars of Ayrton Senna, Damon Hill, Nigel Mansell and David Coulthard largely dominated the competition. At the end of the 1995 season, Todt asked the German double world champion Michael Schumacher to join the Scuderia, generally considered to be the best driver of his generation, Schumacher agreed to put his skills to Todt’s mission
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Jean Alesi is a French racing driver of Italian origin. His father, was a mechanic from Alcamo, during his time in Formula One, Alesi was particularly good in the wet, and was a mercurial and passionate racer, whose emotions sometimes got the better of him. After leaving Formula One, from 2002 to 2006 Alesi raced in the DTM championship, winning some races and he raced in the Speedcar Series in 2008 and 2009, and raced at Le Mans in 2010. He raced in the Indianapolis 500 in 2012 and became the oldest professional driver to perform the rookie test for admission to the competition, for several years he was a commentator for the Italian TV show Pole Position. In 2006 Alesi was awarded Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur, giovanni Alesi was born Avignon, Vaucluse, to expatriate Sicilian parents. His father ran an automotive bodywork repair garage in the town, to avert this, they decided to change their names to Jean and José, respectively. In addition to spending time in the garage, Alesis father provided his first taste of motorsport, being a keen amateur competitor in rallying.
He won the 1987 French Formula 3 title before moving up to International Formula 3000 in 1988, the 1988 season was a disappointment, finishing tenth in the championship with two podium finishes, not helped by problems within the team. However, in 1989 he joined the Jordan Formula 3000 team, both crowns were after duels with his rival Érik Comas. In 1989 Alesi tied on points for the F3000 title with Comas and he raced in the Le Mans 24 hours in the same year, but a fire forced him to retire in the fourth hour of the race. Alesi debuted in the 1989 French Grand Prix at Paul Ricard in a Tyrrell-Ford, replacing Michele Alboreto and finishing fourth, Ken Tyrrell was sufficiently impressed to give him an eighteen-month contract. He drove most of the rest of the season for Tyrrell while continuing his successful Formula 3000 campaign, scoring again at the Italian. While Alesi was seen as a talent of the future, his start as a Formula One driver was somewhat fortuitous, prior to the 1989 French Grand Prix, Ken Tyrrell had signed a deal to run Camel cigarette sponsorship on his previously unsponsored cars.
However this caused problems for Michele Alboreto who was sponsored by rival cigarette brand Marlboro. The sponsorship clash forced Tyrrell to release Alboreto and find another driver, second place in the Monaco Grand Prix followed the second place gained in Phoenix, and by mid-season, top teams were clamouring for his services in 1991. A very confused situation erupted, with Tyrrell, the results dropped away during the rest of the 1990 season, and Alesi finished ninth in the championship, with 13 points. There were signs of Alesis talent such as the Italian Grand Prix at Monza where he qualified the under powered Tyrrell in 5th place less than a slower than Sennas pole time. At both the original and re-start, Alesi passed the more powerful V12 Ferrari of reigning World Champion Alain Prost for 3rd place, unfortunately however, this race showed his relative inexperience when on lap 5 he ended his race by spinning into the barriers at the Rettifilo chicane
Ross James Brawn OBE is the Formula One Managing Director of Motorsports. He is a former engineer and Formula One team principal. He had worked for a number of Formula One teams, serving as the director of the championship-winning Benetton. He took a sabbatical from the sport in 2007 but returned to F1 for the 2008 season as Team Principal of Honda. He was the owner of the Brawn GP team, which acquired the Honda team in early 2009, Mercedes bought into the team in November 2009, making Brawn Team Principal and Co-Owner with Nick Fry. In 2011 Brawn and Fry sold the shares to Mercedes Benz. In November 2013, it was announced that Brawn would step down, following speculation linking him with other teams, Brawn announced his retirement from Formula One in February 2014. Teams with Brawn in a role have won, in total,8 constructors championships and 8 drivers championships. Brawn was born in Ashton-under-Lyne, England and he became interested in engineering during his early years, often visiting Belle Vue Stadium to watch various forms of motor racing.
He moved south aged 11 as his father took a job near Reading, Berkshire and he went on to start an HNC in Mechanical Engineering, still funded by Harwell. Living in Reading he found an advertisement for Frank Williams Grand Prix, Williams were looking for a milling machinist which was one of the skills he learnt at Harwell. Brawn lives in Stoke Row, near Henley-on-Thames, in his spare time he enjoys gardening and listening to music. In 2006 Brawn received a degree of Doctor of Engineering from Brunel University for his services to motorsport. On 18 November 2011, Brawn received a honorary doctorate from Heriot-Watt University. His career in began in 1976 when he joined March Engineering in the town of Bicester as a milling machine operator. Soon afterwards he joined their Formula 3 racing team as a mechanic, Brawn was hired by Sir Frank Williams in 1978 as a machinist for the newly formed Williams team. He quickly moved up through the ranks, working in the R&D department with Frank Dernie, Brawn joined the Haas Lola team in 1985 and was part of Neil Oatleys design team at FORCE that produced both the Lola THL1 and THL2 cars used by the team.
When the Haas team left F1 at the end of the 1986 season, there he designed the Megatron powered Arrows A10 and its update, the A10B for the 1987 and 1988 seasons respectively and the Ford V8 powered Arrows A11 used in 1989
Michael Schumacher is a German retired racing driver. He is a seven-time Formula One World Champion and is regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He was named Laureus World Sportsman of the Year twice and he won two titles with Benetton in 1994 and 1995 before moving to Ferrari where he drove for eleven years. His time with Ferrari yielded five consecutive titles between 2000 and 2004, Schumacher holds many of Formula Ones driver records, including most championships, race victories, fastest laps, pole positions and races won in a single season –13 in 2004. In 2002, he became the driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. According to the official Formula One website, he is statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen, after beginning in karting, Schumacher won the German drivers championships in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship.
In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton Formula One team as their driver for the rest of that season. Establishing himself as a top driver, finishing third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, in 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. Schumacher moved to Ferrari in 1996, Schumacher came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run. Things came good for Schumacher who won five consecutive drivers titles from 2000 to 2004. Schumacher retired from Formula One driving in 2006 staying with Ferrari as an advisor and he came close to an eighth title that year, but due to technical problems in the final two races he fell short to Fernando Alonso. Schumacher agreed to return for Ferrari part-way through 2009, as cover for the badly injured Felipe Massa, Schumacher returned to Formula One on a permanent basis from 2010 with the Mercedes team before retiring for a second time at the conclusion of the 2012 season.
Off the track, Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and a spokesman for driver safety and he has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life and donated tens of millions of dollars to charity. In December 2013, Schumacher suffered a head injury while skiing. He was airlifted to a hospital and placed in an induced coma. He was in the coma for six months from 29 December 2013 until 16 June 2014 and he left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital in Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment, Schumacher was born in Hürth, North Rhine-Westphalia, to Rolf Schumacher, a bricklayer, and his wife Elisabeth. When Schumacher was four, his father modified his pedal kart by adding a small motorcycle engine, when Schumacher crashed it into a lamp post in Kerpen, his parents took him to the karting track at Kerpen-Horrem, where he became the youngest member of the karting club
The Ferrari 348 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive V8-powered 2-seat sports car by Ferrari, replacing the 328 in 1989 and continuing until 1995. It was the final V8 mid-engine model developed by Enzo Ferrari before his death, the 348, badged 348 tb for the coupé and 348 ts and the 348sp versions, features a normally aspirated 3. 4-litre version of the quad-cam, four-valve-per-cylinder V8 engine. As with its predecessors, the number was derived from this configuration. The engine, which produced 300 hp, was mounted longitudinally and coupled to a manual gearbox. The T in the model name 348 tb and ts refers to the position of the gearbox. Overall,2,895 examples of the 348 tb and 4,230 of the 348 ts were produced, the F355 that replaced it returned to the styling cues of the 328 with round tail lights and rounded side air scoops. Fifty-seven Challenge models were built for owners who wanted a more track-ready car, the 348 was fitted with dual-computer engine management using twin Bosch Motronic ECUs, double-redundant anti-lock brakes, and self-diagnosing air conditioning and heating systems.
Late versions have Japanese-made starter motors and Nippondenso power generators to improve reliability, U. S. spec 348s have OBD-I engine management systems, though European variants do not come with the self-test push button installed, which is needed to activate this troubleshooting feature. This had the effect of making the doors very wide. The 348 was equipped with an oil system to prevent oil starvation at high speeds. The oil level can only be checked on the dipstick when the motor is running due to this setup. The 348 was fitted with adjustable suspension and a removable rear sub-frame to speed up the removal of the engine for maintenance. This vehicle served as a test mule for the Ferrari Enzo, between 1992 and 1993 Ferrari made 100 units of 348 Serie Speciale of its tb and ts versions. It was a limited edition made for the US market. During 1992 -1993 there were only 35 TB Serie Speciales manufactured with the remainder being the TS Serie Speciale, Ferrari indicates a 0-60 mph time of 5.3 seconds and a standing ¼ mile of 13.75 seconds.
The cars were offered with F40 style sport seats in Connolly leather, the door panels were modified and made of leather. Each car is numbered, with a 348 Serie Speciale plate on the passengers side door-post, in 1994, a further 15 units were produced, bringing the total production of this limited edition to 115. The Ferrari Challenge was initiated by Ferrari Club Nederland and designated for the Ferrari 348, using the un-modified engine, the only changes of the car were slick tyres, better brake-pads, roll-bar, smaller battery in a different position and seat belts
Daniil Vyacheslavovich Kvyat is a Russian auto racing driver. He was runner-up at the 2012 Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 and he joined Formula One as a Toro Rosso driver in 2014 finishing 15th in the World Championship. He moved on to Red Bull Racing to partner Daniel Ricciardo for the 2015 season and he scored his first Formula One podium finish at the Hungarian Grand Prix on 26 July 2015, finishing second behind Sebastian Vettel. He returned to Toro Rosso ahead of the 2016 Spanish Grand Prix, born in Ufa, Russia, Kvyat was an active kart racer in Russia and Italy. In 2009, he finished third in the KF3 European Championship category, Kvyat started his formula racing career during the 2010 Formula BMW Pacific season with EuroInternational at the Sepang International Circuit. In his first race he started from sixth place, but finished only nineteenth and he finished fifth in the second race. During the season, he joined the Red Bull Junior Team and he finished in tenth position in the final championship standings, with a second-place finish at Monza.
After two races with Koiranen Bros and he finished as runner-up behind Sainz, Jr. in the Northern European Cup standings with seven wins, including a hat-trick of wins at Monza. In the Eurocup he was outpaced by former Formula BMW rival Robin Frijns and Sainz, for 2012, Kvyat remained in the Formula Renault category, competing in both Formula Renault 2.0 Alps and the Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 series. His debut in the Alps championship was marked with a double win at Monza. In May he returned to the Eurocup, and recorded a win in the opening round of the season at Motorland Aragón. He ultimately clinched the Alps title and finished as runner-up in the Eurocup and he was leading the race in heavy rain, but his tyres lost all grip during the final laps, and he missed the title by 10 points. Kvyat remained with the Red Bull Junior Team and progressed to the GP3 Series for 2013, Kvyat spent 2013 competing in the GP3 Series with MW Arden and the European Formula 3 championship with Carlin Motorsport.
Kvyat was a registration for the latter series, and so he was ineligible for points. He scored five pole positions, seven podiums and a dominant win at Zandvoort and his progress in GP3 was rapid as well. Kvyat started the season poorly but immediately recovered, scoring his first podium in his fifth feature race, following two wins in next two feature races, he went into the Abu Dhabi event being a title contender and finally won the championship in his debut year. In October 2013, Kvyat was announced as the driver of the Scuderia Toro Rosso Formula One team for the 2014 season. He replaced Daniel Ricciardo, who moved to parent team Red Bull Racing, as a test driver for STR, he took part in Friday practice for the final two Grands Prix of the 2013 season, in the United States and Brazil
Sebastian Vettel is a German racing driver, currently driving in Formula One for Scuderia Ferrari. He is a four-time Formula One World Champion, having won the championship in 2010,2011,2012 and 2013 with Red Bull Racing and he is among the most successful F1 drivers of all time. He is one of four drivers to have won four or more drivers titles. He is contracted to remain as a Formula One driver with Scuderia Ferrari until at least the end of 2017. Vettel started his career in Formula One as a test driver for BMW Sauber and made his debut with the team at the 2007 United States Grand Prix, in the season, he signed with Toro Rosso and stayed with the team into 2008. He became the youngest race winner at the time when he took victory at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix, in his first year driving for Red Bull in 2009, Vettel finished the season as the youngest-ever World Drivers Championship runner-up. The following year he went on to become the youngest driver ever to win the World Drivers Championship, in the same year he helped Red Bull win the teams first World Constructors Championship.
He followed up his first championship with three titles, becoming the youngest double and quadruple world champion in Formula One. The 2011 and 2013 titles saw Vettel dominating the seasons and wrapping up the titles early, after his winless 2014 season he returned to winning ways in his first Ferrari season, being the closest challenger to the dominant Mercedes cars and winning three races. He is currently in place among all time race winners. Vettel was born in Heppenheim, West Germany, to Norbert and he has one younger brother and two older sisters, Melanie, a dental technician, and Stefanie, a physiotherapist for disabled children. Vettel suggested in an interview that he was terrible at school, Vettel is a fan of The Beatles, collecting several records, including Abbey Road and his favourite song being Drive My Car. In an interview on Top Gear, Vettel stated that he was a fan of British comedy such as Little Britain, Vettel lives in Thurgovia, Switzerland amongst other racing drivers and is a fan of German football team Eintracht Frankfurt.
Vettel has described himself as competitive and impatient, Vettel appears in advertisements for Head & Shoulders. Vettel provided the voice of character Sebastian Schnell in the version of the movie Cars 2 dubbed for German-speaking audiences, Vettel is in a relationship with Hanna Prater, a childhood friend. In January 2014, Vettel became a father for the first time with the birth of his daughter, in September 2015, Vettel became a father for the second time with the birth of his second daughter, Matilda. In 2015, Forbes estimated that Vettels annual income was $33 million, on the Formula One circuit, Kimi Räikkönen, his Ferrari teammate for 2015 to 2017, is a close friend. Vettel shows to have a friendship with fellow drivers such as Lewis Hamilton, Michael Schumacher, Nico Rosberg with whom he repeatedly showcases a close
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition