Operation Chahar, known in Chinese as the Nankou Campaign, occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of Second Sino-Japanese War. This was the second attack by the Kwantung Army and the Inner Mongolian Army of Prince Teh Wang on Inner Mongolia after the failure of the Suiyuan Campaign; the Chahar Expeditionary Force was under the direct command of General Hideki Tōjō, the chief of staff of the Kwantung Army. A second force from the Peiping Railway Garrison Force the 1st Army under General Kiyoshi Katsuki, was involved; the Chinese forces opposing this invasion of Suiyuan were the Suiyuan Pacification Headquarters under the command of General Yan Xishan. Fu Zuoyi, the governor of Suiyuan, was made commander of the 7th Army Group, Liu Ju-ming, governor of Chahar, was made its deputy commander, defending Chahar with the 143rd Division and two Brigades. General Tang Enbo was sent by Chiang Kai-shek with the 13th and 17th Corps from the Central Army and made Frontline Commander in Chief.
The 1st Cavalry Corps was sent to Chahar under the command of Chiao Cheng-shou, facing the Mongolian forces of Teh Wang. Following the loss of Peiking, Tang Enbo's 13th Corps took up positions in depth along the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Nankou, further to the rear at Juyongguan. Gao's 17th Corps stationed its 84th Division at Chihcheng and Lungkuan, covering the flank of the 13th Corps from Japanese forces in Chahar; the 21st Division was deployed on the railroad to the rear of Tang's forces. Zhao Cheng-shou's 1st Cavalry Corps, Liu Ru-ming's 143rd Division, two Peace Preservation Brigades began an attack on the Mongol forces in northern Chahar. On August 8, the Japanese 11th Independent Mixed Brigade, commanded by Gen. Shigiyasu Suzuki, began their attack on the left flank of the 13th Corps position at Nankou, but were thwarted after three days by the difficult terrain and the stubborn resistance of the Chinese. A new attack on August 11, supported by tanks and aircraft, took Nankou Station, after which Gen. Suzuki's brigade advanced on Juyong Pass.
That same day, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the activation of the 14th Army Group under Gen. Wei Li-huang. Coming by rail from Yingchia-chuang to Yi Hsien, elements of the 14th Army Group were sent on a ten-day march through the plains west of Beiping in a flanking movement in support of Tang Enbo's forces; the Chinese 1st Army made attacks on the Japanese forces in Liangxiang and Chaili to distract them, sent a detachment to Heilung Pass to cover the advance of 14th Army Group. From the dates on a Japanese map of the battle, these forces did not reach the area until September, when it was too late, clashed with Japanese forces from September 9–17 without achieving its objective. On August 12, Tang Enbo's army counterattacked, surrounding the Japanese and cutting them off from their supplies and communications. On Aug 14th, Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division was sent to the relief of the 11th Independent Mixed Brigade at Juyongguan. On August 16, Itagaki arrived at Nankou and began an enveloping attack on the right flank of 13th Corps, making a five pronged attack at Huanglaoyuan.
The 7th Brigade of 4th Division under Shi Jue was moved to block this maneuver, reinforcements of Li Xian-zhou's 21st Division and Zhu Huai-bing's 94th Division were brought up, engaging in days of heavy fighting. On August 17 General Yan Xishan, Director of the Taiyuan Pacification Headquarters, directed the 7th Army, under Fu Zuoyi, to move its 72nd Division and three brigades by rail from Tatung to Huailai to reinforce Gen. Tang Enbo's forces. Meanwhile, in northern Chahar the Chinese 1st Cavalry Corps captured Shangtu, Nanhaochan and Huateh from the puppet Mongolian Army of Prince Teh. Elements of the 143rd Division took Zhongli. During this Chinese advance the Japanese Chahar Expeditionary Force under Lt. General Hideki Tōjō, composed of the mechanized 1st Independent Mixed Brigade and the 2nd and 15th Mixed Brigades, gathered for a counteroffensive from Changpei to Kalgan. From August 18–19 the Chahar Expeditionary Force counterattacked from Changpei, took Shenweitaiko on the Great Wall and the Hanno Dam.
The scattered and poorly equipped Chinese forces were unable to stop the Japanese, who now threatened the Peiking – Suiyuan Railway at Kalgan. On August 20 Gen. Fu Zuoyi's 7th Army diverted its 200th and 211th Brigades, moving south by rail to join Gen. Tang Enbo's forces, back to defend Kalgan. Fu's remaining 72nd Division arrived to reinforce Chenpien, his 7th Separate Brigade was sent to defend the railhead at Huailai. On August 21, the Japanese forces broke through at the villages of Chenbiancheng. Gen. Tang Enbo's forces awaiting reinforcement. Liu Ju-ming's 143rd Division fell back to defend Kalgan from the advancing Japanese. On August 23, as Seishirō Itagaki's 5th Division pushed toward Huailai from Chenpien against Ma Yen-shou's 7th Separate Brigade, advance elements of the 14th Army Group arrived on the Japanese flank at Chingpaikou, driving off the Japanese outpost there and contacting the Japanese forces advancing to Chenpien and the front beyond. However, they were delayed in crossing the Yungting River, their attack was delayed until it was too late to stop the Japanese advance.
Due to poor communications they failed to link up with Gen. Tang En-po's forces during the battle. After 8 days and 8 nights fighting, Itagaki, on August 24, linked up with the Kwantung army's 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade at Xi
The Jinzhou Operation was an operation in 1931 during the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, a preliminary, contributing factor to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. In late November 1931, Imperial Japanese Army commander in chief General Shigeru Honjō dispatched 10,000 soldiers in 13 armored trains, escorted by a squadron of bombers, in an advance on Jinzhou from Mukden; this force advanced to within 30 kilometers of Chinchow. The operation was cancelled by Japanese War Minister General Jirō Minami, due to the acceptance of modified form of a League of Nations proposal for a "neutral zone" to be established as a buffer zone between the Republic of China proper and Manchuria pending a future China-Japanese peace conference by the civilian government of Prime Minister Wakatsuki Reijirō in Tokyo; however the two sides failed to reach a lasting agreement. The Wakatsuki government soon fell and was replaced by a new cabinet led by Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai. Further negotiations with the Kuomintang government failing, the Japanese government approved an increase in the military forces in Manchuria.
In December, the rest of the 20th Infantry Division, along with the 38th Mixed Brigade of the 19th Infantry Division were sent into Manchuria from Korea while the 8th Mixed Brigade, 10th Infantry Division was sent from Japan. Following the defeat of General Ma Zhanshan in Heilongjiang province, in anticipation of reinforcements, a new Japanese offensive was launched in Manchuria on December 21. General Honjo insisted that his troops were moving out "to clear the country of bandits," and added that the Chinese evacuation of Chinchow was "absolutely imperative". Most of the "bandits" were the organizing Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies but some real bandits were exploiting the chaos following the collapse of the Chinese government and its Northeastern Army following the Mukden Incident and the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. While the other Japanese forces and collaborationist Manchurian troops spread out from their bases along the South Manchurian Railway rail lines to clear the countryside, from Mukden, the Japanese headquarters in Manchuria, the brigades of the 12th Infantry Division advanced southward in the night, supported by squadrons of Japanese bombers to force the Chinese to evacuate Jinzhou.
The Japanese estimated the Chinese at Jinzhou had 84,000 defenders, with 58 artillery pieces placed to support two separate systems of entrenchments defending the city. The Chinese first defensive line, 20 miles north of the city, was a series of trenches aimed to stop the Japanese advance at the Taling River Bridge on the Peiping-Mukden Railway; the Chinese had a second line of earthworks and entrenchments encircling Jinzhou to fall back on if the Japanese forces broke through the first line. Japanese Lieutenant General Jirō Tamon's troops cautiously advanced south from Mukden; the temperature was 30 below zero, Japanese forces were camouflaged in white. Japanese reconnaissance aircraft reported a force of at least 3,000 Chinese "bandits" waiting to defend Panshan County. Brushing aside these Chinese skirmishers in a series of minor clashes, Tamon prepared to meet and crush the first serious Chinese resistance, expected at Goubangzi, 50 kilometers north of Jinzhou. By the evening of December 31, 1931, the Japanese advance guard was fifteen kilometers from Jinzhou on the banks of the Taling river.
General Tamon halted to bring up the rest of his 2nd Division, for the final drive on Jinzhou. The Japanese War Office announced in a radio broadcast "The Battle of the Taling River", setting up microphones behind the Japanese lines, arranging an elaborate hookup to broadcast the sound of firing to Tokyo, but had to call off the broadcast when the Chinese retreated without giving combat. Japanese forces occupied Jinzhou on January 3, 1932, with the local populace waving Japanese flags homemade during the night to appease the conquerors. On the Chinese side confusion reigned; the old government of Chiang Kai-shek at Nanjing had resigned and a new one under Premier Sun Fo had been formed. Additionally, Marshal Zhang Xueliang's defenders were in disorderly retreat toward the Great Wall, leaving only a small garrison to protect the few government functionaries who remained behind. At Nanjing Eugene Chen, the new Kuomintang Foreign Minister, asserted that his government had never ordered evacuation of Jinzhou, but, on the contrary, had ordered Marshal Zhang to stand his ground.
Nine Chinese generals in various parts of China denounced Premier Sun Fo's new government, blaming it for the humiliating loss of Jinzhou without a struggle. The day after the fall of Jinzhou, the Imperial Japanese Army occupied Shanhaiguan, thus completing its military control over south Manchuria. Japanese invasion of Manchuria Pacification of Manchukuo Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282–314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904–1932. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-01206-2. "Strong Policy" From the Dec. 28, 1931 issue of TIME magazine The Charleston Gazette Friday Morning, January 1, 1932. Time Magazine, Jan. 4, 1932 Jaunting Juggernaut Fun & Blood From the Jan. 11, 1932 issue of TIME magazine
Actions in Inner Mongolia (1933–36)
The Inner Mongolian Campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1931, the invasion of Manchuria secured the creation of the puppet state of Manchukuo and in 1933, Operation Nekka detached the province of Jehol from the Republic of China. Blocked from further advance south by the Tanggu Truce, the Imperial Japanese Army turned its attention west, towards the Inner Mongolian provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, with the goal of establishing a northern China buffer state. In order to avoid overt violation of the Truce, the Japanese government used proxy armies in these campaigns while Chinese resistance was at first only provided by Anti-Japanese resistance movement forces in Chahar; the former included in the Inner Mongolian Army, the Manchukuo Imperial Army, the Grand Han Righteous Army. Chinese government forces were overtly hostile to the anti-Japanese resistance and resisted Japanese aggression only in Suiyuan in 1936.
In February 1933, following the successful Japanese invasion of Jehol, the Kwantung Army left a small Japanese detachment and the much larger Manchukuo Imperial Army to watch the eastern Jehol border, while the balance of the Japanese forces moved south to engage the Chinese on the Great Wall. In April 1933, collaborationist General Liu Guitang, under Japanese orders, crossed into southeastern Chahar province in the Dolonor region, as a diversionary feint to draw off Chinese reinforcements to the Great Wall. Finding little resistance, Liu led his 3,000 troops further east toward Changpei. Although reported at the time as a Japanese operation, Liu's further advance may have been carried out without Japan's explicit approval; the Kuomintang military committee in Peking appointed General Fu Zuoyi as commander of Chinese 7th Army Group, tasked him with providing Jehol border security. At the end of April, when the advancing Japanese forces approached Miyun, He Yingqin anxiously redeployed Fu Zuoyi's troops to strengthen the Peking's defenses eastwards to Changping leaving the defense of the Chahar border empty.
The Japanese and Manchukuo armies seized the opportunity on May 11, following up on Liu Guitang's advance, seized the Dolonnur region, subsequently took Guyuan, just prior to the signing of the Tanggu Truce of May 31, 1933. The terms of the Tanggu Truce enraged public opinion in urban China. Groups of Chinese patriots opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's policies, both within the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party, as well as overseas Chinese cooperated in organizing and supporting an irregular force, or Anti-Japanese Allied Army to resist further Japanese encroachment. General Feng Yuxiang and his former subordinate Ji Hongchang, were able to recruit many units of former Guominjun soldiers. Fang Zhenwu raised volunteers from the rest of China. Added to this were the local militias driven out of Jehol by the Japanese and Manchurian Anti-Japanese guerrilla forces under Feng Zhanhai, the local Chahar militia, a Mongol army under Demchugdongrub; the Japanese collaborator Liu Guitang switched sides, joining the Anti-Japanese Allied Army as did the Suiyuan bandit leader Wang Ying.
After a meeting of the various commanding officers, on May 26, 1933, the Chahar People's Anti-Japanese Army was formally proclaimed with General Feng Yuxiang was made commander-in-chief, Fang Zhenwu became vice-commander-in-chief and Ji Hongchang the front-line commander. The army was estimated in strength to be between 60,000 and 120,000 men by various sources, with the figure of 100,000 men claimed by Feng Yuxiang. Despite its numbers, most of the volunteers in the army lacked other modern weapons. Order of Battle Anti-Japanese Allied Army Campaign of 1933 By the time the Anti-Japanese Allied Army had been established, the Kwantung Army strengthened its defenses at Dolonnur; the city was garrisoned by over 2,000 men of an artillery unit. Outside the city, the Japanese erected 32 blockhouses connected with trenches, a wire communications network, multiple lines of obstacles; these outer defenses were guarded by Manchukuo troops under the command of Li Shou-hsin. To the south the Japanese 8th Regiment was stationed in Fengning, for mutual support with the forces in Dolonnur.
The Anti-Japanese Allied Army found its situation worsening day-by-day. On June 1, Japanese airplanes bombed Dushikou, on June 4, Baochang fell to the Japanese, as did Kangbao on June 5. On June 21, Feng Yuxiang ordered the Anti-Japanese Allied Army to launch a counteroffensive in three columns to regain the lost territory. On the June 22 its vanguard approached Kangbao, after several hours of fighting, the Manchukuo force under General Cui Xingwu fled, allowing the Chinese forces to re-occupy the town. In late June, a force under Ji Hongchang pushed northeast against Dolonnur with two corps; the Northern corps recaptured Baochang from the now-demoralized Manchukuo force under Cui Xingwu. The Southern corps under Fang Zhenwu advanced on Guyuan, held by the collaborationist General Liu Guitang. Liu was persuaded to change sides, surrendered Guyuan and other places on the Bashang Plateau without battle. On July 8, before dawn, Ji Hongchang began an assault on Dolonnur, capturing the two outer defense lines outside the city before being driven back with heavy casualties.
Some of Ji's soldiers were sent in disguise into the city as covert operatives to gather intelligence for a second attack. This second attack re-captured Dolonnur on July 12 driving the Japanese-Manchukuo armies out of Chahar province. In late July, Feng Yuxiang and Ji Hongchang established the "Committee For Recovering the Four Provinces of the Northeast" at Kalgan, directly cha
Beijing romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, most populous capital city. The city, located in northern China, is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of central government with 16 urban and rural districts. Beijing Municipality is surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin Municipality to the southeast. Beijing is an important world capital and global power city, one of the world's leading centers for politics and business, education, culture and technology, architecture and diplomacy. A megacity, Beijing is the second largest Chinese city by urban population after Shanghai and is the nation's political and educational center, it is home to the headquarters of most of China's largest state-owned companies and houses the largest number of Fortune Global 500 companies in the world, as well as the world's four biggest financial institutions. It is a major hub for the national highway, expressway and high-speed rail networks.
The Beijing Capital International Airport has been the second busiest in the world by passenger traffic since 2010, and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and second longest in the world. Combining both modern and traditional architecture, Beijing is one of the oldest cities in the world, with a rich history dating back three millennia; as the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has been the political center of the country for most of the past eight centuries, was the largest city in the world by population for much of the second millennium A. D. Encyclopædia Britannica notes that "few cities in the world have served for so long as the political headquarters and cultural center of an area as immense as China." With mountains surrounding the inland city on three sides, in addition to the old inner and outer city walls, Beijing was strategically poised and developed to be the residence of the emperor and thus was the perfect location for the imperial capital.
The city is renowned for its opulent palaces, parks, tombs and gates. It has seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites—the Forbidden City, Temple of Heaven, Summer Palace, Ming Tombs and parts of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal— all tourist locations. Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, hutongs, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing. Many of Beijing's 91 universities rank among the best in China, such as the Peking University and Tsinghua University. Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is known as China's Silicon Valley and a center of innovation and technology entrepreneurship. Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had numerous other names; the name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital", was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing. The English spelling is based on the pinyin romanization of the two characters as they are pronounced in Standard Mandarin.
An older English spelling, Peking, is the postal romanization of the same two characters as they are pronounced in Chinese dialects spoken in the southern port towns first visited by European traders and missionaries. Those dialects preserve the Middle Chinese pronunciation of 京 as kjaeng, prior to a phonetic shift in the northern dialects to the modern pronunciation. Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with IATA Code PEK, Peking University, still use the former romanization; the single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is 京, which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ"; the earliest traces of human habitation in the Beijing municipality were found in the caves of Dragon Bone Hill near the village of Zhoukoudian in Fangshan District, where Peking Man lived. Homo erectus fossils from the caves date to 230,000 to 250,000 years ago.
Paleolithic Homo sapiens lived there more about 27,000 years ago. Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing, located in downtown Beijing; the first walled city in Beijing was Jicheng, the capital city of the state of Ji and was built in 1045 BC. Within modern Beijing, Jicheng was located around the present Guang'anmen area in the south of Xicheng District; this settlement was conquered by the state of Yan and made its capital. After the First Emperor unified China, Jicheng became a prefectural capital for the region. During the Three Kingdoms period, it was held by Gongsun Zan and Yuan Shao before falling to the Wei Kingdom of Cao Cao; the AD 3rd-century Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom. After China was reunified during the Sui dynasty, Jicheng known as Zhuojun, became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal.
Under the Tang dynasty, Jicheng as Youzhou, served as a military frontier command center. During the An-Shi Rebellion and again amidst the turmoil of the late Tang, local military commanders founded their own shor
Battle of Beiping–Tianjin
The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin known as the Battle of Beijing and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the North China Incident was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping and Tianjin. It resulted in a Japanese victory. During the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 8 July 1937, the Japanese China Garrison Army attacked the walled city of Wanping after an ultimatum to allow its forces to search for an missing soldier had elapsed. Wanping, in the neighborhood of Lugou Bridge, was on the main railway line west of Beiping and was of considerable strategic importance. Prior to July 1937, Japanese forces had demanded the withdrawal of the Chinese forces stationed at this place. Chinese General Song Zheyuan ordered his forces to hold their positions and attempted to avert war through diplomacy. On 9 July, the Japanese offered a ceasefire and truce, one of the conditions of, that the Chinese 37th Division, which had proven "hostile" to Japan, be replaced with another division from the Chinese 29th Route Army.
This condition was agreed to by the Chinese the same day. However, from midnight of 9 July, Japanese violations of the ceasefire began to increase and Japanese reinforcements continued to arrive. Lieutenant General Kanichiro Tashiro commander of Japanese China Garrison Army fell ill and died on 12 July and was replaced by Lieutenant General Kiyoshi Katsuki. Muslim General Ma Bufang of the Ma clique notified the Chinese government that he was prepared to lead his army into battle against the Japanese when they started the attack on Beiping. After the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese. Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division, sent by Ma Bufang. Meanwhile, the Japanese civilian government of Prime Minister Konoe in Tokyo held an extraordinary cabinet meeting on 8 July, resolved to attempt to defuse hostilities and settle the issue diplomatically. However, the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff authorized the deployment of an infantry division from the Chosen Army, two independent combined brigades from the Kwantung Army and an air regiment as reinforcements.
This deployment was rescinded on 11 July on news that negotiations were being held by the commander of the Japanese Northern China Area Army and the Chinese 29th Route Army on location, with Japanese diplomats at the Chinese capital of Nanjing. However after General Song Zheyuan, Commander of the 29th Army and head of the Hebei-Chahar Political Council, was reported to have come to terms on 18 July, the Japanese Army pushed forward the deployment of reinforcements citing lack of sincerity on part of the Chinese central government; this mobilization was opposed by General Kanji Ishihara on the grounds that an unnecessary escalation in the conflict with China was endangering Japan's position in Manchukuo vis-à-vis the Soviet Union. At Ishihara's urging, the deployment was delayed while Konoe used his personal contacts with Japanese acquaintances of Sun Yat-sen in an effort to establish a direct diplomatic settlement with the Kuomintang central government in Nanjing; this secret diplomacy failed when elements within the Japanese military detained Konoe's emissary on 23 July, the mobilization of reinforcements was restarted on 29 July.
One week the Commander of the Japanese Northern China Area Army reported that, having exhausted every means of peaceful settlement, he had decided to use force to "chastise" the Chinese 29th Route Army and requested approval from Tokyo. In the meantime, mobilization orders were issued for four more infantry divisions. Despite the nominal truce, numerous violations of the ceasefire continued, including another shelling of Wanping by Japanese artillery on 14 July. By 25 July, Japanese reinforcements in the form of the IJA 20th Division arrived and fighting reerupted first at Langfang, a city on the railroad between Beiping and Tianjin, between companies of Japanese and Chinese troops. A second clash occurred on 26 July, when a Japanese brigade attempted to force its way through Guanghuamen Gate in Beiping to "protect Japanese nationals"; the same day Japanese planes bombed Langfang. The Japanese issued an ultimatum to General Song demanding the withdrawal of all Chinese forces from the outskirts of Beiping to the west of the Yongding River within 24 hours.
Song refused, ordered his units to prepare for action, requested large reinforcements from the central government, which were not provided. On 27 July, as the Japanese laid siege to Chinese forces in Tongzhou, one Chinese battalion broke out and fell back to Nanyuan. Japanese planes bombed Chinese forces outside Beiping and reconnoitered Kaifeng and Luoyang. On 28 July, the IJA 20th Division and three independent combined brigades launched an offensive against Beiping, backed by close air support; the main attack was against a secondary attack against Beiyuan. Bitter fighting ensued with both General Tong Linge Deputy Commander of Chinese 29th Route Army and General Zhao Dengyu commanding Chinese 132nd Division being killed, their units suffering heavy casualties. However, a brigade of Chinese 38th Division under General Liu Chen-san pushed back the Japanese in the Langfang area while a brigade of the Chinese 53rd Corps and a portion of the Chinese 37th Division recovered the railway station at Fengtai.
However, this was only a temporary respite, by nightfall General Song admitted that further combat was futile and withdrew the main force of Chinese 29th Route Army south of the Yungging Ri
The Suiyuan Campaign was an attempt by the Inner Mongolian Army and Grand Han Righteous Army, two forces founded and supported by Imperial Japan, to take control of the Suiyuan province from the Republic of China. The attempted invasion occurred in 1936, shortly before the Second Sino-Japanese War; the Japanese government denied taking part in the operation, but the Inner Mongolians and the other collaborationist Chinese troops received air support from Japanese planes and were assisted by the Imperial Japanese Army. The entire operation was overseen by Japanese staff officers; the campaign was unsuccessful due to lack of training and low morale among the Mongolians and other collaborators. The defense of Suiyuan, one of the first major successes of China's National Revolutionary Army over Japanese-supported forces improved Chinese morale; the Empire of Japan had been pursuing its expansionist ambitions in China since the late 19th century, the situation began escalating in the early 1930s. In September 1931, the Mukden Incident resulted in the Japanese Kwantung Army occupying the three northeastern provinces of China and defeating the forces of the pro-Nationalist warlord who had ruled the region, the "Young Marshal" Zhang Xueliang.
The Kwantung Army took part in establishing the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in 1932 under the rule of the last Qing emperor, Puyi. Shortly after that the three eastern Mongolian leagues–ancient regions of Inner Mongolia–were occupied and annexed into fledgling state of Manchukuo; the hostilities in the Manchuria region between the Republic of China and Japan ended in May 1933 with the signing of the Tanggu Truce. However, due to the lingering Japanese territorial ambitions and Chinese public opinion being against the harsh terms of the agreement, it was only a temporary respite; the idea of using the Inner Mongolia region as a buffer state against China and Russia had been considered by Japanese government circles since the early 20th century. Throughout the 1930s the Japanese Kwantung Army wanted to use the Mongols as a method of obstructing the Chinese government's control over northern China. In 1929, they made contact with Prince Demchugdongrub, an Inner Mongolian nobleman and nationalist leader who wanted more autonomy from the Kuomintang government in Nanjing.
The Japanese knew of his ambitions to create an independent Mongolian state and wanted to use him for their own purpose, while the Prince considered allying them in order to obtain weapons and training for his Mongolian Army. In 1933, the Kwantung Army made the project to win over the Mongolian nobility to their side a priority; the Japanese took advantage of the disputes for increased autonomy between the Mongolians and the Nanjing government to bring Prince De Wang to their side with promises of providing weapons and helping him take over Inner Mongolia. In 1934, they occupied several Mongolian leagues and armed the Mongol army of the warlord Li Shouxin as part of this plan. In October of the following year, Prince De Wang met with Japanese military commanders in Hsinking and came to an agreement regarding Japan–Mongolia cooperation; the Japanese promised him military and financial assistance to take over Inner Mongolia and create a Mongolian state. In February 1936 he proclaimed the creation of the Mongol Military Government during a grandiose ceremony.
The new government adopted the birthday of Genghis Khan as its calendar, Prince De swore "to recover the original land of the Mongols, to complete the great mission of national revival." The new state only controlled the northern Chahar province but plans were soon made to expand into the neighboring Suiyuan province. Japanese intelligence operatives had been working in Suiyuan for several months to lay the ground work for the coming invasion. Meanwhile, an Inner Mongolian Army was created out of the forces loyal to Prince Demchugdongrub and other Mongolian nobles that supported him, along with other Chinese collaborators; the main force of the Mongolian Army was about 10,000 strong, divided into eight divisions, though they were poorly armed. Li Shouxin's Mongol detachment from the Manchukuo Imperial Army, attached to Prince De's command, was well armed and decently trained. In addition, a warlord hired by the Kwantung Army named Wang Ying had formed his own collaborationist force called the Grand Han Righteous Army, consisting of about 6,000 men.
The latter was attached to the Mongolian Army for the operation but consisted of hastily recruited bandits who were of low quality. Disunity and the lack of training among this exotic force damaged their morale; the Japanese provided them with weapons and tried to prepare them somewhat for the Suiyuan operation to make up for their lack of adequate training. However, they sent groups of advisers embedded in each collaborator unit, along with artillery and armored cars to assist their Mongolian allies; the Chinese National Revolutionary Army garrison in the Suiyuan province was reinforced by troops sent from Nanjing by the Kuomintang government, including an elite anti-aircraft battalion. This resulted in four Japanese planes being shot down during raids prior to the beginning of the campaign; the Japanese-backed forces which entered the region included the Inner Mongolian Army of about 10,000 men and the Grand Han Righteous Army, about 6,000 strong. These troops were supported by an unknown number of Japanese "advisers" with small groups of them being embedded in each collaborationist unit.
They were opposed by the Chinese Nationalist 35th and 19th Army, as well as some local forces, which in total numbered about 45,000 men. The invasion began in October 1936, with the main force cons
Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge
The Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge was a small battle fought between forces of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army against the Imperial Japanese Army and collaborationist forces, after the Mukden Incident during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, prior to the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War. It marked the start of the Jiangqiao Campaign. In November 1931, the acting governor of Heilongjiang province General Ma Zhanshan chose to disobey the Kuomintang government's ban on further resistance to the Japanese invasion and attempted to prevent Japanese forces from crossing into Heilongjiang province by defending a strategic railway bridge across the Nen River near Jiangqiao; this bridge had been dynamited earlier by Ma's forces during the fighting against the pro-Japanese collaborationist forces of General Chang Hai-Peng. A repair crew, guarded by 800 Japanese soldiers, went to work on 4 November 1931. Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops under General Ma Zhanshan; each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation.
The Japanese claimed the Chinese opened fire using rifles and machine guns late in the day during a fog when Japanese troops started across the span. The Japanese retaliated and the skirmish continued for over three hours. Only 15 Japanese were reported killed and 120 Chinese, as the Japanese advanced and drove General Ma's remaining troops off toward Qiqihar. General Ma Zhanshan returned to counterattack with a much larger force. Although dislodging the Japanese from their advance positions, he was unable to recapture the bridge, which the Japanese continued to repair. Ma was forced to withdraw his troops in the face of Japanese tanks and artillery; the repaired bridge made possible the further advance of their armored trains. Despite his failure to hold the bridge, General Ma Zhanshan became a national hero in China for his resistance at Nenjiang Bridge, reported in the Chinese and international press; the publicity inspired more volunteers to enlist in the Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armies. Although led by army officers and with numbers of former regular troops among their ranks, most volunteers had no previous military experience.
These irregular armies were to become the main anti-Japanese force in northeast China during 1932 and posed a serious obstacle to Japanese attempts to pacify the country. Jiangqiao Campaign Japanese invasion of Manchuria Coogan, Anthony. Northeast China and the Origins of the Anti-Japanese United Front. Modern China, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 282-314: Sage Publications. Matsusaka, Yoshihisa Tak; the Making of Japanese Manchuria, 1904-1932. Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-01206-2. Two War Lords, TIME Magazine, Nov. 16, 1931 NONNI RIVER BRIDGE The volunteer armies of northeast China