London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
A hairdresser is a person whose occupation is to cut or style hair in order to change or maintain a person's image. This is achieved using a combination of hair coloring and hair texturing techniques. Most hairdressers are professionally licensed as a barber or a cosmetologist. Hairdressing as an occupation dates back thousands of years. Ancient art drawings and paintings have been discovered depicting people working on another person's hair. Greek writers Aristophanes and Homer both mention hairdressing in their writings. In Africa, it was believed in some cultures that a person's spirit occupied his or her hair, giving hairdressers high status within these communities; the status of hairdressing encouraged many to develop their skills, close relationships were built between hairdressers and their clients. Hours would be spent washing, oiling and ornamenting their hair. Men would work on men, women on other women. Before a master hairdresser died, they would give their combs and tools to a chosen successor during a special ceremony.
In ancient Egypt, hairdressers had specially decorated cases to hold their tools, including lotions and styling materials. Barbers worked as hairdressers, wealthy men had personal barbers within their home. With the standard of wig wearing within the culture, wigmakers were trained as hairdressers. In ancient Rome and Greece household slaves and servants took on the role of hairdressers, including dyeing and shaving. Men who did not have their own private hair or shaving services would visit the local barbershop. Women had their hair groomed at their homes. Historical documentation is lacking regarding hairstylists from the 5th century until the 14th century. Hair care service grew in demand after a papal decree in 1092 demanded that all Roman Catholic clergymen remove their facial hair; the first appearance of the word "hairdresser" is in 17th century Europe, hairdressing was considered a profession. Hair fashion of the period suggested that wealthy women wear large and adorned hairstyles, which would be maintained by their personal maids and other people, who would spend hours dressing the woman's hair.
A wealthy man's hair would be maintained by a valet. It was in France where men began styling women's hair for the first time, many of the notable hairdressers of the time were men, a trend that would continue into contemporary times; the first famous male hairdresser was Champagne, born in Southern France. Upon moving to Paris, he opened his own hair salon and dressed the hair of wealthy Parisian women until his death in 1658. Women's hair grew taller in style during the 17th century, popularized by the hairdresser Madame Martin; the hairstyle, "the tower," was the trend with wealthy English and American women, who relied on hairdressers to style their hair as tall as possible. Tall piles of curls were pomaded and decorated with ribbons, lace and jewelry; the profession of hairdressing was launched as a genuine profession when Legros de Rumigny was declared the first official hairdresser of the French court. In 1765 de Rumigny published his book Art de la Coiffure des Dames, which discussed hairdressing and included pictures of hairstyles designed by him.
The book was a best seller amongst Frenchwomen, four years de Rumigny opened a school for hairdressers: Academie de Coiffure. At the school he taught women to cut hair and create his special hair designs. By 1777 1,200 hairdressers were working in Paris. During this time, barbers formed unions, demanded that hairdressers do the same. Wigmakers demanded that hairdressers cease taking away from their trade, hairdressers responded that their roles were not the same, hairdressing was a service, wigmakers made and sold a product. De Rumigny died in 1770 and other hairdressers gained in popularity three Frenchmen: Frederic, Léonard. Leonard and Larseueur were the stylists for Marie Antoinette. Leonard was her favorite, developed many hairstyles that became fashion trends within wealthy Parisian circles, including the loge d'opera, which towered five feet over the wearer's head. During the French Revolution he escaped the country hours before he was to be arrested, alongside the king and other clients.
He emigrated to Russia. Parisian hairdressers continued to develop influential styles during the early 19th century. Wealthy French women would have their favorite hairdressers style their hair from within their own homes, a trend seen in wealthy international communities. Hairdressing was a service affordable only to those wealthy enough to hire professionals or to pay for servants to care for their hair. In the United States, Marie Laveau was one of the most famous hairdressers of the period. Laveau, located in New Orleans, began working as a hairdresser in the early 1820s, maintaining the hair of wealthy women of the city, she was a voodoo practitioner, called the "Voodoo Queen of New Orleans," and she used her connections to wealthy women to support her religious practice. She provided "help" to women who needed it for money and other favors. French hairdresser Marcel Grateau developed the "Marcel wave" in the late part of the century, his wave required the use of a special hot hair iron and needed to be done by an experienced hairdresser.
Fashionable women asked to have their hair "marceled." During this period, hairdressers began opening salons in cities and towns, led by Martha Matilda Harper, who developed one of the first retail chains of hair salons, the Harper Method. Beauty salons became popularized during the 20th century, alongside men's barbersho
Gaeta is a city and comune in the province of Latina, in Lazio, central Italy. Set on a promontory stretching towards the Gulf of Gaeta, it is 120 kilometres from Rome and 80 km from Naples; the town has played a conspicuous part in military history. Gaeta's fortifications were extended and strengthened in the 15th century throughout the history of the Kingdom of Naples. Present day Gaeta is a fishing and oil seaport, a renowned tourist resort. NATO maintains a naval base of operations at Gaeta, it is the ancient Caieta, situated on the slopes of the Torre di Orlando, a promontory overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. Gaeta was an ancient Ionian colony of the Samians according to Strabo, who believed the name stemmed from the Ancient Greek καιέτας, which means "cave" referring to the several harbours. According to Virgil's Aeneid, Caieta was Aeneas' wet-nurse. In the classical age Caieta, famous for its lovely and temperate climate, like the neighbouring Formia and Sperlonga, was a tourist resort and site of the seaside villas of many important and rich characters of Rome.
Like the other Roman resorts, Caieta was linked to the capital of the Empire by Via Appia and its end trunk Via Flacca, through an opposite diverticulum or by-road. Its port was of great importance in trade and in war, was restored under Emperor Antoninus Pius. Among its antiquities is the mausoleum of Lucius Munatius Plancus. At the beginning of the Middle Ages, after the Lombard invasion, Gaeta remained under suzerainty of the Byzantine Empire. In the following years, like Amalfi and Naples, it would seem to have established itself as a independent port and to have carried on a thriving trade with the Levant; as Byzantine influence declined in Southern Italy the town began to grow. For fear of the Saracens, in 840 the inhabitants of the neighbouring Formiæ fled to Gaeta. Though under the suzerainty of Byzantium, Gaeta had like nearby ports Naples and Amalfi, a republican form of government with a dux, as a strong bulwark against Saracen invasion. Around 830, it became a lordship ruled by hereditary hypati, or consuls: the first of these was Constantine, who in 847 aided Pope Leo IV in the naval fight at Ostia.
At this same time the episcopal see of Gaeta was founded when Constantine, Bishop of Formiae, fled thither and established his residence. He was associated with his son Marinus I, they were violently overthrown in 866 or 867 by Docibilis I, looking rather to local safety, entered into treaties with the Saracens and abandoned friendly relations with the papacy. He expanded the duchy and began construction of the palace. Greatest of the hypati was John I, who helped crush the Saracens at Garigliano in 915 and gained the title of patricius from the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII; the principle of co-regency governed the early dynasties: Docibilis associated John with him and John in turn associated his son Docibilis II with him. In 933, three generations were co-ruling: John I, Docibilis II, John II. On the death of Docibilis II, who first took the title dux, the duchy passed from its golden age and entered a decline marked by a division of territory. John II ruled Gaeta and his brother, ruled Fondi with the equivalent title of duke.
Outlying lands and castles were given away to younger sons and thus the family of the Docibili declined after mid-century. But improbably, from the end of the 9th century, the principality of Capua claimed Gaeta as a courtesy title for the younger son of its ruling prince. In the mid-10th century, the De Ceremoniis of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus lists the ceremonial title "prince of Gaeta" among the protocols for letters written to foreigners. Prince Pandulf IV of Capua captured Gaeta in 1032 and deposed Duke John V, assuming the ducal and consular titles. In 1038, Prince Guaimar IV of Salerno took it from him and, in 1041, established the Norman counts of Aversa, who were afterwards princes of Capua, as puppet dukes; the native dynasty made a last attempt to wrest the duchy from Guaimar in 1042 under Leo the Usurper. In 1045, the Gaetans elected their own Lombard duke, Atenulf I, his son, Atenulf II, was made to submit to the Norman Prince Richard I of Capua in 1062, when Gaeta was captured by Jordan Drengot.
In 1064, the city was placed under a line of puppet dukes, appointed by the Capuan princes, who had usurped the ducal and consular titles. These dukes Italianate Normans, ruled Gaeta with some level of independence until the death of Richard of Caleno in 1140. In that year, Gaeta was definitively annexed to the Kingdom of Sicily by Roger II, who bestowed on his son Roger of Apulia, duly elected by the nobles of the city; the town did maintain its own coinage until as late as 1229, after the Normans had been superseded by the centralising Hohenstaufen. In the many wars for possession of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, owing to its important strategic position, was attacked and defended bravely. In 1194 the Pisans, allies of Emperor Henry VI in the conquest of the kingdom, took possession of the city and held it as their own. In 1227 the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II strengthened the castle. However, in the struggle between Emperor Frederick and the Papac
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water. Also: the business of real estate, it is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, Wales, Northern Ireland, United States, Pakistan and New Zealand. Residential real estate may contain either a single family or multifamily structure, available for occupation or for non-business purposes. Residences can be classified by. Different types of housing tenure can be used for the same physical type. For example, connected residences might be owned by a single entity and leased out, or owned separately with an agreement covering the relationship between units and common areas and concerns. Major categoriesAttached / multi-unit dwellings Apartment or Flat – An individual unit in a multi-unit building; the boundaries of the apartment are defined by a perimeter of locked or lockable doors. Seen in multi-story apartment buildings.
Multi-family house – Often seen in multi-story detached buildings, where each floor is a separate apartment or unit. Terraced house – A number of single or multi-unit buildings in a continuous row with shared walls and no intervening space. Condominium – A building or complex, similar to apartments, owned by individuals. Common grounds and common areas within the complex are shared jointly. In North America, there are rowhouse style condominiums as well; the British equivalent is a block of flats. Cooperative – A type of multiple ownership in which the residents of a multi-unit housing complex own shares in the cooperative corporation that owns the property, giving each resident the right to occupy a specific apartment or unit. Semi-detached dwellings Duplex – Two units with one shared wall. Detached dwellings Detached house or single-family detached house Portable dwellings Mobile homes or residential caravans – A full-time residence that can be movable on wheels. Houseboats – A floating home Tents – Usually temporary, with roof and walls consisting only of fabric-like material.
The size of an apartment or house can be described in square meters. In the United States, this includes the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square meters" figure of a house in Europe may report the total area of the walls enclosing the home, thus including any attached garage and non-living spaces, which makes it important to inquire what kind of surface area definition has been used. It can be described more by the number of rooms. A studio apartment has a single bedroom with no living room. A one-bedroom apartment has a dining room separate from the bedroom. Two bedroom, three bedroom, larger units are common. Other categoriesChawls Villas HavelisThe size of these is measured in Gaz, Marla and acre. See List of house types for a complete listing of housing types and layouts, real estate trends for shifts in the market, house or home for more general information, it is common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission.
In North America, this intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker, or a real estate agent in everyday conversation, whilst in the United Kingdom, the intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent
Texas hold 'em
Texas hold'em is a variation of the card game of poker. Two cards, known as hole cards, are dealt face down to each player, five community cards are dealt face up in three stages; the stages consist of a series of three cards an additional single card, a final card. Each player seeks the best five card poker hand from any combination of the seven cards of the five community cards and their two hole cards. Players have betting options to check, raise, or fold. Rounds of betting take place before the flop is dealt and after each subsequent deal; the player who has the best hand and has not folded by the end of all betting rounds wins all of the money bet for the hand, known as the pot. Texas hold'em is the H game featured in HORSE and in HOSE. In Texas hold'em, as in all variants of poker, individuals compete for an amount of money or chips contributed by the players themselves; because the cards are dealt randomly and outside the control of the players, each player attempts to control the amount of money in the pot based either on the hand they are holding, or on their prediction as to what their opponents may be holding and how they might behave.
The game is divided into a series of hands. A hand may end at the showdown, in which case the remaining players compare their hands and the highest hand is awarded the pot; the other possibility for the conclusion of a hand occurs when all but one player have folded and have thereby abandoned any claim to the pot, in which case the pot is awarded to the player who has not folded. The objective of winning players is not to win every individual hand, but rather to make mathematically and psychologically better decisions regarding when and how much to bet, call—or fold. By making such decisions to place influential bets, one can non-verbally represent or suggest holding or not-holding a certain or possible hand by either betting or not-betting pre-flop, by venturing smaller or larger bets or raises at more advantageous times, throughout the stages of the hand being dealt. One's pattern of betting may encourage opponents to bet or to fold, without verbalizing a discouraging or dishonest word; the winning poker players know how to enhance their opponents' betting and maximize their own expected gain on each round of betting, to thereby increase their long-term winnings.
Although little is known about the invention of Texas hold'em, the Texas Legislature recognizes Robstown, Texas, as the game's birthplace, dating it to the early 1900s. After the game spread throughout Texas, hold'em was introduced to Las Vegas in 1963 at the California Club by Corky McCorquodale; the game became popular and spread to the Golden Nugget and Dunes. In 1967, a group of Texan gamblers and card players, including Crandell Addington, Doyle Brunson, Amarillo Slim were playing in Las Vegas; this is. Addington said the first time he saw the game was in 1959. "They didn't call it Texas hold'em at the time, they just called it hold'em.… I thought that if it were to catch on, it would become the game. Draw poker, you bet only twice; that meant. This was more of a thinking man's game."For several years the Golden Nugget Casino in Downtown Las Vegas was the only casino in Las Vegas to offer the game. At that time, the Golden Nugget's poker room was "truly a'sawdust joint,' with…oiled sawdust covering the floors."
Because of its location and decor, this poker room did not receive many rich drop-in clients, as a result, professional players sought a more prominent location. In 1969, the Las Vegas professionals were invited to play Texas hold'em at the entrance of the now-demolished Dunes Casino on the Las Vegas Strip; this prominent location, the relative inexperience of poker players with Texas hold'em, resulted in a remunerative game for professional players. After a failed attempt to establish a "Gambling Fraternity Convention", Tom Moore added the first poker tournament to the Second Annual Gambling Fraternity Convention held in 1969; this tournament featured. In 1970, Benny and Jack Binion acquired the rights to this convention, renamed it the World Series of Poker, moved it to their casino, Binion's Horseshoe, in Las Vegas. After its first year, a journalist, Tom Thackrey, suggested that the main event of this tournament should be no-limit Texas hold'em; the Binions agreed and since no-limit Texas hold'em has been played as the main event.
Interest in the main event continued to grow over the next two decades. After receiving only eight entrants in 1972, the numbers grew to over one hundred entrants in 1982, over two hundred in 1991. During this time, B & G Publishing Co. Inc. published Doyle Brunson's revolutionary poker strategy guide, Super/System. Despite being self-published and priced at $100 in 1978, the book revolutionized the way poker was played, it was one of the first books to discuss Texas hold'em, is today cited as one of the most important books on this game. In 1983, Al Alvarez published The Biggest Game in Town, a book detailing a 1981 World Series of Poker event; the first book of its kind, it described the world of professional poker players and the World Series of Poker. Alvarez's book is credited with begin
World Series of Poker bracelet
The World Series of Poker bracelet is considered the most coveted non-monetary prize a poker player can win. Since 1976, a bracelet has been awarded to the winner of every event at the annual WSOP. If the victory occurred before 1976, WSOP championships are now counted as "bracelets". During the first years of the WSOP only a handful of bracelets were awarded each year. In 1990, there were only 14 bracelet events. By 2000, that number increased to 24; as the popularity of poker has increased during the 2000s, the number of events has increased. In 2011, 58 bracelets were awarded at the WSOP, seven at the World Series of Poker Europe, one to the WSOP National Circuit Champion; this brought the total number of bracelets awarded up to 959. Five additional bracelets were awarded for the first time in April 2013 at the inaugural World Series of Poker Asia-Pacific in Melbourne, Australia.. In 2017, 74 for bracelets were awarded at the WSOP and an additional 11 will be awarded at the WSOPE in Czech Republic.
After the conclusion of the 2014 WSOP APAC, there have been 1083 bracelets awarded, 500 of which were won by 170 players who have won at least two bracelets, with all of the other bracelets being won by one-time winners. This includes 17 Main Event winners: Hal Fowler, Bill Smith, Mansour Matloubi, Brad Daugherty, Jim Bechtel, Russ Hamilton, Noel Furlong, Robert Varkonyi, Chris Moneymaker, Greg Raymer, Joe Hachem, Jamie Gold, Jerry Yang, Peter Eastgate, Pius Heinz, Ryan Riess and Martin Jacobson. Since Chris Moneymaker won the 2003 Main Event, only three players have won and followed it up with a win in another bracelet event, Jonathan Duhamel, Joe Cada and Joe McKeehen; the 1976 bracelet looked "like gold nuggets kind of hammered flat". The bracelet in 1976 cost $500. In the 1980s, Las Vegas jeweler Mordechai Yerushalmi became the exclusive manufacturer of WSOP bracelets until Harrah's Entertainment bought the rights to the WSOP in 2004. According to 2003 WSOP Champion Chris Moneymaker, the design of the bracelet remained unchanged under Yerushalmi.
In 2005, Gold and Diamond International based in Memphis, TN won the bid from Harrah's Entertainment to manufacture the 2005 World Series of Poker bracelets. The company manufactures the WSOP circuit rings. In 2006, Frederick Goldman, Inc. made the WSOP bracelets while luxury watch maker Corum introduced some commemorative watches as part of the prize package. In 2006, the Champion's bracelet had 259 stones including 7.2 carats of diamonds, 120 grams of white and yellow gold. It used rubies to represent the heart and diamond suits, a sapphire to represent the spade and three black diamonds to represent the clubs. In 2007, Corum became the official bracelet manufacturer for the WSOP; some of the 2007 World Series of Poker champions received both a bracelet from Corum. Corum designed four variations for the 2007 World Series of Poker Bracelets; the standard version, presented to 53 winners features 53 diamonds. The Ladies World Champion receives a bracelet, adorned with four black diamonds, two rubies and 87 blue sapphires.
The $50,000 HORSE Champion Bracelet has two rubies. The World Series of Poker Main Event Bracelet has 120 diamonds on 136 grams of 18 carat white gold; the value of the 2007 bracelets have not been released, but the typical price of a Corum watch ranges from $1,500–$30,000+. In 2008, the Main Event Bracelet had 291 diamonds, totalling 2.81 carats set in 168 grams of 18kt white gold. The other 54 event bracelets consisted of 55 diamonds, totalling 0.25 carats set in 80 grams of 14kt yellow gold. In 2010, an Australian-based company OnTilt Designs Pty Ltd won a multi-year contract to become the official bracelet manufacturer for the WSOP. OnTilt jewelers decided that the 2010 bracelet design would return to the tradition of the 1970s and 1980s where the bracelet was a heavy piece of unadorned metal. American jewelry designer Steve Soffa was chosen to design and manufacture the entire set of bracelets; the goal was to create a bracelet that somebody would want to wear every day. In 2011, OnTilt has been chosen to manufacture the WSOP Circuit rings.
In 2012, Jason Arasheben, famed jewelry designer and owner of Jason of Beverly Hills was chosen as the official bracelet manufacturer of the WSOP. Arasheben had designed the championship rings for the 2009 and 2010 Los Angeles Lakers and the 2011 Green Bay Packers, among others; the Main Event bracelet will feature each suit in the deck in black diamonds. In terms of sheer mass, it weighs in at over 160 grams of 14 karat gold and over 35 carats of flawless diamonds. A special platinum bracelet was awarded at the 2012 WSOP to the winner of The Big One for One Drop, Antonio Esfandiari; the event was a $1 million buy-in tournament created as a fundraiser for the One Drop Foundation, a charity established by Cirque du Soleil founder Guy Laliberté. At first, the bracelets did not have much prestige. Ten-time bracelet winner Doyle Brunson said that his first bracelet "didn't mean anything" to him and that he did not pick up two of them; some professional poker players believe. Those who have belong to an exclusive club.
"It's impossible to overstate the value of a World Series of Poker gold bracelet to anyone who takes the game seriously," stated World Series of Poker Commissioner Jeffrey Pollack during the 2006 bracelet unveiling. "It is the equivalent of winning the Stanley Cup in hockey or the Lombardi Trophy in American football."Many professional poker players desire the recognition, associated with the bracelet. Former Celebrit
Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling and skill. All poker variants involve betting as an intrinsic part of play, determine the winner of each hand according to the combinations of players' cards, at least some of which remain hidden until the end of the hand. Poker games vary in the number of cards dealt, the number of shared or "community" cards, the number of cards that remain hidden, the betting procedures. In most modern poker games the first round of betting begins with one or more of the players making some form of a forced bet. In standard poker, each player bets according to the rank they believe their hand is worth as compared to the other players; the action proceeds clockwise as each player in turn must either match the maximum previous bet, or fold, losing the amount bet so far and all further involvement in the hand. A player who matches a bet may "raise" the bet; the betting round ends when all players folded. If all but one player folds on any round, the remaining player collects the pot without being required to reveal their hand.
If more than one player remains in contention after the final betting round, a showdown takes place where the hands are revealed, the player with the winning hand takes the pot. With the exception of initial forced bets, money is only placed into the pot voluntarily by a player who either believes the bet has positive expected value or, trying to bluff other players for various strategic reasons. Thus, while the outcome of any particular hand involves chance, the long-run expectations of the players are determined by their actions chosen on the basis of probability and game theory. Poker has increased in popularity since the beginning of the 20th century and has gone from being a recreational activity confined to small groups of enthusiasts to a popular activity, both for participants and spectators, including online, with many professional players and multimillion-dollar tournament prizes. Poker was developed sometime during the early 19th century in the United States. Since those early beginnings, the game has grown to become an popular pastime worldwide.
In the 1937 edition of Foster's Complete Hoyle, R. F. Foster wrote: "the game of poker, as first played in the United States, five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the Persian game of As-Nas." By the 1990s some gaming historians including David Parlett started to challenge the notion that poker is a direct derivative of As-Nas. Developments in the 1970s led to poker becoming far more popular. Modern tournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker began, in 1970. In casual play, the right to deal a hand rotates among the players and is marked by a token called a dealer button. In a casino, a house dealer handles the cards for each hand, but the button is rotated clockwise among the players to indicate a nominal dealer to determine the order of betting; the cards are dealt clockwise around one at a time. One or more players are required to make forced bets either an ante or a blind bet; the dealer shuffles the cards, the player on the chair to his or her right cuts, the dealer deals the appropriate number of cards to the players one at a time, beginning with the player to his or her left.
Cards may be dealt depending on the variant of poker being played. After the initial deal, the first of what may be several betting rounds begins. Between rounds, the players' hands develop in some way by being dealt additional cards or replacing cards dealt. At the end of each round, all bets are gathered into the central pot. At any time during a betting round, if one player bets, no opponents choose to call the bet, all opponents instead fold, the hand ends the bettor is awarded the pot, no cards are required to be shown, the next hand begins; this is. Bluffing is a primary feature of poker, one that distinguishes it from other vying games and from other games that make use of poker hand rankings. At the end of the last betting round, if more than one player remains, there is a showdown, in which the players reveal their hidden cards and evaluate their hands; the player with the best hand according to the poker variant being played wins the pot. A poker hand comprises five cards. Poker variations are played where a "low hand" may be the best desired hand.
In other words, when playing a poker variant with "low poker" the best hand is one that contains the lowest cards. So while the "majority" of poker game variations are played "high hand", where the best high "straight, flush etc." wins, there are poker variations where the "worst hand" wins, such as "low ball, acey-ducey, high-lo split etc. game variations". To summarize, there can be variations that are "high poker", "low poker", "high low split". In the case of "high low split" the pot is divided among low hand. Poker has many variations, all following a similar pattern of play and using the same hand ranking hierarchy. There are four main families of variants grouped by the protocol of card-dealing and betting: Straight A complete hand is dealt to each player, players bet in one round, with raising and re-raising allowed; this is the oldest poker family.