Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
Broughton, Nova Scotia
Broughton was a former town in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality about 19 kilometers from the city of Sydney, Nova Scotia. It was going to be one of Canada's first planned towns, designed to accommodate 10,000 residents. In reality, it was abandoned when mining operations failed. During the First World War, Broughton was used by the 185th Cape Breton Highlanders as training ground. During this time, the famous Broughton Arms Hotel burned to the ground in April 1916; the Hotel is believed to have had North America's first revolving door. Broughton was first settled at the turn of the 20th century as a mining town for the Cape Breton Coal, Iron & Railway Company. British mining engineer Thomas Lancaster and British businessman Col. Horace Mayhew, who owned the company, intended to develop the coal seam at Loon's Lake; the pair raised millions of dollars from English investors, construction on the town was started, with streets laid out and a number of large official buildings constructed, including the Office Building, the Assistant Manager's House, the Broughton Arms Hotel and Crown Hotel.
Remains of these substantial buildings can still be seen today, the scale of which giving an impression of the town's lofty ambitions. A railway was built connecting to the Sydney & Louisburg Railway at False Bay Head, continuing through Broughton Junction to Broughton, a distance of four and a half miles. Construction began in 1905 and the railway was completed in 1906. Due to the high costs of building such a modern town, the company went bankrupt in 1907, they could not afford to secure rail transportation to get coal from the mine to port. After these problems arose and Mayhew left Cape Breton, abandoning the company and the town; the community remained active until its peak in 1916. The army had taken over the hotels to house 1200 soldiers during the First World War. After the end of the war, the community declined rapidly; some residents still live in the area on Broughton Road, but the town itself no longer exists. A long article, detailing this company's history, appeared in the Montreal Daily Star, 25 May 1907.
Broughton: Cape Breton's Ghost Town by Eleanor Anderson Broughton: A Return To Cape Breton's Ghost Town by Eleanor Anderson
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
New Waterford, Nova Scotia
New Waterford is a Canadian urban community in Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Known as Barrachois, its present name is derived from the Irish seaport Waterford, from which many early settlers came. Coal mining in the vicinity began as early as 1854 at Lingan and at Low Point in 1865. New Waterford is located northeast of Nova Scotia, it is bordered on one side by cliffs. New Waterford has several fresh water lakes located nearby. New Waterford is a fishing port and former coal-mining community, in economic decline in recent years. There are ongoing efforts to revitalize the area's economy including a slow but steady increase in jobs in the technology sector. Many residents had been reliant on the steel industries, which are now closed; the last local mine closed in 2001. Senior citizens make up a disproportionate number of town residents due to a long running unemployment problem and the economic development plans of the government which focused on propping up older declining industries.
This had the effect of worsening employment prospects for younger workers resulting in a large migration of these younger workers from New Waterford to other areas of the country where opportunities were available. At 8:30pm every day the local fire department sets off its siren; this has a long history, continues in tradition to this day. The original intent of the whistle was for curfew. On July 25, 1917, 65 people were killed in a coal mine explosion at New Waterford's No. 12 Colliery. The town was the setting for the 1999 comedic coming-of-age film New Waterford Girl. New Waterford Girl is a dark comedy about Moonie Pottie, a gifted teenager, who dreams of life beyond her small town, she becomes inspired. Starring many local actors and Canadian talent, it is set in the mid 1970s. Most of the scenes in the movie were filmed in the town of North Sydney. Canadian author Ann-Marie MacDonald set her #1 bestseller “Fall on Your Knees” in New Waterford, set in the early 20th century. Coal Dust Days is a week-long community celebration that takes place the third week of July.
The Coal Dust Days parade, Plummer Avenue Day, the tavern tour, fireworks display are some of the many events that take place during the week. Davis Day is a commemoration of the death of a Cape Breton miner, father of 10, William Davis, he was shot dead by the coal company security force at Waterford Lake during a mining strike on June 11, 1925. Davis was not participating in the protest, which took the form of a march from the company power plant and ended by the railroad tracks between Daley Road and May Street, he was shot along with two other men. Davis Day is known as Miners Memorial Day. New Waterford is the site of the annual Coal Bowl Classic basketball tournament, which brings in teams from all across Canada to compete in a week long event; the tournament, first held in 1982, takes place at Breton Education Centre in early February. In 2009, the Breton Education Centre Bears won the tournament for the first time lifting the "Coal Bowl curse"
Glace Bay is a community in the eastern part of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, Canada. It forms part of the general area referred to as Industrial Cape Breton. An independently incorporated town, the municipal government in Glace Bay was dissolved and the community has been amalgamated into the larger regional municipality. Prior to amalgamation, Glace Bay had been the province's fourth largest urban area and was the largest town in Nova Scotia. Neighbouring communities include: Reserve Mines, Tower Road; as early as the 1720s the French inhabited the area to supply Fortress of Louisbourg with coal. They named the location baie de Glace because of the sea ice. In 1748, after the capture of Fortress Louisbourg, the British constructed Fort William at Table Head in order to protect a mine that produced coal to supply the Louisbourg garrison; the fort itself was a blockhouse, brought with a palisade. When Cape Breton Island was returned to French control, Fort William continued in service until 1752 when it was destroyed by fire.
More permanent settlement of Glace Bay can be dated from 1818 when Walter Blackett obtained a grant of land on the south side of the Bay. Coal mining existed on a small scale until the 1860s when four mines were in operation within the future town boundaries; these included the Hub, Harbour and Glace Bay Collieries. The first large mine, the Hub Shaft of Glace Bay opened in 1861 and a total of 12 mines in Glace Bay were in operation. Following the formation of the Dominion Coal Company in 1893, the coal mining industry expanded in what was to become Glace Bay with the opening of several new mines. In 1894, the government gave exclusive mining rights to the Dominion Coal Company. Small communities grew up around the mines and by 1901 they came together to form the Town of Glace Bay. At the time of incorporation, the population was 6,945. By the 1940s, the figure exceeded Glace Bay became Canada's largest town. At one time, the town had 12 collieries but none remain; the industrial decline has seen the core population decrease to 16,984 as of 2001 and has been dissolved/deincorporated since municipal amalgamation in 1995 which formed the Cape Breton Regional Municipality.
Glace Bay was once a coal mining town. In 1860 the Glace Bay Mining Company was formed and it operated two mines; the first large colliery, the Hub Shaft, opened in 1861. Large-scale mining commenced in 1893 after exclusive mining rights were granted to the Dominion Coal Company. Glace Bay was incorporated as a town nine years later. At its high point the company operated eleven mines in all, was responsible for 40% of Canada's coal production. Coal was transported on the Louisburg Railway to both of those ports for shipping; the S & L Railway's main operations, including the roundhouse and machine shops were located in Glace Bay. Glace Bay's extensive coal and rail operations made the town the industrial center of Cape Breton; as coal mining became less important, the mines were closed until, in 1984 Colliery No. 26 was closed by the Cape Breton Development Corporation. Many residents of Glace Bay started to work at the two other coal mines in the area: Prince Colliery in Point Aconi and Phalen Colliery and Lingan Colliery in Lingan.
However, coal mining continued its decline with Lingan closing in the mid-1990s, followed by Phalen in 1999, Prince in 2001. Fishing was an important industry throughout the 20th century. However, by the 1990s fish stocks were so depleted; some fish processing still occurs here. The former town of Glace Bay has a population of fewer than 20,000 people. In 2001, a call centre operated by Stream Global Services, using post-industrialization subsidies opened; the Swiss mining consortium Xstrata was the primary partner in the Donkin Coal Development Alliance, which won the rights to develop an abandoned mine site in the nearby community of Donkin. The mine is owned by Kameron Collieries, a subsidiary of Cline Group LLC which purchased the operation in 2014-2015. Coal production commenced in February of 2016 and by the fall of 2018, the mine had 120 employees; the Marconi National Historic Site of Canada is located at Table Head in Glace Bay. Parks Canada maintains an interpretive centre at the site honouring the role of Guglielmo Marconi in the development of radio communications.
In December 1902, Marconi transmitted the first complete messages to Poldhu from stations at Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. Marconi unobstructed view out over the ocean; some of the concrete footings for the massive towers can still be seen on the grounds. Marconi built a much larger wireless site west of here known as Marconi Towers. In 1907 he initiated the first permanent transatlantic wireless service from Marconi Towers to its companion site in Clifden, Ireland; the local landscape is forested and hilly. Some of the low-lying areas at the bottom of hills consist of bogs. There are rocky cliffs around the ocean along most of the coast and erosion continues to be a problem in some areas. Many areas surrounding former coal mines are experiencing subsidence as the old mine shafts collapse. There are several brownfields around the community at former industrial sites. Glace Bay swamp surrounding the town and within the town limits. Mammals present in Glace Bay include squirrels, fox, mice, cats and coyotes.
Bird species include ducks, great horned
A spark-gap transmitter is an obsolete type of radio transmitter which generates radio waves by means of an electric spark. Spark-gap transmitters were the first type of radio transmitter, were the main type used during the wireless telegraphy or "spark" era, the first three decades of radio, from 1887 to the end of World War 1. German physicist Heinrich Hertz built the first experimental spark-gap transmitters in 1887, with which he discovered radio waves and studied their properties. A fundamental limitation of spark-gap transmitters is that they generate a series of brief transient pulses of radio waves called damped waves. So spark-gap transmitters could not transmit audio, instead transmitted information by radiotelegraphy; the first practical spark gap transmitters and receivers for radiotelegraphy communication were developed by Guglielmo Marconi around 1896. One of the first uses for spark-gap transmitters was on ships, to communicate with shore and broadcast a distress call if the ship was sinking.
They played a crucial role in maritime rescues such as the 1912 RMS Titanic disaster. After World War 1, transmitters based on vacuum tubes were developed, which were cheaper and produced continuous waves which had a greater range, produced less interference, could carry audio, making spark transmitters obsolete by 1920; the radio signals produced by spark-gap transmitters are electrically "noisy". This type of radio emission has been prohibited by international law since 1934. Electromagnetic waves are radiated by electric charges. Radio waves, electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, can be generated by time-varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing through a conductor which change their velocity, thus accelerating. A capacitance discharged through an electric spark across a spark gap between two conductors was the first device known which could generate radio waves; the spark itself doesn't produce the radio waves, it serves to excite resonant radio frequency oscillating electric currents in the conductors of the attached circuit.
The conductors radiate the energy in this oscillating current as radio waves. Due to the inherent inductance of circuit conductors, the discharge of a capacitor through a low enough resistance is oscillatory. A practical spark gap transmitter consists of these parts: A high-voltage transformer, to transform the low-voltage electricity from the power source, a battery or electric outlet, to a high enough voltage to jump across the spark gap; the transformer charges the capacitor. In low-power transmitters powered by batteries this was an induction coil. One or more resonant circuits which create radio frequency electrical oscillations when excited by the spark. A resonant circuit consists of a capacitor which stores high-voltage electricity from the transformer, a coil of wire called an inductor or tuning coil, connected together; the values of the capacitance and inductance determine. The earliest spark-gap transmitters before 1897 did not have a resonant circuit. Most spark transmitters had two resonant circuits coupled together with an air core transformer called a resonant transformer or oscillation transformer.
This was called an inductively-coupled transmitter. The spark gap and capacitor connected to the primary winding of the transformer made one resonant circuit, which generated the oscillating current; the oscillating current in the primary winding created an oscillating magnetic field that induced current in the secondary winding. The antenna and ground were connected to the secondary winding; the capacitance of the antenna resonated with the secondary winding to make a second resonant circuit. The two resonant circuits were tuned to the same resonant frequency; the advantage of this circuit was that the oscillating current persisted in the antenna circuit after the spark stopped, creating long, ringing damped waves, in which the energy was concentrated in a narrower bandwidth, creating less interference to other transmitters. A spark gap which acts as a voltage-controlled switch in the resonant circuit, discharging the capacitor through the coil. An antenna, a metal conductor such as an elevated wire, that radiates the power in the oscillating electric currents from the resonant circuit into space as radio waves.
A telegraph key to switch the transmitter on and off to communicate messages by Morse code The transmitter works in a rapid repeating cycle in which the capacitor is charged to a high voltage by the transformer and discharged through the coil by a spark across the spark gap. The impulsive spark excites the resonant circuit to "ring" like a bell, producing a brief oscillating current, radiated as electromagnetic waves by the antenna; the transmitter repeats this cycle at a rapid rate, so the spark appeared continuous, the radio signal sounded like a whine or buzz in a radio receiver. The cycle begins when current from the transformer charges up the capacitor, storing electric charge on its plates. While
Sydney Mines is a community and former town in Canada's Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Founded in 1784 and incorporated as a town in 1889, Sydney Mines has a rich history in coal production, although mining activity has now ceased. Prior to a permanent settlement being established, there was significant activity along the shore. Sydney Mines was home to a large steel company, named SCOTIA it was the modern to its day between the Sydney Steel Plant and the Sydney Mines Steel Plant they produced 50% of Canada's steel during World War I. During the American Revolution, on November 1, 1776, John Paul Jones - the father of the American Navy - set sail in command of Alfred to free hundreds of American prisoners working in the area's coal mines. Although winter conditions prevented the freeing of the prisoners, the mission did result in the capture of Mellish, a vessel carrying a vital supply of winter clothing intended for John Burgoyne's troops in Canada. Major Timothy Hierlihy and his regiment on board HMS Hope worked in and protected from privateer attacks on the coal mines at Sydney Cape Breton.
Sydney Cape Breton provided a vital supply of coal for Halifax throughout the war. The British began developing the mining site at Sydney Mines in 1777. On 14 May 1778, Major Hierlihy arrived at Cape Breton. While there, Hierlihy reported that he “beat off many piratical attacks, killed some and took other prisoners.”A few years into the war there was a naval engagement between French ships and a British convoy off Sydney, Nova Scotia, near Spanish River, Cape Breton. French ships defeated a British convoy. Six French sailors were killed and 17 British, with many more wounded. Sydney Mines lies northeast of North Sydney and faces Sydney across Sydney Harbour. Sydney Mines was once a major coal-producing community. Mining began locally in 1766, in 1830 systematic operations were undertaken. One of the area mines extended about 5 miles out under the sea; the last mine was closed in 1975. Sydney Mines is near the mouth, it was earlier known as the Mines due to the coal mines abundant nearby. Although mining has been carried on since 1724, the first shaft for the General Mining Association in Sydney Mines was sunk in 1830.
Manufacturing enterprises included corrugated steel culverts and the British Canadian Co-operative Society Limited, operating a dairy and a bakery. Sydney Mines was the filming location for the 1981 horror movie My Bloody Valentine. Sydney Mines experiences cool summers; the summer can be cool at times due to the fact Sydney Mines borders the cool North Atlantic Ocean. Day time highs exceed 20 degrees Celsius. During Summer nights temperatures can become cold with the average lows being around 10 degrees Celsius, although cold winds can make it seem much colder. Sydney Mines experiences cold, wet and stormy winters. Although low in latitude compared to the rest of Canada and bordering the ocean. Sydney Mines borders the cold Labrador ocean current; this causes for a cold and snowy winter. Day time highs during the winter stick around minus 2 degrees Celsius but due to the fact Sydney Mines lies around the polar jet stream they can experience arctic outbreaks and warm thaws at times. Sydney Mines much like the rest of Atlantic Canada is one of the warmest areas in Canada during the winter, but they do receive the most snow storms compared to the rest of Canada.
Cold arctic temperatures meeting up with the warm gulf stream forms one of the most powerful storms in the world. Many people who live in Eastern Canada know the term Nor'easter. Nor'easter's can dump huge amounts of snow to the rest of Atlantic Canada. Sydney Mines has one elementary school, Jubilee Elementary, one middle school, Sydney Mines Middle School, one high school, Memorial Composite High School. In front of Jubilee Elementary on Main Street, there is a bronze statue of Johnny Miles in a running pose. There is a script on it with the dates Johnny Miles won the Boston Marathon. In front of the John J. Nugent Firemen's Centre on Elliot Street, there is a firefighter statue which resembles all the past fire chiefs of the Sydney Mines Volunteer Fire Department