The Marconi Trail measures approximately 70 km in length along Route 255.
|This Nova Scotia road, road transport or highway-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
The Marconi Trail measures approximately 70 km in length along Route 255.
|This Nova Scotia road, road transport or highway-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
1. Canada – Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada. With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, later that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
2. Nova Scotia – Nova Scotia is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces which form Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton, as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is the second most-densely populated province in Canada with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, Nova Scotia means New Scotland in Latin and is the recognized English language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which simply means New Scotland. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental – still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotia climate is in ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe. This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French, present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. The British changed the name of the capital from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians
3. Cape Breton Island – Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Its name may derive from Capbreton near Bayonne, or more probably from the word Breton, the French adjective form of the proper noun Bretagne, the 10,311 km2 island accounts for 18. 7% of the Nova Scotias total area. Although physically separated from the Nova Scotia peninsula by the Strait of Canso, the island is east-northeast of the mainland with its northern and western coasts fronting on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, its western coast also forms the eastern limits of the Northumberland Strait. The eastern and southern coasts front the Atlantic Ocean, its eastern coast also forms the limits of the Cabot Strait. Its landmass slopes upward from south to north, culminating in the highlands of its northern cape, one of the worlds larger salt water lakes, Bras dOr, dominates the islands centre. The island is divided into four of Nova Scotias eighteen counties, Cape Breton, Inverness, Richmond and their total population at the 2016 census numbered 132,010 Cape Bretoners, this is approximately 15% of the provincial population. Cape Breton Island has experienced a decline in population of approximately 2.9 since the 2011 census, the island has five reserves of the Mikmaq Nation, Eskasoni, Membertou, Wagmatcook, Waycobah, and Potlotek/Chapel Island. Eskasoni is the largest in population and land area. Cape Breton Islands first residents were likely Archaic maritime natives, ancestors of the Mikmaq, John Cabot reportedly visited the island in 1497. However, historians are unclear as to whether Cabot first visited Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island and this discovery is commemorated by Cape Bretons Cabot Trail, and by the Cabots Landing Historic Site & Provincial Park, near the village of Dingwall. In about 1521–22, the Portuguese under João Álvares Fagundes established a colony on the island. As many as two hundred settlers lived in a village, the name of which is not known, located according to historians at what is now present day Ingonish on the islands northeastern peninsula. This Portuguese colonys fate is unknown, but it is mentioned as late as 1570 and these Scottish triumphs, which left Cape Sable as the only major French holding in North America, did not last. Charles I’s haste to make peace with France on the terms most beneficial to him meant the new North American gains would be bargained away in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. The French quickly defeated the Scots at Baleine, and established the first permanent settlements on Île Royale, present day Englishtown and these settlements lasted almost continuously until Nicolas Denys left in 1659. Île Royale was vacant for more than fifty years until the communities along with Louisbourg were established in 1713, known as Île Royale to the French, the island also saw active settlement by France. The French also built the Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1734, the first lighthouse in Canada, in addition to Cape Breton Island, the French colony of Île Royale also included Île Saint-Jean, today called Prince Edward Island. Louisbourg itself was one of the most important commercial and military centres in New France, Louisbourg was captured by New Englanders with British naval assistance in 1745 and by British forces in 1758
4. Cape Breton Regional Municipality – Cape Breton Regional Municipality, often shortened to simply CBRM, is a regional municipality in Nova Scotias Cape Breton County. According to the 2016 Census of Canada, the population within the Cape Breton Regional Municipality is 94,285 and its population makes it the second largest municipality in the province. In 1995, the government of Nova Scotia sought to reduce the number of incorporated towns, paleo-Indians camped at locations in present-day Nova Scotia approximately 11,000 years ago. Archaic Indians are believed to have present in the area between 1,000 and 5,000 years ago. Mikmaq, the First Nations of this area, are their direct descendants, the explorer John Cabot is believed to have visited present-day Cape Breton in 1497, although this claim is also contested by Newfoundland. The French were the first Europeans to claim the region, which was named Acadia, control passed back and forth between the English and French throughout the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, France retained control of Île Royale, in 1719, France began construction on a fortified town located along the sheltered southwestern shore of Havre Louisbourg, naming the settlement Louisbourg. The fortress was captured by British colonial forces, then returned by the British to France and it was captured again during the Seven Years War which saw the inhabitants expelled and the fortress completely destroyed by British Army engineers in 1760. By proclamation of October 17,1763, after termination of the Seven Years War, for a time thereafter Cape Breton Island was part of Halifax County. On December 10,1765, Cape Breton Island was set apart as a separate county, in 1784, the island was made a separate colony with its capital at Sydney however by 1820 the colony was remerged into Nova Scotia. Coal mining began during the 18th century to supply Fortress Louisbourg, industrial mining began in 1826 under the General Mining Association monopoly, followed in later years by independent American-owned mines south of Sydney Harbour. Large-scale mining commenced in 1893 under the auspices of the Dominion Coal Company which merged these independent mines, the GMA reorganized its mines on the north side of Sydney Harbour in 1900 as the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company. Both companies built large integrated steel mills on their sides of Sydney Harbour in 1901, DOMCOs steel mill in Whitney Pier was known as Dominion Iron. In 1910, DOMCO and DISCO formed the Sydney & Louisburg Railway to haul coal and steel from the mines, in 1914, SCOTIA closed its steel mill in Sydney Mines, focusing exclusively on coal production. In 1930, BESCO reorganized as Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation, Coal production under DOSCO peaked in the early 1940s and in 1957 the company became a subsidiary of Hawker-Siddley Group. The company made its intentions clear that it would be exiting the coal mining business within months, Future planning should be based on the assumption that the Sydney mines will not operate beyond 1981. On March 30,1968, DEVCO expropriated DOSCOs coal mines and railway, at the same time, the provincial government expropriated DOSCOs steel mill in Sydney, creating the Sydney Steel Corporation, while DEVCO would continue to operate the adjacent coke ovens. In the 1980s, older mines in Glace Bay were closed and SYSCO stopped using coke as a fuel for its mill, dEVCOs Lingan Colliery closed in 1992, followed by the Phalen Colliery in 1999 and the Prince Colliery in 2001
5. Louisbourg – Louisbourg is an unincorporated community and former town located in Nova Scotias Cape Breton Regional Municipality. The towns name was given by French military forces who founded the Fortress of Louisbourg in 1713 and its fortified seaport on the southwest part of the harbour, in honour of Louis XIV. The harbour had previously known and used by European mariners since at least the 1590s. The French settlement that dated from 1713 was much altered after its capture in 1758. Its fortifications were demolished in 1760 and the town-site abandoned by British forces in 1768, a small civilian population continued to live there after the military left. Subsequent English settlers built a fishing village across the harbour from the abandoned site of the fortress. The village grew slowly with additional Loyalists settlers in the 1780s, the harbour grew more accessible with the construction of the second Louisbourg Lighthouse in 1842 on the site of the original French lighthouse destroyed in 1758. A railway first reached Louisbourg in 1877, but it was poorly built, however the arrival of Sydney and Louisburg Railway in 1894 brought heavy volumes of winter coal exports to Louisbourg Harbours ice-free waters as a winter coal port. The harbour was used by the Canadian government ship Montmagny in 1912 to land bodies from the sinking of the RMS Titanic, incorporated in 1901, the Town of Louisbourg was disincorporated when all municipal units in Cape Breton County were merged into a single tier regional municipality in 1995. Pronounced Lewisburg by its largely English-speaking population, the present community has identified by slightly different spellings over the years by both locals and visitors. The town was originally spelled Louisburg and several companies, including the Sydney, louisbourgs economy is dominated by the seasonal tourism industry and seafood processing. The depletion of fish stocks has negatively affected local fish processing operations in recent decades. In the 1960s, Parks Canada completed a reconstruction of the Fortress of Louisbourg. Today this National Historic Site of Canada is the dominant economic engine, employing many residents. The fortress holds large scale Historical reenactments every few years to mark important historical events, the most recent in July 2008, commemorated the 250th anniversary of the first British siege victory over French forces in July 1758. The towns more recent history is preserved at the Sydney and Louisburg Railway Museum located in the railway station in the centre of town. Annually, the community hosts the Louisbourg Crab Fest, a large golf course and residential resort is planned near the community, designed by Nick Faldo, the resort was expected to open in 2010 but development stalled in the recession. Louisbourg is home to the Louisbourg Playhouse, a company operating in an Elizabethan theatre that was used as a prop in the live action 1994 Disney film Squanto
6. Glace Bay – Glace Bay is a community in the eastern part of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, Canada. It forms part of the area referred to as Industrial Cape Breton. Formerly an independently incorporated town, the government in Glace Bay was dissolved. Prior to amalgamation, Glace Bay had been the fourth largest urban area and was the largest town in Nova Scotia. Neighboring communities include, Reserve Mines, Dominion, Tower Road, as early as the 1720s the French inhabited the area to supply Fortress of Louisbourg with coal. They named the location baie de Glace because of the sea ice which filled the ocean each winter, in 1748, after the capture of Fortress Louisbourg, the British constructed Fort William at Table Head in order to protect a mine that produced coal to supply the Louisbourg garrison. The fort itself was a blockhouse, brought from Boston, with a palisade, when Cape Breton Island was returned to French control, Fort William continued in service until 1752 when it was destroyed by fire. More permanent settlement of Glace Bay probably can be dated from 1818 when Walter Blackett obtained a grant of land on the side of the Bay. Coal mining existed on a small scale until the 1860s when four mines were in operation within the town boundaries. These included the Hub, Harbour, Caledonia and Glace Bay Collieries, the first large mine, the Hub Shaft of Glace Bay opened in 1861 and a total of 12 mines in Glace Bay were in operation. Following the formation of the Dominion Coal Company in 1893, the mining industry expanded significantly in what was to become Glace Bay with the opening of several new mines. In 1894, the government gave exclusive mining rights to the Dominion Coal Company, small communities grew up around the mines and by 1901 they came together to form the Town of Glace Bay. At the time of incorporation, the population was 6,945, by the 1940s, the figure exceeded 28,000 and Glace Bay became Canadas largest town. At one time, the town had 12 collieries but none remain, Glace Bay was once a coal mining town. In 1860 the Glace Bay Mining Company was formed and it operated two mines, the first large colliery, the Hub Shaft, opened in 1861. Large-scale mining commenced in 1893 after exclusive mining rights were granted to the Dominion Coal Company, Glace Bay was incorporated as a town nine years later. At its high point the company operated eleven mines in all, Coal was transported on the Sydney and Louisburg Railway to both of those ports for shipping. The S & L Railways main operations, including the roundhouse, Glace Bays extensive coal and rail operations made the town the industrial center of Cape Breton
7. Marconi National Historic Sites of Canada – The Marconi National Historic Site and the Marconi Wireless Station National Historic Site are two National Historic Sites of Canada located on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. Both sites commemorate the efforts of Guglielmo Marconi to transmit radio signals between North America and Europe in the first decade of the 20th century. The two sites are located within approximately 8 kilometres of one another, and are connected by the Marconi Trail, signal Hill in St. Johns, Newfoundland and Labrador is another National Historic Site related to Marconis work in Canada. Signal Hill was designated, in part, to commemorate Marconis first transmission tests in 1901, the site features the remnants of Marconis transmission towers, a modern amateur radio station, plus a museum chronicling Marconis achievements. Marconi chose this site for its elevated flat expanse and unobstructed view out over the Atlantic Ocean, some of the concrete footings for the massive towers can still be seen on the grounds. In 1901, the first west to east wireless message was sent across the Atlantic Ocean to England from this site, a spark gap transmitter with 75 kilowatts of power fed four tall antennas on the 2-hectare site overlooking the ocean. In December 1902 Marconi transmitted the first complete messages to Poldhu from stations at Glace Bay, Marconis facilities were dismantled and moved to a larger site to the southwest in 1905, known today as the Marconi Wireless Station National Historic Site. The site was designated a National Historic Site in 1939, the site is operated by Parks Canada, and the museum at the Marconi National Historic Site is affiliated with CMA, CHIN, and Virtual Museum of Canada. Communications between Glace Bay and England proved to be unreliable, and only possible after dark, so Marconi had larger stations constructed on both sides of the Atlantic between 1905 and 1907. These stations were at Clifden, Ireland, and a 350-hectare site just south of Glace Bay, the two stations were at the time the most powerful radio stations in the world. The Marconi Wireless Station in Cape Breton ceased operations in 1946, the property was bought by Russell Cunningham, a local resident, and it is still owned by his heirs. All that remains of the station today is the foundations of the towers as well as three abandoned buildings in varying degrees of repair. The site was designated a National Historic Site in 1983, Marconi National Historic Site - Parks Canada official site Cape Breton Wireless Heritage Society
8. Guglielmo Marconi – He is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy. Marconi was an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897 and he succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1929, the King of Italy ennobled Marconi as a Marchese, Marconi was born into the Italian nobility as Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi in Bologna on 25 April 1874, the second son of Giuseppe Marconi and his Irish/Scots wife Annie Jameson. Between the ages of two and six, Marconi and his elder brother Alfonso were brought up by his mother in the English town of Bedford, Marconi received further education in Florence at the Istituto Cavallero and, later, in Livorno. Marconi did not do well in school, according to Robert McHenry and he was baptized as a Catholic but had been brought up as a member of the Anglican Church, being married into it. Marconi was confirmed in the Catholic faith and became a member of the Church before his marriage to Maria Christina in 1927. During his early years, Marconi had an interest in science and electricity, the transmission of telegraph messages without connecting wires as used by the electric telegraph. There was a deal of interest in radio waves in the physics community. Righis article renewed Marconis interest in developing a wireless telegraphy based on radio waves. In the summer of 1894, he built a storm alarm made up of a battery, a coherer, and an electric bell, soon after he was able to make a bell ring on the other side of the room by pushing a telegraphic button on a bench. One night in December 1894, Guglielmo woke his mother and invited her into his secret workshop and showed her the experiment that he had created. The next day, he showed his work to his father. In the summer of 1895, Marconi moved his experimentation outdoors, with these improvements the system was capable of transmitting signals up to 2 miles and over hills. The monopole antenna reduced the frequency of the waves compared to the dipole antennas used by Hertz, by this point, he concluded that a device could become capable of spanning greater distances, with additional funding and research, and would prove valuable both commercially and militarily. Marconis experimental apparatus proved to be the first engineering-complete, commercially successful radio transmission system, Marconi wrote to the Ministry of Post and Telegraphs, then under the direction of the honorable Pietro Lacava, explaining his wireless telegraph machine and asking for funding. He never received a response to his letter which was dismissed by the Minister who wrote to the Longara on the document. In 1896, Marconi spoke with his family friend Carlo Gardini, Honorary Consul at the United States Consulate in Bologna, Gardini wrote a letter of introduction to the Ambassador of Italy in London, Annibale Ferrero, explaining who Marconi was and about these extraordinary discoveries. In his response, Ambassador Ferrero advised them not to reveal the results until after they had obtained the copyrights