Quintus Sertorius was a Roman statesman and rebel. He was a brilliant military commander, shown most in the civil war he waged in Hispania against the optimates of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sertorius was born in Nursia in Sabine territory; the Sertorius family were minor aristocrats certainly Equites Romani, the class directly below the senatorial class. Like many other young domi nobiles Sertorius moved to Rome in his mid-to-late teens trying to make it big as an orator and jurist, he made enough of an impression on the young Cicero to merit a special mention in a treatise on oratory: Of all the illiterate and crude orators, well ranters, I knew - and I might as well add'completely coarse and rustic' - the roughest and readiest were Q. Sertorius... After his undistinguished career in Rome as a jurist and an orator, he entered the military, his first recorded campaign was under Quintus Servilius Caepio and ended at the Battle of Arausio in 104 BCC, where he showed unusual courage. Serving under Gaius Marius, Sertorius succeeded in spying on the wandering tribes that had defeated Caepio.
After this success, he certainly fought at the great Battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BCE in which the Teutones and the Ambrones were decisively defeated. He also fought at the battle of Vercellae in 101 BCE where the Cimbri were decisively defeated ending the German invasion. A few years after the Cimbric wars Sertorius' patron Gaius Marius fell out of grace for his support of the demagogue Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and he and Sertorius had to get out of Rome for a while. Sertorius served in Hispania as a military tribune under Titus Didius, winning the Grass Crown for crushing an insurrection in and around Castulo. In 91 BCE he was quaestor in Cisalpine Gaul, where he was in charge of recruiting and training legionaries for the Social War. During the war he sustained a wound. Upon his return to Rome he ran for tribune, but Lucius Cornelius Sulla thwarted his efforts, causing Sertorius to oppose Sulla. Sertorius however did manage to become a senator on the strengths of his earlier quaestorship.
In 88 BCE, after being sidelined by his political opponents, Sulla marched his legions on Rome and took the capital he took revenge on his enemies and forced Marius into exile, he left Italy to fight Mithridates. After Sulla left violence erupted between the optimates, led by the consul Gnaeus Octavius, the populares, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna. Sertorius declared for the populares. Though he had a bad opinion of Marius by he consented to Marius' return upon understanding that Marius came at Cinna's request and not of his own accord. In 87 BCE Cinna marched on Rome, Sertorius commanded one of Cinna's divisions and fought a battle with troops commanded by Pompeius Strabo. After Octavius surrendered Rome to the forces of Marius and Sertorius in 87 BCE, Sertorius abstained from the proscriptions his fellow commanders engaged in. Sertorius went so far as to rebuke Marius, move Cinna to moderation, while annihilating Marius' slave army that had partaken in his atrocities. On Sulla's return from the East in 83 BCE a second civil war broke out.
After having fallen out with the new popular leadership Sertorius was sent to Hispania as propraetor, representing the popular cause in Spain. The governor of the two Hispanias, Gaius Valerius Flaccus did not recognize his authority, but Sertorius had an army at his back and used it to assume control. Sertorius sought to hold Hispania by sending an army, under Julius Salinator, to fortify the pass through the Pyrenees. Having been obliged to withdraw to North Africa, Sertorius carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sulla's generals and captured Tingis; the North Africa success won him the fame and admiration of the people of Hispania that of the Lusitanians in the west, whom Roman generals and proconsuls of Sulla's party had plundered and oppressed. The Lusitanians asked Sertorius to be their warleader and, arriving on their lands with additional forces from Africa, he assumed supreme authority and began to conquer the neighbouring territories of Hispania, he achieved his first major victory at the battle of the Baetis River.
Brave and gifted with eloquence, Sertorius was just the man to impress them favourably, the native warriors, whom he organized, spoke of him as the "new Hannibal". His skill as a general was extraordinary, as he defeated forces many times his own forces' sizes. Many Roman refugees and deserters joined him, with these and his Hispanian volunteers he defeated several of Sulla's generals and drove Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius, sent against him from Rome, out of Hispania Ulterior. Sertorius owed some of his success to his prodigious ability as a statesman, his goal was to build a stable government in Hispania with the consent and co-operation of the people, whom he wished to civilize along the lines of the Roman model. He established a sena
Sicilia (Roman province)
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic. The western part of the island was brought under Roman control in 241 BC at the conclusion of the First Punic War with Carthage. A praetor was assigned to the island from c.227 BC. The Kingdom of Syracuse under Hieron II remained an independent ally of Rome until its defeat in 212 BC during the Second Punic War. Thereafter the province included the whole of the island of Sicily, the island of Malta, the smaller island groups. During the Roman Republic, the island was the main source of grain for the city of Rome. Extraction was heavy, provoking armed uprisings known as the Servile Wars in the second century BC. In the first century, the Roman governor, was famously prosecuted for his corruption by Cicero. In the civil wars which brought the Roman Republic to an end, Sicily was controlled by Sextus Pompey in opposition to the Second Triumvirate; when the island came under the control of Augustus in 36 BC, it was reorganised, with large Roman colonies being established in several major cities.
For most of the Imperial period, the province was a agrarian territory. As a result, it is mentioned in literary sources, but archaeology and epigraphy reveals several thriving cities, such as Lilybaeum and Panormus in the west, Syracuse and Catania in the east; these communities were organised in a similar way to other cities of the Roman Empire and were self-governing. Greek and Latin were the main languages of the island, but Punic and other languages were spoken. There were several Jewish communities on the island and from around AD 200 there is evidence of substantial Christian communities; the province fell under the control of the Vandal kingdom of North Africa shortly before the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, but was soon returned to the Kingdom of Italy and passed to the Byzantines. Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse from 317 and King of Sicily from 307 or 304 BC, died in 289 BC. A group of his Campanian mercenaries, called the Mamertines, were offered compensation in exchange for leaving the city.
They took control of Messina and exiling the citizens, taking their wives for themselves. In response to this, the Syracusan general Hiero, who had reorganised the mercenaries and was able to bring banditry under control in 269 BC, before advancing on Messina; the Carthaginians, always eager to prevent the excessive empowerment of a single force and to keep Sicily divided, offered aid to the Mamertines. Hiero had to return to Syracuse. Shortly thereafter, the Mamertines decided to expel the Carthaginian garrison and seek aid from the Romans instead. At Rome, there was a debate on the appropriateness of helping the Mamertines. Rome had intervened against Campanian mercenaries who had followed the Mamertines' example and taken control of Rhegium. Moreover, it seemed clear. According to the lost historian Philinus of Agrigentum, favourable to the Carthaginians, there was a treaty between Rome and Carthage which defined their respective spheres of influence and assigned Sicily to the Carthaginians.
This "Philinus Treaty" is known to us from Polybius. Polybius claims that the Romans were encouraged to intervene by economic motivations, on account of the wealth of Sicily in this period; the Senate gave the decision on whether or not to help the Mamertines to the popular assembly, which decided to send help. This was not a formal declaration of war against Carthage, but the intervention in Sicily sufficed as a casus belli and thus marked the beginning of the First Punic War; this was the first time. Hiero, allied with Carthage against the Mamertines, had to face the legions of Valerius Messalla; the Romans expelled the Syracusans and Carthaginains from Messina. In 263 BC, Hiero changed sides, making a peace treaty with the Romans in exchange for an indemnity of 100 talents, thus ensuring the maintenance of his power, he proved a loyal ally of the Romans until his death in 215 BC, providing aid, specially grain and siege weapons, to the Romans. This assistance was essential for the conquest of the Carthaginian base at Agrigentum in 262 BC.
Hiero's loyalty is reflected in the peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians at the end of the war, in which they were forbidden to attack Hiero or his allies. It seems, that pro-Roman sentiment was not universal at Syracuse and that there was a group opposed to Hiero which favoured the Carthaginians. At the end of the First Punic War, Rome had conquered the majority of the island, except for Syracuse, which retained a broad autonomy. In addition to Syracuse, the kingdom of Hiero was granted a number of centres in the eastern part of the island, such as Akrai, Megara, Eloro and Tauromenium, also Morgantina and Camarina. In addition to the aforementioned Philinus, there were other accounts of the First Punic War written by authors opposed to Rome, such as Sosilus of Sparta; the work of Philinus was analysed and criticised by Polybius, while that of Sosilus was rejected by him as the "vulgar gossip of a barber's shop." A pro-Roman account was written by the historian Fabius Pictor, criticised by Polybius as well.
The resulting representation of the war in the ancient source material is partial: the motivations of the Mamertines are left opaque and by the time of Polybius (about a hundred years after the war be
This article is about the ancient Italian town. For the National Off-Road Bicycle Association in the United States, see NORBA. For the Roman colony in Lusitania, see Alcántara. Norba, an ancient town of Latium, Italy, it is situated 1 mile northwest of the modern town of Norma, on the western edge of the Volscian Mountains or Monti Lepini. The town is perched above a precipitous cliff with a splendid view over the Pomptine Marshes below. Norba was a member of the Latin League of 499 BC, it became a Roman colony in 492 BC to protect the border with the Volsci, serving as an important fortress guarding the Pomptine Marshes. It served in 199 BC as a place of detention for the Carthaginian hostages, was captured and destroyed by Sulla's troops during the civil wars at the end of 82 BC. By the first century AD Norba is included by Pliny the Elder on his list of extinct cities in Latium. From excavations begun in 1901 it seems clear that the remains now visible on the site are Roman; the well-preserved walls are in the polygonal style, over 2.5 km in circuit, are embankment walls, not standing free above the internal ground level.
The walls enclose an area of 38 hectares. Remains of two towers, of several gateways, exist; the bastion at the Porta Maggiore still stands to 13 m. A square tower, referred to as "La Loggia" is to be found along the curtain; the main gate is enormous, with jambs over 8 m in height, 4.30 m in width, internal width of 12.8 m. Within, the remains of several, including the foundations of two temples, one dedicated to Juno Lucina, have been examined. At the foot of the cliff are the picturesque ruins of the medieval town of Ninfa, abandoned on account of malaria; the remains of a primitive settlement, on the other hand, have been discovered on the mountainside to the southeast, above the 13th-century abbey of Valvisciolo, where there is a succession of terraces supported by walls of rough polygonal masonry, approached by a road supported. Here a quantity of primitive pottery has been found; the necropolis of this settlement was the extensive one situated at Caracupa, near the railway station of Sermoneta, which belongs to the 8th-6th century BC, terminating thus at the precise date at which the Roman city of Norba is believed to have been established.
Additional ancient remains are to be found in the hinterland of Norba, including the polygonal masonry structure at Poggio Serrone di Bove. Ferdinand Gregorovius' Walks - Norma Antica Norba This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Norba". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 738
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Marcus Antonius, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC. The Triumvirate existed for two five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC to 33 BC. Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate, the Second Triumvirate was an official established institution, whose overwhelming power in the Roman state was given full legal sanction and whose imperium maius outranked that of all other magistrates, including the consuls. Octavian, despite his youth, extorted from the Senate the post of suffect consul for 43 BC, he had been warring with Antony and Lepidus in upper Italia, but in October 43 BC the three agreed to unite and seize power and so met near Bononia. This triumvirate of new leaders was established in 43 BC as the Triumviri Rei Publicae Constituendae Consulari Potestate.
Where the first triumvirate was a private agreement, the second was embedded in the constitution formally joining Octavian and Lepidus in shared rule over Rome. The only other office, qualified "for confirming the Republic" was the dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. A historical oddity of the Triumvirate is that it was, in effect, a three-man directorate with dictatorial powers; as had been the case with both Sulla and Julius Caesar during their dictatorships, the members of the Triumvirate saw no contradiction between holding a supraconsular office and the consulate itself simultaneously. In 44 BC, Lepidus' possession of the provinces of Hispania and Narbonese Gaul was confirmed, he agreed to hand over 7 legions to Octavian and Antony to continue the struggle against Brutus and Cassius for eastern Roman territory. Antony retained Cisalpine Gaul and hegemony over Gaul itself, Octavian held Africa and was given nominal authority over Sicily and Sardinia. According to historian Richard Weigel, Octavian's share at this stage was "practically humiliating".
In order to refill the treasury, the Triumvirs decided to resort to proscription. As all three had been partisans of Caesar, their main targets were opponents of the Caesarian faction; the most notable victims were Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in his Philippicae, Marcus Favonius, a follower of Cato and an opponent of both triumvirates. The proscription of Caesar's legate Quintus Tullius Cicero seems to have been motivated by the perceived need to destroy Cicero's family. For ancient writers, the most shocking proscriptions were those of Caesar's legate Lucius Julius Caesar, Lepidus' brother Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, they were added to the list because they had been the first to condemn Antony and Lepidus after the two allied. In fact they both survived. Octavian's colleague in the consulate that year, his cousin, Quintus Pedius, died before the proscriptions got underway. Octavian himself resigned shortly after, allowing the appointment of a second pair of suffect consuls.
This became a broad pattern of the Triumvirate's two terms. The Caesarean background of the Triumvirs made it no surprise that after the conclusion of the first civil war of the post-Caesar period, they set about prosecuting a second: Caesar's murderers Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had usurped control of most of the Eastern provinces, including Macedonia, Asia Minor, Syria. In 42 BC, Octavian and Antony set out to war, defeating Brutus and Cassius in two battles fought at Philippi. After the victory and Octavian agreed to divide the provinces of the Republic into spheres of influence. Octavian — who had begun calling himself "Divi filius" after Caesar's deification as Divus Julius and now styled himself "Imperator Caesar" — took control of the West, Antony of the East; as a result, the province of Cisalpine Gaul was absorbed into Italy. Narbonese Gaul was absorbed into Gallia Comata, creating a unified Gaul, was thus taken over by Antony. Octavian took over Spain from Lepidus.
Lepidus himself was offered the prospect of control over Africa. The excuse given for this was a report that Lepidus had been traitorously negotiating with Sextus Pompey. If he were proved innocent he would have Africa. Octavian returned to Rome to administer the distribution of land to his veterans. Antony remained in the east to bring Brutus and Cassius' former territories under triumvirate control; the reduced role of Lepidus is evident in the fact that far fewer coins depict him from
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman and one of the canonical figures of Roman history. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was a skillful general, achieving numerous successes in wars against different opponents, both foreign and Roman, he was awarded the most prestigious Roman military honor, during the Social War. Sulla's dictatorship came during a high point in the struggle between optimates and populares, the former seeking to maintain the Senate's oligarchy, the latter espousing populism. In a dispute over the eastern army command, Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marius in battle. In 81 BC, after his second march on Rome, he revived the office of dictator, inactive since the Second Punic War over a century before, used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman Constitution, meant to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes.
Sulla's ascension was marked by political purges in proscriptions. After seeking election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after. Sulla's decision to seize power – enabled by his rival's military reforms that bound the army's loyalty with the general rather than to Rome – permanently destabilized the Roman power structure. Leaders like Julius Caesar would follow his precedent in attaining political power through force. Sulla's life was habitually included in the ancient biographical collections of leading generals and politicians, originating in the biographical compendium of famous Romans published by Marcus Terentius Varro. In Plutarch's Parallel Lives Sulla is paired with the Spartan strategist Lysander. In older sources, his name may be found as Sylla; this is a Hellenism, like sylva for classical Latin silva, reinforced by the fact that two major ancient sources and Appian, wrote in Greek, call him Σύλλα. Sulla, the son of Lucius Cornelius Sulla and the grandson of Publius Cornelius Sulla, was born into a branch of the patrician gens Cornelia, but his family had fallen to an impoverished condition at the time of his birth.
Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth amongst Rome’s comics, lute-players, dancers. He retained an attachment to the debauched nature of his youth until the end of his life, it seems certain. Sallust declares him well-read and intelligent, he was fluent in Greek, a sign of education in Rome; the means by which Sulla attained the fortune which would enable him to ascend the ladder of Roman politics, the Cursus honorum, are not clear, although Plutarch refers to two inheritances. The Jugurthine War had started in 112 BC when Jugurtha, grandson of Massinissa of Numidia, claimed the entire kingdom of Numidia in defiance of Roman decrees that divided it between several members of the royal family. Rome declared war on Jugurtha in 111 BC, but for five years Roman legions under Quintus Caecilius Metellus were unsuccessful. Gaius Marius, a lieutenant of Metellus, saw an opportunity to usurp his commander and fed rumors of incompetence and delay to the publicani in the region; these machinations caused calls for Metellus's removal.
Marius took over the campaign while Sulla was nominated quaestor to him. Under Marius, the Roman forces followed a similar plan as under Metellus and defeated the Numidians in 106 BC, thanks in large part to Sulla's initiative in capturing the Numidian king, he had persuaded Jugurtha's father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania, to betray Jugurtha who had fled to Mauretania for refuge. It was a dangerous operation from the first, with King Bocchus weighing up the advantages of handing Jugurtha over to Sulla or Sulla over to Jugurtha; the publicity attracted by this feat boosted Sulla's political career. A gilded equestrian statue of Sulla donated by King Bocchus was erected in the Forum to commemorate his accomplishment. Although Sulla had engineered this move, as Sulla was serving under Marius at the time, Marius took credit for this feat. In 104 BC, the migrating Germanic-Celtic alliance headed by the Cimbri and the Teutones seemed to be heading for Italy; as Marius was the best general Rome had, the Senate allowed him to lead the campaign against them.
Sulla served on Marius' staff as tribunus militum during the first half of this campaign. With those of his colleague, proconsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Marius' forces faced the enemy tribes at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Sulla had by this time transferred to the army of Catulus to serve as his legatus, is credited as being the prime mover in the defeat of the tribes. Victorious at Vercellae and Catulus were both granted triumphs as the co-commanding generals. Returning to Rome, Sulla was Praetor urbanus for 97 BC. In c. 95 BC he was appointed pro consule to the province of Cilicia. While in the East, Sulla was the first Roman magistrate to meet a Parthian ambassador, by taking the seat between the Parthian ambassador and the ambassador from Cappadocia he unintentionally, slighted the Parthian
Reggio nell'Emilia referred to as Reggio Emilia or colloquially Reggio by its inhabitants, is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region. It is the main comune of the Province of Reggio Emilia; the inhabitants of Reggio nell'Emilia are called Reggiani, while the inhabitants of Reggio di Calabria are called Reggini. The old town has a hexagonal form, which derives from the ancient walls, the main buildings are from the 16th–17th centuries; the comune's territory is on a plain, crossed by the Crostolo stream. Reggio began as a historical site with the construction by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus of the Via Aemilia, leading from Piacenza to Rimini. Reggio became a judicial administration centre, with a forum called at first Regium Lepidi simply Regium, whence the city's current name. During the Roman age Regium is cited only by Festus and Cicero, as one of the military stations on the Via Aemilia. However, it was a flourishing city, a Municipium with its own statutes and art collegia. Apollinaris of Ravenna brought Christianity in the 1st century CE.
The sources confirm the presence of a bishopric in Reggio after the Edict of Milan. In 440 the Reggio diocese was placed under the jurisdiction of Ravenna by Western Roman Emperor Valentinianus III. At the end of the 4th century, Reggio had decayed so much that Saint Ambrose included it among the dilapidated cities. Further damage occurred with the Barbarian invasions. After the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 Reggio was part of Odoacer's realm. In 489 it came under Ostrogothic control. Reggio was chosen as Duchy of Reggio seat. In 773 the Franks took Reggio. Charlemagne gave the bishop the authority to exercise royal authority over the city and established the diocese' limits. In 888 Reggio was handed over to the Kings of Italy. In 899 the Magyars damaged it, killing Bishop Azzo II; as a result of this new walls were built. On 31 October 900 Emperor Louis III gave authority for the erection of a castrum in the city's centre. In 1002 Reggio's territory, together with that of Parma, Modena and Ferrara, were merged into the March of Tuscany held by Matilde of Canossa.
Reggio became a free commune around the beginning of the 12th century. In 1167 it took part in the Battle of Legnano. In 1183 the city signed the Treaty of Konstanz, from which the city's consul, Rolando della Carità, received the imperial investiture; the subsequent peace spurred a period of prosperity: Reggio adopted new statutes, had a mint, schools with celebrated masters, developed its trades and arts. It increasingly subjugated the castles of the neighbouring areas. At this time the Crostolo stream was deviated westwards; the former course of the stream was turned into an avenue called Corso della Ghiara, nowadays Corso Garibaldi. The 12th and 13th century, were a period of violent internal struggle between the Scopazzati and Mazzaperlini parties, those of Ruggeri and Malaguzzi, involved in bitter domestic rivalry. In 1152 Reggio warred with Parma and in 1225 with Modena, as part of the general struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines. In 1260 25,000 penitents, led by a Perugine hermit, entered the city, this event calmed the situation for a while, spurring a momentous flourishing of religious fervour.
But disputes soon resurfaced, as early as 1265 the Ghibellines killed the Guelph's leader, Caco da Reggio, gained preeminence. Arguments with the Bishop continued and two new parties formed, the Inferiori and Superiori. Final victory went to the latter. To thwart the abuses of powerful families such as the Sessi and Canossa, the Senate of Reggio gave the city's rule for a period of three years to Obizzo II d'Este; this choice marked the future path of Reggio under the seignory of the latter's family, as Obizzo continued to rule de facto after his mandate has ceased. His son Azzo was expelled by the Reggiani in 1306. In 1310 the Emperor Henry VII imposed Marquis Spinetto Malaspina as vicar, but he was soon driven out; the republic ended in 1326. The city was subsequently under the suzerainty of John of Bohemia, Nicolò Fogliani and Mastino I della Scala, who in 1336 gave it to Luigi Gonzaga. Gonzaga built a citadel in the St. Nazario quarter, destroyed 144 houses. In 1356 the Milanese Visconti, helped by 2,000 exiled Reggiani, captured the city, starting an unsettled period of powersharing with the Gonzaga.
In the end the latter sold Reggio to the Visconti for 5,000 ducats. In 1405 Ottobono Terzi of Parma seized Reggio, but was killed by Michele Attendolo, who handed the city over to Nicolò III d'Este, who therefore became seignor of Reggio; the city however maintained a relevant autonomy, with laws and coinage of its own. Niccolò was succeeded by his illegitimate son Lionello, from 1450, by Borso d'Este. In 1452 Borso was awarded the title of Duke of Modena and Reggio by Frederick III. Borso's successor, Ercole I, imposed heavy levies on the city and appointed the poet Matteo Maria Boiardo, born in the nearby town of Scandiano, as its governor. Another famous Italian writer, Francesco Guicciardini, held the same position. In 1474, Ludovico Ariosto, author of Orlando Furioso, was born in the Malaguzzi palace, near the present day townhall
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility. Pompey's immense success as a general while still young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office, his success as a military commander in Sulla's second civil war resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus, "the Great", upon him. His Roman adversaries insulted him as adulescentulus carnifex, "the teenage butcher", after his Sicilian campaign, he celebrated three triumphs. In mid-60 BC, Pompey joined Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius Caesar in the unofficial military-political alliance known as the First Triumvirate, which Pompey's marriage to Caesar's daughter Julia helped secure. After the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate.
Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, leading to a civil war. When Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated, his career and defeat are significant in Rome's subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire. Pompey was born in Picenum to a local noble family. Pompey's father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was first of his family to achieve senatorial status, despite the anti-rural prejudice of the Roman Senate; the Romans referred to Strabo as a novus homo. Pompeius Strabo ascended the traditional cursus honorum, becoming quaestor in 104 BC, praetor in 92 BC and consul in 89 BC, he acquired a reputation for political double-dealing and military ruthlessness. He fought the Social War against Rome's Italian allies, he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sulla's first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians, in 87 BC—either as a casualty of an epidemic, or by having been struck by lightning.
His twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his father's command, had participated in the final part of the Social War; when his father died, Pompey was put on trial due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father's heir, Pompey could be held to account, he discovered. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the judge took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter Antistia in marriage. Pompey was acquitted. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla in 83–82 BC; the Marians had taken over Rome while Sulla was fighting the First Mithridatic War against Mithridates VI of Pontus in Greece. In 83 BC, Sulla returned from landing in Brundisium in southern Italy. Pompey raised three legions in Picenum to support Sulla's march on Rome against the Marian regime of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Gaius Marius the Younger. Cassius Dio described Pompey's troop levy as a "small band". Sulla was appointed as Dictator.
He thought that he was useful for the administration of his affairs. He and his wife, persuaded Pompey to divorce Antistia and marry Sulla's stepdaughter Aemilia Scaura. Plutarch commented that the marriage was "characteristic of a tyranny, benefitted the needs of Sulla rather than the nature and habits of Pompey, Aemilia being given to him in marriage when she was with child by another man." Antistia had lost both her parents. Pompey accepted, but "Aemilia had scarcely entered Pompey's house before she succumbed to the pains of childbirth." Pompey married Mucia Tertia. We have no record of; the sources only mentioned Pompey divorcing her. Plutarch wrote that Pompey dismissed with contempt a report that she had had an affair while he was fighting in the Third Mithridatic War between and 66 BC and 63 BC. However, on his journey back to Rome he examined the evidence more and filed for divorce. Cicero wrote that the divorce was approved. Cassius Dio wrote that she was the sister of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer and that Metellus Celer was angry because he had divorced her despite having had children by her.
Pompey and Mucia had three children: The eldest, Gnaeus Pompey, Pompeia Magna, a daughter, Sextus Pompey, the younger son. Cassius Dio wrote, he was condemned to death, but released for the sake of his mother Mucia. The survivors of the Marians, those who were exiled after they lost Rome and those who escaped Sulla's persecution of his opponents, were given refuge in Sicily by Marcus Perpenna Vento. Papirius Carbo had a fleet there, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus had forced an entry into the Roman province of Africa. Sulla sent Pompey to Sicily with a large force. According to Plutarch, Perpenna left Sicily to Pompey; the Sicilian cities had been treated harshly by Pompey treated them with kindness. Pompey "treated Carbo in his misfortunes with an unnatural insolence", taking Carbo in fetters to a tribunal he presided over, examining him "to the distress and vexation of the audience", sentencing him to death. Pompey treated Quintus Valerius "with unnatural cruelty", his opp