Brompton Cemetery is in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is managed by The Royal Parks, and is one of the Magnificent Seven cemeteries, established by Act of Parliament and erected in 1839, it opened in 1840 and was originally known as the West of London and Westminster Cemetery. Consecrated by Charles Blomfield, the Bishop of London in June 1840, some 35,000 monuments, from simple headstones to substantial mausolea, mark the resting place of more than 205,000 burials. The site includes large plots for family mausolea, and common graves where coffins are piled deep into the earth, there is a secluded Garden of Remembrance at the northern end, for cremated remains. It is a haven for nature. It has been awarded a National Lottery grant to carry out essential restoration, Brompton Cemetery is adjacent to West Brompton station in west London, England. The main entrance is at North Lodge, Old Brompton Road in West Brompton, SW5, in the Royal Borough of Kensington, there is another entrance at South Lodge, located on the Fulham Road, SW10 near the junction with Redcliffe Gardens.
In 1837 a decision was made to lay out a new ground in Brompton, London. The moving spirit behind the project was the engineer, Stephen Geary, securing the land - some 40 acres - from local landowner, Lord Kensington and the Equitable Gas Light Company, as well as raising the money proved an extended challenge. The cemetery became one of seven large, new cemeteries founded by private companies in the mid-19th century forming a ring around the edge of London, the site, previously market gardens, having been bought with the intervention of John Gunter of Fulham, was 39 acres in area. It was intended to give the feel of a open air cathedral. It is rectangular in shape with the north end pointing to the northwest and it has a central nave which runs from Old Brompton Road towards the central colonnade and chapel. Below the colonnades are catacombs which were conceived as a cheaper alternative burial to having a plot in the grounds of the cemetery. Unfortunately, the catacombs were not a success and only about 500 of the thousands of places in them were sold.
The Metropolitan Interments Act 1850 gave the government powers to purchase commercial cemeteries, during World War II the cemetery suffered bomb damage. The cemetery is listed Grade I in the English Heritage Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England, frederick Richards Leylands is the only Grade II* listed funerary monument. Many nationalities and faiths from across the world are represented in the Cemetery, from 1854 to 1939, Brompton Cemetery became the London Districts Military Cemetery. The Royal Hospital Chelsea purchased a plot in the north west corner where they have a monument in the form of an obelisk, the Brigade of the Guards has its own section south of that
James Edwin Thorold Rogers, known as Thorold Rogers, was an English economist and Liberal politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1880 to 1886. He deployed historical and statistical methods to analyse some of the key economic, as an advocate of free trade and social justice he distinguished himself from some others within the English Historical School. Rogers was born at West Meon, Hampshire the son of George Vining Rogers and his wife Mary Ann Blyth and he was educated at Kings College London and Magdalen Hall, Oxford. After taking a degree in 1846, he received his MA in 1849 from Magdalen and was ordained. A High Church man, he was curate of St. Pauls in Oxford, Rogers was instrumental in obtaining the Clerical Disabilities Relief Act, of which he was the first beneficiary, becoming the first man to legally withdraw from his clerical vows in 1870. For some time the classics were the field of his activity. He devoted himself to classical and philosophical tuition in Oxford with success, the Victorian journalist George W. E.
Russell relates an exchange between Rogers and Benjamin Jowett, Another of our Professors – J. E. He was fond of writing sarcastic epigrams, and of reciting them to his friends, to which Jowett replied, in his quavering treble, Thats a false antithesis, Rogers. Its quite possible to bluster and blunder, simultaneously with these occupations he had been studying economics. He became the first Tooke Professor of Statistics and Economic Science at Kings College London, during this time he held the Drummond professorship of political economy at All Souls College, Oxford between 1862 and 1867, when Bonamy Price was elected in his stead. Rogers said of Cobden, he knew that, was, or ought to be, eminently inductive, and that an economist without facts is like an engineer without materials or tools. He served as President of the first day of the 1875 Co-operative Congress and he was elected Liberal Member of Parliament for Southwark in 1880 and held the seat until it was divided under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.
At the 1885 general election he was elected MP for Bermondsey, Rogers lectured in political economy at Worcester College, Oxford in 1883 and was re-elected Drummond professor in 1888. A History of Agriculture and Prices in England from 1259 to 1793,7 vols, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, Part I, VII, Part II Speeches on questions of public policy by John Bright, M. P. Preface by James E. Thorold Rogers, adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations,2 vols. revised edition, on line at Osmania University, Digital Library of India, Internet Archive. Preface by Thorold Rogers pp. v–xxx1x and v. II Historical Gleanings, A Series of Sketches, Macmillan Speeches on Questions of Public Policy by Richard Cobden, edited by John Bright and James E. Thorold Rogers, London, T. Fisher Unwin. V.1 ISBN 1-84702-915-9 v.2 ISBN 1-4254-9223-1, third ed. on line at Library of Economics and Liberty Cobden, essays on certain political topics, Macmillan Questia, on line. A Complete Collection of the Protests of the Lords, With Historical Introductions, Clarendon Press, Macmillan & Co
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. It is currently the party, having won a majority of seats in the House of Commons at the 2015 general election. The partys leader, Theresa May, is serving as Prime Minister. It is the largest party in government with 8,702 councillors. The Conservative Party is one of the two major political parties in the United Kingdom, the other being its modern rival. The Conservative Partys platform involves support for market capitalism, free enterprise, fiscal conservatism, a strong national defence, deregulation. In the 1920s, the Liberal vote greatly diminished and the Labour Party became the Conservatives main rivals, Conservative Prime Ministers led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century, including Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher. Thatchers tenure led to wide-ranging economic liberalisation, the Conservative Partys domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to them being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world.
The Conservatives are the joint-second largest British party in the European Parliament, with twenty MEPs, the party is a member of the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe Europarty and the International Democrat Union. The party is the second-largest in the Scottish Parliament and the second-largest in the Welsh Assembly, the party is organised in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. The Conservative Party traces its origins to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party and they were known as Independent Whigs, Friends of Mr Pitt, or Pittites. After Pitts death the term Tory came into use and this was an allusion to the Tories, a political grouping that had existed from 1678, but which had no organisational continuity with the Pittite party. From about 1812 on the name Tory was commonly used for the newer party, the term Conservative was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830. The name immediately caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834.
Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto, the term Conservative Party rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. In 1912, the Liberal Unionists merged with the Conservative Party, in Ireland, the Irish Unionist Alliance had been formed in 1891 which merged anti-Home Rule Unionists into one political movement. Its MPs took the Conservative whip at Westminster, and in essence formed the Irish wing of the party until 1922. The Conservatives served with the Liberals in an all-party coalition government during World War I, keohane finds that the Conservatives were bitterly divided before 1914, especially on the issue of Irish Unionism and the experience of three consecutive election losses
King's College School
Kings College School, commonly referred to as KCS, Kings or KCS Wimbledon, is an independent school in Wimbledon, southwest London, England. The school was founded in 1829 as the department of Kings College London and occupied part of its premises in Strand. It is a member of the Eton Group of schools, Kings accepts girls into the sixth form. In the sixth form pupils can choose between The International Baccalaureate and A-Levels, a Royal Charter by King George IV founded the School in 1829 as the junior department of the newly established Kings College, London. The School occupied the basement of the College in The Strand, most of its original eighty-five pupils lived in the City within walking distance of the School. During the early Victorian Period, the School grew in numbers, members of the teaching staff included Gabriele Rossetti, who taught Italian. His son, Dante Gabriel, joined the School in 1837, the best known of the early masters was the water-colourist, John Sell Cotman. Nine of his pupils became practising artists and ten architects, by 1843 there were five hundred pupils and the need for larger premises eventually led to the move to Wimbledon in 1897.
The school was progressive in its curriculum in areas and appointed its first Science Master in 1855. The first Head Master, John Major, served the school between 1831–1866, ninety-nine of the schools pupils from this period appear in the Dictionary of National Biography. Until the 1880s, the school flourished, in 1882, only Eton College surpassed the total of thirty Oxford and Cambridge Board examination certificates obtained by pupils at KCS. But the schools teaching facilities were becoming inadequate as many competitor schools moved to new sites with modern facilities. In 1897, falling numbers of pupils prompted the move to the present site in Wimbledon. A separate junior school was opened on the campus in 1912. In World War I, many letters were written to the school, during World War II, the schools Great Hall was damaged by bomb shrapnel, and some of the damage can still be seen on the outside of the hall. The only remaining link between KCS and its parent is that one of the KCS Board of Governors is nominated by Kings College London.
In the 2015 edition of Tatler Schools Guide, it was commented on that No wonder Oxbridge loves KCS pupils, on 21 November 2014, Kings won the title of Sunday Times Independent Secondary School of the Year. All sixth-formers at Kings currently study either the IB Diploma or the A-Level course, in 201514 pupils obtained the maximum IB score of 45 points, equivalent to 7 A grades at A-Level
Durham is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England. The city lies on the River Wear, to the west of Sunderland, south of Newcastle upon Tyne, founded over the final resting place of St Cuthbert, its Norman cathedral became a centre of pilgrimage in medieval England. The cathedral and adjacent 11th-century castle were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986, the castle has been the home of Durham University since 1832. HM Prison Durham is located close to the city centre, the name Durham comes from the Celtic element dun, signifying a hill fort, and the Old Norse holme, which translates to island. The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the name in his official signature. The city has been known by a number of names throughout history, the original Nordic Dun Holm was changed to Duresme by the Normans and was known in Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use in the citys history, archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since roughly 2000 BC.
Local legend states that the city was founded in A. D.995 by divine intervention, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint. During the fast, Saint Cuthbert appeared to a monk named Eadmer. After Eadmers revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, the legend of the Dun Cow, which is first documented in The Rites of Durham, an anonymous account about the Durham Cathedral, published in 1593, builds on Symeons account. According to this legend, by that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy. She stated that she was seeking her lost dun cow, which she had last seen at Dun Holm, the monks, realising that this was a sign from the saint, followed her. They settled at a wooded hill-island – a high wooded rock surrounded on three sides by the River Wear, there they erected a shelter for the relics, on the spot where the Durham Cathedral would stand. Symeon states that a modest wooden building erected there shortly was the first building in the city, Bishop Aldhun subsequently had a stone church built, which was dedicated in September 998.
It no longer remains, having been supplanted by the Norman structure, during the medieval period the city gained spiritual prominence as the final resting place of Saint Cuthbert and Saint Bede the Venerable. The shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170, Saint Cuthbert became famous for two reasons. Firstly, the healing powers he had displayed in life continued after his death, with many stories of those visiting the saints shrine being cured of all manner of diseases. This led to him being known as the worker of England
Edward Clarke (barrister)
Clarke was the son of J. G. Clarke of Moorgate Street, London. He was educated at Kings College London, in 1859 he became a writer in India Office, but resigned in the next year, and became a law reporter. He obtained a Tancred Scholarship in 1861, and was called to the bar at Lincolns Inn in 1864 and he published a Treatise on the Law of Extradition in 1903, and several volumes of speeches. He wrote a biography of Benjamin Disraeli and his autobiography, The Story of My Life, was published in 1918, and a biography by Derek Walker-Smith and his grandson Edward Clarke followed in 1939. R v Clarke and Others,1877, Clarke secured the acquittal of Chief Inspector Clarke, the acting head of the Detective Department at Scotland Yard, on charges of corruption. Three other, more junior, police officers were convicted, R v Staunton, Staunton and Rhodes,1877. Harriet Staunton, a woman of 38, had died at Penge in Kent. Clarke defended Adelaide Bartlett on a charge of having murdered her husband by poisoning with chloroform, Gordon-Cumming v.
Wilson and Others,1891. Clarke represented Sir William Gordon-Cumming, who sued five people for slander after being accused of cheating at cards, Wilde v Queensberry,1895, R v Wilde,1895. Clarke represented Oscar Wilde in his prosecution of the Marquess of Queensberry for criminal libel. R. v Jameson and others,1896, Clarke defended Leander Starr Jameson for his organisation of the Jameson Raid. Jameson was convicted and sentenced to fifteen months in jail, but was soon pardoned, clarkes son, Percival Clark, was a prominent lawyer in the 1920s and 1930s. His great-nephew, Edward Clarke, followed him into law and was two to Frederick Geoffrey Lawrence in the defence team for suspected serial killer John Bodkin Adams. His youngest son William Clarke trained as a lawyer, but became a cryptographer and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Clarke, Sir Edward George. H Montgomery Hyde, Famous Trials 7, Oscar Wilde Edgar Lustgarten, Defenders Triumph, Victorian Trumpets, Adelaide Bartlett, Edgar Lustgarten, The Woman in the Case, Chapter III, The Victim, Harriet Staunton, p. 117–151
Austen Henry Layard
Sir Austen Henry Layard GCB PC was an English traveller, cuneiformist, art historian, collector and diplomat. He is best known as the excavator of Nimrud and of Niniveh, where he uncovered a large proportion of the Assyrian palace reliefs known, Layard was born in Paris, France, to a family of Huguenot descent. His father, Henry Peter John Layard, of the Ceylon Civil Service, was the son of Charles Peter Layard, Dean of Bristol, through his mother, daughter of Nathaniel Austen, banker, of Ramsgate, his English descent was consolidated. His uncle was Benjamin Austen, a London solicitor and close friend of Benjamin Disraeli in the 1820s and 1830s, edgar Leopold Layard the ornithologist was his brother. In 1845, encouraged and assisted by Canning, Layard left Constantinople to make those explorations among the ruins of Assyria with which his name is chiefly associated, to illustrate the antiquities described in this work he published a large folio volume of Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh.
After spending a few months in England, and receiving the degree of D. C. L and he is credited with discovering the Library of Ashurbanipal during this period. Layard believed that the native Syriac Christian communities living throughout the Near East were descended from the ancient Assyrians, Layard was an important member of the Arundel Society. During 1866 Layard founded Compagnia Venezia Murano and opened a venetian glass showroom in London at 431 Oxford Street, - Compagnia Venezia Murano is one of the most important brands of venetian art glass production. In 1866 he was appointed a trustee of the British Museum and he was present in the Crimea during the war, and was a member of the committee appointed to inquire into the conduct of the expedition. After being defeated at Aylesbury in 1857, he visited India to investigate the causes of the Indian Mutiny, the report he gave on his return proved to be controversial, generating negative responses in the Australian press. After the Liberals returned to office in 1868 under William Ewart Gladstone, Layard was made First Commissioner of Works, Layard resigned from office in 1869, on being sent as envoy extraordinary to Madrid.
In 1877 he was appointed by Lord Beaconsfield Ambassador at Constantinople, where he remained until Gladstones return to power in 1880, in 1878, on the occasion of the Berlin Congress, he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. In Venice he devoted much of his time to collecting pictures of the Venetian school, on this subject he was a disciple of his friend Giovanni Morelli, whose views he embodied in his revision of Franz Kuglers Handbook of Painting, Italian Schools. He wrote an introduction to Constance Jocelyn Ffoulkess translation of Morellis Italian Painters, in 1887 he published, from notes taken at the time, a record of his first journey to the East, entitled Early Adventures in Persia and Babylonia. Layard from time to time contributed papers to learned societies, including the Huguenot Society. He died in London and is buried in Dorset, Layard, A. H. Inquiry into the Painters and Arts of the Ancient Assyrians. Layard, A. H. Nineveh and its Remains, Illustrations of the Monuments of Nineveh.
A Popular Account of Discoveries at Nineveh, Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon
Parliament of the United Kingdom
It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and its territories. Its head is the Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its seat is the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the boroughs of the British capital, the parliament is bicameral, consisting of an upper house and a lower house. The Sovereign forms the third component of the legislature, prior to the opening of the Supreme Court in October 2009, the House of Lords performed a judicial role through the Law Lords. The House of Commons is an elected chamber with elections held at least every five years. The two Houses meet in separate chambers in the Palace of Westminster in London, most cabinet ministers are from the Commons, whilst junior ministers can be from either House. The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Treaty of Union by Acts of Union passed by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The UK parliament and its institutions have set the pattern for many throughout the world. However, John Bright – who coined the epithet – used it with reference to a rather than a parliament. In theory, the UKs supreme legislative power is vested in the Crown-in-Parliament. However, the Crown normally acts on the advice of the Prime Minister, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created in 1801, by the merger of the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland under the Acts of Union. The principle of responsibility to the lower House did not develop until the 19th century—the House of Lords was superior to the House of Commons both in theory and in practice. Members of the House of Commons were elected in an electoral system. Thus, the borough of Old Sarum, with seven voters, many small constituencies, known as pocket or rotten boroughs, were controlled by members of the House of Lords, who could ensure the election of their relatives or supporters. During the reforms of the 19th century, beginning with the Reform Act 1832, No longer dependent on the Lords for their seats, MPs grew more assertive.
The supremacy of the British House of Commons was established in the early 20th century, in 1909, the Commons passed the so-called Peoples Budget, which made numerous changes to the taxation system which were detrimental to wealthy landowners. The House of Lords, which consisted mostly of powerful landowners, on the basis of the Budgets popularity and the Lords consequent unpopularity, the Liberal Party narrowly won two general elections in 1910. Using the result as a mandate, the Liberal Prime Minister, Herbert Henry Asquith, introduced the Parliament Bill, in the face of such a threat, the House of Lords narrowly passed the bill. However, regardless of the Parliament Acts of 1911 and 1949, the Government of Ireland Act 1920 created the parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland and reduced the representation of both parts at Westminster
John Locke (MP)
John Locke was an English barrister and Liberal Party politician. The only son of John Locke, a surveyor of Herne Hill, reading law at Trinity College, Cambridge, he left with an MA in 1832 and was called to the Bar from the Inner Temple in 1833. Between 1845 and 1857 he was a common pleader of the City of London and he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Southwark at the general election in April 1857, and held the seat until his death. He was mainly active in causes for the class and local government. He died in February 1880 and was buried in the catacombs at West Norwood Cemetery, John, J. A. Hamilton, rev. H. C. G. Matthew, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by John Locke