Lucius Vitellius the Elder
This page is on Lucius Vitellius, the father of the emperor Vitellius. For his other son, the brother, see Lucius Vitellius the younger. Lucius Vitellius Veteris or the Elder was the youngest of four sons of quaestor Publius Vitellius, under Emperor Tiberius, he was consul in 34 and governor of Syria in 35. He deposed Pontius Pilate in 36 after complaints from the people in Samaria and he supported Emperor Caligula, and was a favorite of Emperor Claudius wife Empress Valeria Messalina. During Claudius reign, he was Consul again twice in 43 and 47, around the time that Claudius married Agrippina the Younger in 47,48 or 49, Vitellius served as a Censor. He wielded great influence and was known for his character, though at one time. He died of paralysis in 51, Lucius received a state funeral and had a statue on the rostra ‘steadfast loyal to the Emperor’. Lucius married a Roman woman named Sextilia, a woman from a distinguished family. She gave birth to two sons named Aulus Vitellius Germanicus and Lucius Vitellius, Vitellius is a prominent character in Robert Gravess novel Claudius the God, an intimate friend of Claudius.
Lucius Vitellius entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith Livius. org, Lucius Vitellius
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission or emancipation, a fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing. Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens, the act of freeing a slave was called manumissio, from manus and missio, the act of releasing. After manumission, a slave who had belonged to a Roman citizen enjoyed not only freedom from ownership. A slave who had acquired libertas was known as a libertus in relation to his former master, as a social class, freed slaves were liberti, though Latin texts used the terms libertus and libertini interchangeably. Libertini were not entitled to public office or state priesthoods. During the early Empire, freedmen held key positions in the government bureaucracy, any future children of a freedman would be born free, with full rights of citizenship. The Claudian Civil Service set a precedent whereby freedmen could be used as servants in the Roman bureaucracy.
In addition, Claudius passed legislation concerning slaves, including a law stating that sick slaves abandoned by their owners became freedmen if they recovered, the emperor was criticized for using freedmen in the Imperial Courts. Some freedmen enjoyed enormous success and became quite wealthy, the brothers who owned House of the Vettii, one of the biggest and most magnificent houses in Pompeii, are thought to have been freedmen. A freedman who became rich and influential might still be looked down on by the aristocracy as a vulgar nouveau riche. Trimalchio, a character in the Satyricon of Petronius, is a caricature of such a freedman, for centuries Arab slave traders took and transported an estimated 10 to 15 million sub-Saharan Africans to slavery in North Africa and the Middle East. They enslaved Europeans from coastal areas and the Balkans, many Arabs took women slaves as concubines in their harems. In the patrilineal societies, mixed-race children of concubines and Arab men were considered free and were given inheritance rights related to their fathers property.
In the United States, the freedmen and freedwomen refer chiefly to former slaves emancipated during and after the American Civil War, by the Emancipation Proclamation. Slaves freed before the war, usually by individual manumissions, often in wills, were referred to as Free Negroes or free blacks. There were numerous such families formed in the Upper South before the Revolution, for the first two decades after the Revolution, thousands of slaves were freed in the Upper South, and most northern states abolished slavery, some on a gradual basis. In Louisiana and other areas of the former New France, free people of color were classified in French as gens de couleur libres and they were born to African or African-European mothers and white fathers of mixed-race African and French or other European ancestry
The gens Junia was one of the most celebrated families in Rome. The gens may originally have been patrician, the family was already prominent in the last days of the Roman monarchy. Scholars have long been divided on the question of whether the Junii were originally patrician, the family was prominent throughout the whole of Roman history, and all of the members who are known, from the early times of the Republic and on into the Empire, were plebeians. However, it seems inconceivable that Lucius Junius Brutus, the nephew of Tarquin the Proud, was a plebeian and it was not until the passage of the lex Licinia Sextia in 367 BC that plebeians were permitted to stand for the consulship. Even if this were not the case, the consuls chosen at the birth of the Roman Republic may have been exceptions. On balance, it more likely that the Junii were at first numbered amongst the patricians, and that they afterward passed over to the plebeians. If so, at least some, if not all, of the Junii Silani were actually descended from the Manlii, and not the Junii.
This hypothesis is supported by the surname Torquatus, the name of a family of the Manlia gens. Junius, the nomen of the gens, may be connected with the goddess Juno. The praenomina favored by the early Junii were Marcus, except for the Bruti Bubulci, who favored the praenomen Gaius and may have been a cadet branch of the family, the Junii Bruti relied exclusively on these three names. Many of the families of the Junii used these names, although some added Gaius. The Junii Silani used the praenomen Appius, the Junii were by far the most prominent family to make regular use of Decimus. The names Titus and Tiberius were carefully avoided by the Junii throughout most of their history. According to tradition, these were the names of the sons of Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul, who joined in a conspiracy by their uncles, the Vitellii, to restore the Tarquins to power. They were condemned and executed by order of their own father, the only noteworthy exception appears to be the orator Titus Junius, who lived in the final century of the Republic.
The family names and surnames of the Junii which occur in the time of the Republic are, Bubulcus, Paciaecus, Pera and Silanus. Norbanus is sometimes considered a surname of the Junia gens, a few Junii are mentioned without any cognomen. Brutus was the name of a family of the Junia gens
A member of the equestrian order was known as an eques. During the Roman kingdom and the 1st century of the Republic, legionary cavalry was recruited exclusively from the ranks of the patricians, around 400 BC,12 more centuriae of cavalry were established and these included non-patricians. Around 300 BC the Samnite Wars obliged Rome to double the annual military levy from two to four legions, doubling the cavalry levy from 600 to 1,200 horses. Legionary cavalry started to recruit wealthier citizens from outside the 18 centuriae and these new recruits came from the First Class of commoners in the centuriate organisation and were not granted the same privileges. By the time of the Second Punic War, all the members of the First Class of commoners were required to serve as cavalrymen. After c.88 BC, equites were no longer drafted into the legionary cavalry and they continued to supply the senior officers of the army throughout the Principate. With the exception of the purely hereditary patricians, the equites were originally defined by a property threshold, in the Republican period, Roman Senators and their offspring became an unofficial elite within the equestrian order.
As senators ability to engage in commerce was limited by law. As well as holding large landed estates, equites came to dominate mining and manufacturing industry, in particular, tax farming companies were almost all in the hands of equites. Under Augustus, the elite was given formal status with a higher wealth threshold and superior rank. During the Principate, equites filled the senior administrative and military posts of the imperial government, there was a clear division between jobs reserved for senators and those reserved for non-senatorial equites. Senators and equites formed an elite of under 10,000 members who monopolised political, military. This effectively reduced the Italian aristocracy to an idle, but immensely wealthy group of large landowners, during the 4th century, the status of equites was debased to insignificance by excessive grants of the rank. At the same time the ranks of senators were swollen to over 4,000 by the establishment of a second senate in Constantinople, the senatorial order of the 4th century was thus the equivalent of the equestrian order of the Principate.
According to Roman legend, Rome was founded by its first king, however, archaeological evidence suggests that Rome did not acquire the character of a unified city-state until ca.625 BC. This cavalry regiment was supposedly doubled in size to 600 men by King Tarquinius Priscus and that the cavalry was increased to 600 during the regal era is plausible, as in the early Republic the cavalry fielded remained 600-strong. However, according to Livy, king Servius Tullius established a further 12 centuriae of equites, equites were originally provided with a sum of money by the state to purchase a horse for military service and for its fodder. This was known as an equus publicus, mommsen argues that the royal cavalry was drawn exclusively from the ranks of the Patricians, the aristocracy of early Rome, which was purely hereditary
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. In the Roman Republic, military command, or imperium, could be exercised only by a consul. There were two consuls at a time, each elected to a one year term and they could not normally succeed themselves. If a military campaign was in progress at the end of a consuls term and this custom allowed for continuity of command despite the high turnover of consuls. In the empire, proconsul was a held by a civil governor. In modern times, various officials with notable delegated authority have been referred to as proconsuls, the terms satrap and viceroy are both used in a similar way. Studies of leadership typically divide leaders into policymakers and subordinate administrators, the proconsul occupies a position between these two categories. Max Weber classified leadership as traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic, a proconsul could be both a rule-following bureaucrat and charismatic personality. The rise of bureaucracy and rapid communication has reduced the scope for proconsular freelancing, Quintus Publilius Philo was one of two consuls for the year 317 BC.
When his term expired at the end of the year, his army was in the midst of besieging the city of Neapolis. Rather than risk a change of command at such a delicate moment, Philo thus became the first proconsul. With imperial expansion beyond Italy and the annexation of territories as Roman provinces, the other was the praetor and the propraetor. In theory the proconsulate was an authority in which the proconsul acted on behalf of the consuls. Later, in practice, proconsular imperium became the extension of a consul’s imperium beyond the term of his office. This extension was a dispensation from the limit of the term of office which applied only outside the city walls of Rome. It did not have effect within the city walls, therefore, it was an exertion of the military command of the consul, but not of his public office. It was a military measure. As the scale of Romes military engagements and the number of her legions was increased there was a need to increase the number of military commanders, the office of the praetor was introduced in 366 BC
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
Asia (Roman province)
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana, in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. It was a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul, the arrangement was unchanged in the reorganization of the Roman Empire in 211. Antiochus III the Great had to give up Asia when the Romans crushed his army at the battle of Magnesia. After the Treaty of Apamea, the territory was surrendered to Rome. Asia province originally consisted of Mysia, the Troad, Lydia, Caria, aegean islands except Crete, were part of the Insulae of Asiana. Part of Phrygia was given to Mithridates V Euergetes before it was reclaimed as part of the province in 116 BC, lycaonia was added before 100 BC while the area around Cibyra was added in 82 BC. The southeast region of Asia province was reassigned to the province of Cilicia, the empire, Asia province was bounded by Bithynia to the north, Lycia to the south, and Galatia to the east. With no apparent heir, Attalus III of Pergamum having been an ally of Rome.
Upon Attalus’s passing in 133 BC, Attalid pretender Eumenes III staged a rebellion and he defeated one of the consuls of 131 BC, Crassus Mucianus. The following consul Marcus Perperna, soon brought the war to a close and he defeated Eumenes in the first engagement, and followed up his victory by laying siege to Stratonikeia, whither Eumenes had fled. The town was compelled by famine to surrender, and the king fell into the consuls hands. Manius Aquillius formally established the region as Asia province, the bequest of the Attalid kingdom to Rome presented serious implications for neighboring territories. It was during this period that Pontus rose in status under the rule of Mithridates VI and he would prove to be a formidable foe to Rome’s success in Asia province and beyond. Rome had always been reluctant to involve itself in matters to the east. It typically relied on allies to arbitrate in the case of a conflict, very rarely would Rome send delegations to the east, much less have a strong governmental presence.
This apathy did not change even after the gift from Attalus in 133 BC. In fact, parts of the Pergamene kingdom were voluntarily relinquished to different nations, for example, Great Phrygia was given to Mithridates V of Pontus. While the Senate was hesitant in involving itself in Asian affairs, others had no such reluctance, a law passed by Gaius Gracchus in 123 BC gave the right to collect taxes in Asia to members of the equestrian order
Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and he was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Claudius infirmity probably saved him from the fate of other nobles during the purges of Tiberius and Caligulas reigns. His survival led to his being declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligulas assassination, despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an able and efficient administrator. He was a builder, constructing many new roads, aqueducts. During his reign the Empire began the conquest of Britain, having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, and issued up to twenty edicts a day. He was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign, particularly by elements of the nobility, Claudius was constantly forced to shore up his position, this resulted in the deaths of many senators. These events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion, many authors contend that he was murdered by his own wife.
After his death in 54 AD, his grand-nephew and adopted son Nero succeeded him as Emperor, Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum. He had two siblings and Livilla. His mother, may have had two children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus sister and his paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus third wife, and Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was actually the son of Augustus. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania, Claudius was left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried. When Claudius disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour, Antonia referred to him as a monster, and used him as a standard for stupidity. She seems to have passed her son off on his grandmother Livia for a number of years, Livia was a little kinder, but nevertheless often sent him short, angry letters of reproof. He was put under the care of a former mule-driver to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness, however, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms apparently waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests.
In 7 AD, Livy was hired to tutor him in history and he spent a lot of his time with the latter and the philosopher Athenodorus
Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, during his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain, Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the empire and may have begun the First Jewish–Roman War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, writing a generation later, claims that many Romans believed Nero himself had started the fire, in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne, facing a false report of being denounced as a public enemy who was to be executed, he committed suicide on 9 June 68. His death ended the Julio-Claudian dynasty, sparking a period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors.
Neros rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance and he is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus. Nero was rumored to have had captured Christians dipped in oil and this view is based on the writings of Tacitus and Cassius Dio, the main surviving sources for Neros reign, but a few sources paint Nero in a more favourable light. Some sources, including some mentioned above, portray him as an emperor who was popular with the common Roman people, some modern historians question the reliability of ancient sources when reporting on Neros tyrannical acts. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was born on 15 December 37 in Antium and he was the only son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger, sister of Emperor Caligula. Neros father, was the son of Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, Gnaeus was thus the grandson of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and probably Aemilia Lepida on his fathers side, and the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor on his mothers side.
Thus, Nero had as his paternal grandmother Antonia Major, through Octavia, Nero was the great-nephew of Caesar Augustus. Neros father had employed as a praetor and was a member of Caligulas staff when the latter travelled to the East. Neros father was described by Suetonius as a murderer and a cheat who was charged by Emperor Tiberius with treason, Tiberius died, allowing him to escape these charges. Neros father died of edema in 39 when Nero was two, Neros mother was Agrippina the Younger, a great-granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and his wife Scribonia through their daughter Julia the Elder and her husband Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. Agrippinas father, was a grandson of Augustuss wife, Livia, on one side and Mark Antony, Germanicus mother Antonia Minor was a daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Germanicus was the son of Tiberius. Agrippina poisoned her second husband Passienus Crispus, so many ancient historians accuse her of murdering her third husband, the emperor Claudius
A centurion was a professional officer of the Roman army after the Marian reforms of 107 BC. Most centurions commanded groups of centuries of around 80 men but senior centurions commanded cohorts or took senior staff roles in their legion, centurions were found in the Roman navy. In the Byzantine Army, they are known by the name kentarch. Their symbol of office was the staff, with which they disciplined even Roman citizens protected from other forms of beating by the Porcian Laws. In the Roman infantry, centurions initially commanded a centuria or century, centuries, or centuriae, developed from the Roman tribal system under the Servian reforms and could contain 200 to 1000 men. Later and Caesars further manipulated these numbers with double, Julius Caesar, for instance, made the first century double strength. Centurions seemed to receive a higher rate of pay than the average legionary. Veteran legionaries often worked as tenants of their former centurions, during the Imperial era, centurions gradually rose in seniority in their cohort, commanding centuries with higher precedence, until commanding the senior century and therefore the whole cohort.
The very best centurions were promoted to become centurions in the First Cohort, called Primi Ordines, commanding one of the ten centuries, the most senior centurion of the legion was the Primus Pilus who commanded the first century. All centurions, however senior, had their own allocated century, there was little difference between the ranks of centurions except for the Primus Pilus. The Primus Pilus participated in war councils, the Primus Pilus was so called because his own century was the first file of the first cohort. Comparisons between the grades and modern officer ranks can lead to many incorrect assumptions. Centurions could be elected, appointed by the Senate, or promoted from the ranks for a variety of reasons, Julius Caesar is said to have promoted his centurions for displays of valor. Other historians cite examples of them being the first over the wall or through the breach. If this case were strictly so, there would be a lack of centurions in peacetime garrisons, although not directly comparable to modern ranks, the various centurion grades may be loosely compared to modern junior and middle officer grades. A modern captain is typically in command of roughly 200 men and, although he controlled far less weaponry, centurions often suffered heavy casualties in battle, generally fighting alongside the legionaries they commanded.
They usually led from the front, occupying a position at the front right of the century formation and they could be identified by the transverse horse-hair crest on top of their helmet, their metal greaves and the sword worn on the left, like all Roman officers. They led and inspired their men by example and they sought to display the skill and courage that may have brought them to their rank in the first place
Aemilia Lepida is the name of several ancient Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. The name was given to daughters of men belonging to the Lepidus branch of the Aemilius family, the first Aemilia Lepida to be mentioned by Roman historians was the former fiancée of the younger Cato. Subsequent Aemiliae are known because of their marriages and this Aemilia was daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, wife of Metellus Scipio and former fiancee of Cato. Her daughter was Cornelia Metella, last wife and widow of Pompey the Great, although Aemilia Lepida was engaged to be married to Cato the Younger, she in fact married someone else, leaving Cato to marry Atilia. However, before the marriage Scipio changed his mind again and Cato were first cousins with Lepidas father and Catos mother being blood siblings. Aemilia Lepida was a Roman noble woman who lived in the 1st century BC and she was the first wife of Augur and descendant of Roman Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Cornelius Sulla Faustus.
She bore him several children including her son, suffect consul of 31, one of her daughters-in-law would be Domitia Lepida a great niece of Emperor Augustus and a granddaughter of triumvir Mark Antony. One of her grandchildren was consul Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, Aemilia Lepida may have been the name of the wife of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, due to the name of Ahenobarbuss granddaughter, Domitia Lepida. Her only child was her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus and her son married Antonia Major, a niece of Roman Emperor Augustus and a daughter to Augustus sister Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. Their children were Domitia Lepida the Elder, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Aemilia Lepida was the daughter of Lucius Aemilius Paullus and his wife Julia the Younger. She was the first great-grandchild of the Emperor Augustus, and at one time was a fiancée of the future Emperor Claudius, Lepida had several children with her husband, Marcus Junius Silanus, and two of her sons became consuls. Aemilia Lepida was the daughter to Lepidus the Younger and sister to Manius Aemilius Lepidus and she married the wealthy Roman Governor Publius Sulpicius Quirinius.
In her younger years, she was engaged to Emperor Augustus’ heir Lucius Caesar and she had borne a daughter to senator Mamercus Aemilius Scaurus. In 20, she was charged with adultery, consulting astrologers, falsely to claim to bear a son to her ex-husband, at her trial her brother defended her. During her trial, the Games were held, other distinguished ladies, accompanied her into the theatre and protested her innocence to Emperor Tiberius. She was found guilty and was exiled, Aemilia Lepida was daughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 6 and niece to the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Despite her uncles disgrace, and due to her fathers high standing with the Roman emperors, tacitus reports that during their marriage she had pursued her husband with ceaseless accusations. In 36, she was charged with adultery with a slave and committed suicide, Aemilia Lepida was daughter of Manius Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 11 CE
Bari is the capital city of the Metropolitan City of Bari and of the Apulia region, on the Adriatic Sea, in Italy. It is the second most important economic centre of mainland Southern Italy after Naples, the city itself has a population of about 326,799, as of 2015, over 116 square kilometres, while the urban area has 700,000 inhabitants. The metropolitan area has 1.3 million inhabitants, Bari is made up of four different urban sections. To the south is the Murat quarter, the heart of the city, which is laid out on a rectangular grid-plan with a promenade on the sea. Modern residential zones surrounding the centre of Bari were built during the 1960s and 1970s replacing the old suburbs that had developed along roads splaying outwards from gates in the city walls, in addition, the outer suburbs developed rapidly during the 1990s. The city has an airport named after Pope John Paul II, Karol Wojtyła Airport. The city was founded by the Peucetii. Its harbour, mentioned as early as 181 BC, was probably the one of the districts in ancient times, as it is at present.
The first historical bishop of Bari was Gervasius who was noted at the Council of Sardica in 347, the bishops were dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople until the 10th century. Until the arrival of the Normans, Bari continued to be governed by the Byzantines, throughout this period, and indeed throughout the Middle Ages, Bari served as one of the major slave depots of the Mediterranean, providing a central location for the trade in Slavic slaves. The city was conquered and the Emirate extinguished in 871, due to the efforts of Emperor Louis II, in 885, Bari became the residence of the local Byzantine catapan, or governor. In 1025, under the Archbishop Byzantius, Bari became attached to the see of Rome and was granted provincial status, in 1071, Bari was captured by Robert Guiscard, following a three-year siege. Maio of Bari, a Lombard merchants son, was the third of the admirals of Norman Sicily. The Basilica di San Nicola was founded in 1087 to receive the relics of this saint, the saint began his development from Saint Nicholas of Myra into Saint Nicholas of Bari and began to attract pilgrims, whose encouragement and care became central to the economy of Bari.
In 1095 Peter the Hermit preached the first crusade there, the Greeks were not brought over to the Latin way of thinking, and the Great Schism was inevitable. A civil war broke out in Bari in 1117 with the murder of the archbishop, control of Bari was seized by Grimoald Alferanites, a native Lombard, and he was elected lord in opposition to the Normans. By 1123, he had increased ties with Byzantium and Venice, Grimoald increased the cult of St Nicholas in his city. He did homage to Roger II of Sicily, but rebelled and was defeated in 1132, Bari was occupied by Manuel I Komnenos between 1155 and 1158