Białystok is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Białystok is the tenth-largest city in Poland, second in terms of population density, thirteenth in area. Białystok located in the Białystok Uplands of the Podlaskie Plain on the banks of the Biała River, it has attracted migrants from elsewhere in Poland and beyond from Central and Eastern Europe. This is facilitated by the fact that the nearby border with Belarus is the eastern border of the European Union, as well as the Schengen Area; the city and its adjacent municipalities constitute Metropolitan Białystok. The city has a Warm Summer Continental climate, characterized by warm summers and long frosty winters. Forests are an important part of Białystok's character, occupy around 1,756 ha which places it as the fifth most forested city in Poland; the first settlers arrived in the 14th century. A town grew up and received its municipal charter in 1692. Białystok has traditionally been one of the leading centers of academic and artistic life in Podlachia and the most important economic center in northeastern Poland.
Białystok was once an important center for light industry, the reason for the substantial growth of the city's population. The city continues to reshape itself into a modern metropolis. Białystok in 2010, was on the short-list, but lost the competition to become a finalist for European Capital of Culture in 2016; the English translation of Białystok is "white slope". Due to changing borders and demographics over the centuries, the city has been known as Belarusian: Беласток, Yiddish: ביאַליסטאָק, Lithuanian: Baltstogė, Balstogė, Russian: Белосток. Linguist A. P. Nepokupnyj proposes. Names with the -stok suffix as a second element of a hydronym are localized in the basin of the upper Narew. Archaeological discoveries show that the first settlements in the area of present-day Białystok occurred during the Stone Age. Tombs of ancient settlers can be found in the district of Dojlidy. In the early Iron Age a mix of Prussians and Wielbark culture people settled in the area producing kurgans, the tombs of the chiefs in the area located in the current village of Rostołty.
Since the Białystok area has been at the crossroads of cultures. Trade routes linking the Baltic to the Black Sea favored the development of settlements with Yotvingia-Ruthenian-Polish cultural characteristics; the city of Białystok has existed for five centuries and during this time the fate of the city has been affected by various political and economic forces. Surviving documents attest that around 1437 a representative of the Raczków family, Jakub Tabutowicz of the coat of arms Łabędź, received from Michael Žygimantaitis son of Sigismund Kęstutaitis, Duke of Lithuania, a wilderness area along the river Biała that marked the beginning of Białystok as a settlement; the first brick church and a castle were built between 1617 and 1826. The two-floor castle, designed on a rectangular plan in the Gothic-Renaissance style, was the work of Job Bretfus. Extension of the castle was continued by Krzysztof Wiesiołowski, starost of Tykocin, Grand Marshal of Lithuania since 1635, husband of Aleksandra Marianna Sobieska.
In 1637 he died childless, as a result Białystok came under the management of his widow. After her death in 1645 the Wiesiołowski estate, including Białystok, passed to the Commonwealth to cover the costs of maintaining Tykocin Castle. In the years 1645–1659 Białystok was managed by the governors of Tykocin and was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1661 it was given to Stefan Czarniecki as a reward for his service in the victory over the Swedes during the Deluge. Four years it was given as a dowry of his daughter Aleksandra, who married Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, thus passing into the hands of the Branicki family. In 1692, Stefan Mikołaj Branicki, the son of Jan Klemens Branicki, obtained city rights for Białystok from King John III Sobieski, he constructed the Branicki Palace on the foundations of the castle of the Wiesiołowski family. In the second half of the eighteenth century the ownership of the city was inherited by Field Crown Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, it was he who transformed the palace built by his father into a magnificent residence of a great noble.
The end of the eighteenth century saw the division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in three steps, among the neighboring states. The Kingdom of Prussia acquired the surrounding region during the third partition; the city became the capital of the New East Prussia province in 1795. Prussia lost the territory following Napoleon Bonaparte's victory in the War of the Fourth Coalition as the resultant 1807 Treaties of Tilsit awarded the area to the Russian Empire, which organized the region into the Belostok Oblast, with the city as the regional center. At the end of the nineteenth century, the majority of the city's population was Jewish. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 66,000, Jews constituted 41,900; this heritage can be seen on the Jewish Heritage Trail in Białystok. The Białystok pogrom occurred between 14–16 June 1906 in the city. During the pogrom between 81 and 88 people were killed, about 80 people were wounded; the first Anarchist groups to attract a significant following of Russian workers or peasants, were the Anarcho-Communist Chernoe-Znamia groups, founded in Białystok in 1903.
During World War I the Bialystok-Grodno District was the admin
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
David Andrew Seaman, MBE is an English former footballer who played as a goalkeeper. In a career lasting from 1981 to 2004, he is best known for his time playing for Arsenal, he won 75 caps for the England national football team, is the country's second-most capped goalkeeper, after Peter Shilton. In 1997 was awarded the MBE for services to football; the peak of Seaman's career was during his period as Arsenal and England goalkeeper in the 1990s and early 2000s. During his time at Arsenal he won three league championships, four FA Cups, the League Cup in 1993 and the European Cup Winners Cup in 1994. During this time he played for England in the 1998 and 2002 FIFA World Cups, Euro 96 and Euro 2000; as well as Arsenal, he played in the Premier League for Manchester City, as well as making appearances in the Football League for Peterborough United, Birmingham City and Queens Park Rangers. His save from Paul Peschisolido of Sheffield United in the 2002–03 FA Cup was described as one of the best ever.
Notable lows came with two costly errors, both from long-range efforts—conceding a last-minute goal in the 1995 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final to Nayim and conceding to a Ronaldinho free-kick in the 2002 FIFA World Cup quarter-final. Seaman is left-handed, but kicked with his right foot, he retired in 2004 due to a recurring shoulder injury. In June 2012, he was appointed goalkeeping coach of Combined Counties League club Wembley. Seaman was born in West Riding of Yorkshire, he attended Kimberworth Comprehensive School. He began his career at the club he supported as a boy. However, he was not wanted by then-manager Eddie Gray, his favourite player. Seaman went to Division 4 club Peterborough United for a £4,000 fee in August 1982, where he began to make a name for himself. Just over two years in October 1984, Second Division Birmingham City paid £100,000 for Seaman's services, they ended up winning promotion at the end of that season, but were relegated again at the end of the following season. Seaman was not to follow them however.
In August 1986, Seaman moved to Queens Park Rangers for £225,000. Playing in a higher profile club on a plastic pitch, he earned his first England cap, which came under Bobby Robson in a friendly against Saudi Arabia in November 1988. Whilst at QPR, Seaman was coached by Arsenal double-winner Bob Wilson, to work with him for more than a decade. In 1990, long before the current transfer window system had come to English football, there was still a transfer deadline a few weeks before the end of the season. Arsenal, who had won the league in 1989, wanted to sign Seaman, but the deal involved Arsenal's keeper John Lukic heading the opposite way on loan. Lukic did not want to do this, the deal broke down and remained unresolved when the deadline passed; as soon as the season ended and clubs were allowed to buy players again, Arsenal manager George Graham came back for Seaman, with £1.3 million being the agreed fee. Lukic, popular amongst Arsenal fans, left to rejoin Leeds. Seaman's time at Arsenal coincided with one of the most successful periods in the club's history.
The 1990–91 season saw Seaman concede only 18 goals when playing in every match of the 38-game season as Arsenal regained the league title. Arsenal won both the FA Cup and the League Cup in 1993 and supplemented this a year with the European Cup Winners' Cup. Arsenal began their victorious League Cup campaign against Millwall and after two legs the game went to a penalty shootout. Seaman saved three of the four Millwall penalties from Malcolm Allen, Jon Goodman and Colin Cooper to help his side progress. In 1995, George Graham was sacked, Arsenal came close to becoming the first club to retain the Cup Winners' Cup, with Seaman earning a reputation as a penalty-saving specialist after saving from Siniša Mihajlović, Vladimir Jugović and Attilio Lombardo in Arsenal's semi-final shoot-out against U. C. Sampdoria, all the while playing with two cracked ribs. However, Arsenal lost in the final to Real Zaragoza, when Nayim scored a goal in the final minute of extra time with a 40-yard lob over Seaman.
In August 1996, Arsène Wenger became the new manager of Arsenal. Wenger rated Seaman and in 1998, Seaman helped the team to the Premier League and FA Cup double. In 1998–99, Seaman played all 38 league matches, conceding only 17 league goals as Arsenal came within one point of retaining the Premier League and lost in the FA Cup semi-finals to Manchester United; the following season Seaman managed to reach the 2000 UEFA Cup Final, which Arsenal drew 0–0 with Galatasaray, but lost on penalties. In 2002, Seaman won the Premier League and the FA Cup again to complete his second career double, although Arsenal's other goalkeepers Stuart Taylor and Richard Wright won championship medals, due to Seaman's absence through injuries. A highlight of this season was when Seaman saved a Gareth Barry penalty as Arsenal won 2–1 at Aston Villa. Despite his international career ending so flatly and accusations his mobility had faded with age, the 2002–03 season—Seaman's last at Arsenal—ended on a high note, he began the season with saving a Freddie Kanoute penalty in a draw at Upton Park.
In the FA Cup, he made a save against Sheffield United's Paul Peschisolido in the semi-finals, which former Manchester United goalkeeper Peter Schmeichel, a pundit for the BBC on the day, dubbed "the best save I've seen". Arsenal were defending a 1–0 lead, when with less than ten minutes to go, Peschisolido had a header towards an open goal from six yards out wit
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other; the games can be held between parts of the same team. An exhibition game may be used to settle a challenge, to provide professional entertainment, to promote the sport, to commemorate an anniversary or a famous player, or to raise money for charities. Several sports leagues hold all-star games to showcase their best players against each other, while other exhibitions games may pit participants from two different leagues or countries to unofficially determine who would be the best in the world. International competitions like the Olympic Games may hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport.
In the early days of football, friendlies were the most common type of match. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby and cup tournaments. By the year 2000, national leagues were established in every country throughout the world, as well as local or regional leagues for lower level teams. Since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are only used to "warm up" players for a new season/competitive match. There is nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with; such games take place between a large club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. Although most friendlies are one-off matches arranged by the clubs themselves, in which a certain amount is paid by the challenger club to the incumbent club, some teams do compete in short tournaments, such as the Community Shield, Emirates Cup, Teresa Herrera Trophy, International Champions Cup and the Amsterdam Tournament.
Although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. International teams play friendlies in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments; this is essential, since national squads have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies take place during club league seasons, not between them; this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. International friendlies give team managers the opportunity to experiment with team selection and tactics before the tournament proper, allow them to assess the abilities of players they may select for the tournament squad. Players can be booked in international friendlies, can be suspended from future international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period.
Caps and goals scored count towards a player's career records. In 2004, FIFA ruled that substitutions by a team be limited to six per match in international friendlies in response to criticism that such matches were becoming farcical with managers making as many as 11 substitutions per match. Matches in multinational football tournaments such as the King's Cup, the Kirin Cup, the China Cup are considered international friendlies by FIFA. In the UK and Ireland, "exhibition match" and "friendly match" refer to two different types of games; the types described above as friendlies are not termed exhibition matches, while annual all-star matches such as those held in the US Major League Soccer or Japan's Japanese League are called exhibition matches rather than friendly matches. A one-off match for charitable fundraising involving one or two all-star teams, or a match held in honor of a player for contribution to his/her club, may be described as exhibition matches but they are referred to as charity matches and testimonial matches respectively.
A bounce game is a non-competitive football match played between two sides as part of a training exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract; these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were once common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring. Joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis' world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado. In more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. Jorge Castro, Óscar de la Hoya and Floyd Mayweather Jr. have been involved in exhibition fights. Although not fought for profit, amateur bouts and sparring sessions are not considered to be exhibition fights. Prior to the
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Goiânia is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Goiás. With a population of 1,466,105, it is the second-largest city in the Central-Western Region and the 11th-largest in the country, its metropolitan area has a population of 2,527,092, making it the 11th-largest in Brazil. With an area of 739 square kilometres, it has a continuous geography with few hills and lowlands, with flat lands in most of its territory the Meia Ponte River, in addition to Botafogo and Capim Puba streams. Goiânia has its origins as a planned city, founded on October 24, 1933 by Governor Pedro Ludovico to serve as the new state capital and administrative center. Before this, the state capital was the town of Goiás, it is the second most populous city in Brazil's Midwest, only surpassed by the country's capital Brasília. It is an important economic hub of the region and is considered a strategic center for such areas as industry, medicine and agriculture. Goiânia has been described as having the largest green area per inhabitant in Brazil and the second-most in the world, after Edmonton, Canada.
With rapid population growth and urban expansion, satellite imagery shows the majority of the green area is now at the periphery of its sprawling city limits, the per-capita green area claim may need to be reviewed. The idea of creating a new state capital had been bounced around from early on in the state of Goiás; the first plan came from D. Marcos de Noronha who in 1753 wanted to establish the state capital in the municipality of Pirenópolis; the impetus behind the efforts to move the state capital was the need to locate it in accordance with the economic interests of the state. The first state capital, Vila Boa, had been chosen; when cattle-raising and agriculture came to dominate the state's development, the old capital was considered remote. Legislators kept the idea of change alive for a long time. In 1891, the constitutional delegates made the idea of the transfer of the capital official, including it in the constitution, ratifying it in 1898 and 1918. Vaguely remembered until 1930, the idea became a reality during the government of Pedro Ludovico, the new governor appointed for the state of Goiás after the military revolt of 1930.
In 1932, a commission was created to choose. In 1933 the commission decided on the present location and the foundation stone was laid; the plan was for a city of 50,000 with the shape of a concentric radius — streets in the form of a spoke, with the Praça Cívica as the center, with the seats of the state and municipal government — the Palace of Emeralds and the Palace of Campinas. In 1937, a decree was signed transferring the state capital from the Cidade de Goiás to Goiânia; the official inauguration occurred in 1942 with the presence of the president of the republic and ministers. The name, Goiânia, came about in 1933. Readers from all over the state contributed, with some of the most popular names being Petrônia, Petrolândia, Goianópolis, Goiânia, Bartolomeu Bueno, Eldorado, Liberdade, Goianésia, Pátria Nova, among others. In 1935 Pedro Ludovico used the name Goiânia for the first time, signing a decree creating the municipality; the first buildings in this planned city, designed by Atílio Correia Lima, were inspired by art deco.
The collection of buildings is still representative, with 22 of them listed as National Heritage. Built in the 1940s and 1950s, they have been recognized by the National Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage; the 22 buildings and monuments are in the original center of Goiânia, as in the pioneering nucleus of Campinas, a town existing before Goiânia. Due to lack of maintenance, several of these buildings are in a state of disrepair. On September 13, 1987, an old medical radiation source was scavenged from an abandoned hospital in Goiânia, causing four deaths and many non-fatal cases of radiation poisoning. Several city blocks had to be demolished due to the contamination; the International Atomic Energy Agency report noted that city and state officials acted with remarkable speed to prevent injury to the population. The city has a tropical wet and dry climate with an average temperature of 23.2 °C. It has a wet season, from October to April, a dry one, from May to September. Annual rainfall is around 1,300 mm.
The lowest temperature recorded was 0.5 °C on July 18, 2000, in the suburbs. 1.2 °C was the lowest recorded downtown, on July 9, 1938. However, such lows are rare. Temperatures may fall below 12 °C every winter in the suburbs; the highest temperature recorded was 40.4 °C on October 19, 2015. The "cerrado" landscape is characterized by extensive savanna formations crossed by gallery forests and stream valleys. Cerrado includes various types of vegetation. Humid fields and "buriti" palm paths are found. Alpine pastures occur at mesophytic forests on more fertile soils. More than 1600 species of mammals and reptiles have been identified in the cerrado, including 180 reptile species, 113 amphibians, 837 birds and 195 mammals. Among the invertebrates, the most notable are the leaf-cutter ants, they are the main herbivores of the cerrado, important to consuming and decomposing of organic matter, as well as constituting an important food source to many other animal species. While Go
Polonia Warsaw, founded in 1911, is the oldest existing Warsaw sports club, with football, basketball and field and swimming teams. Polonia Warsaw was formed in the autumn of 1911 as a union of two school teams; the founder of the club was captain Wacław Denhoff-Czarnocki, who came up with the name of the club. Polonia is Latin for "Poland" and is used by Polish ex-patriates in reference to their communities in other countries; the choice of such a name was a brave decision at the time, since Poland was not an independent country, Warsaw was a part of Russian partition. The players played in black-and-white striped shirts, but in the spring of 1912, they switched to their now traditional design of all black shirts; the legendary patriotic explanation for this color scheme was that it was a sign of mourning for the occupied and divided motherland of Poland. This lasting devotion to tradition resulted in the club's popular name: The Black Shirts; the uniform's white shorts and red socks come from the colors of the Polish flag.
The club's first match on 19 November 1911 was against a strong local rival and ended 3–4 in favor of Korona. Two years in February 1913, The Black Shirts defeated Korona 4–0. During the first world war, German occupants were more liberal in their ways than the previous Russian counterparts, allowed the official registration of sports clubs on Polish territory, on 15 October 1915 Polonia official became a football club, despite existing for four years; the first match between Polonia and Legia Warsaw was played on 29 April 1917. It was the first historic "Great Derby of Warsaw" – the clash of these two rival teams. A month there was a second match between the teams, ending with the same score. Hatred divided their supporters early in the clubs' history and continues to this day, driving strong emotions during the matches and sometimes greater emotions between matches. In 1921, the Black Shirts came second in the first season of the Polish football championship. In 1926, they finished the season as joint-champions.
Polonia was Warsaw's favorite club – the great majority of the city's inhabitants were devoted Black Shirt supporters. In the late 1930s, Polonia became one of powerhouses of Polish football, with players, such as Jerzy Bulanow, Wladyslaw Szczepaniak, Erwin Nyc and Henryk Jaznicki capping for the national team; the friendship between Polonia and KS Cracovia – the prewar Polish football legend and the first champions of Poland – dates back to those days. In 1946, Polonia won the Polish Championship title, it was burned capital. The final match was played on "Wojska Polskiego" Stadium on Lazienkowska Street, because Polonia's stadium on 6 Konwiktorska Street had been ruined during the war; the Black Shirts defeated AKS Chorzów in the final. In 1952, Polonia Warsaw won their first Polish Cup. In the final, Polonia managed to outscore local rivals Legia Warsaw 1-0, much to the delight of Warsaw's fans, who supported the Black Shirts. During the Stalinist period, Polonia's name and colors were changed – Warsaw's oldest club was renamed Kolejarz, as the team was now tied to the Polish National Railroad company.
The Black Shirts were banned, as the Stalinist regime was trying to erase everything, associated with Warsaw from before the war. Every Polish football club got a ` sponsor', such as militia or mining industry. At the time, the railroad was one of the poorest sponsors choosing another club, as the main club they were investing in. Polonia's management struggled to face the problems that the club came across, which contributed to its eventual relegation to the Polish second division. Fifteen years there were still thousands of fans on Konwiktorska Street. Nobody thought it would take 40 years for Polonia to come back to top-flight football. One of the reasons behind this, was that all the young men, promising footballers to be – from all over Poland, the Warsaw youth academies, were called up for compulsory army training, which under the communist rule lasted about 5 years, or sometimes longer. Many of the players received an offer to play for the army sponsored Legia Warsaw, which led to some of Polonia's bitter rivals biggest successes, in the 1960s.
Till the modern day Polonia's fans attribute Legia's current popularity in Warsaw to the communist regime, the'stealing' of talented players. Polonia's ultras fans put up a flag with an anti-communist symbol, in the center of'Kammienna' sector every game. In the 1992–93 season, after 40 years playing in the lower leagues, Polonia Warsaw was promoted to the first division; the organization of the club was insufficient to compete with the strongest clubs in Polish football - the biggest problems being lack of money and a sound training base. After one season, the team was relegated yet again, but only for a year as in the 1995–96 season Polonia Warszawa won promotion again. In 1996, Janusz Romanowski took over as chairman of Polonia, having just backed out from sponsoring local rivals Legia Warszawa. In 1998'The Black Shirts' finished runner-up in the top flight and in 1999 reached the semi-finals of the Intertoto Cup. In the 1999/2000 season, Polonia were not considered challengers for the title.
At the end of the autumn round, the Black Shirts were for the first time in club's history leading the league. That team had two managers – Jerzy Engel (who became the coach of the Polish national team, which qualified for the World C