Edward I of England
Edward I known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots, was King of England from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was referred to as The Lord Edward; the first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons' War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land; the crusade accomplished little, Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.
Making a slow return, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 19 August. He spent much of his reign reforming common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. However, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. After suppressing a minor rebellion in Wales in 1276–77, Edward responded to a second rebellion in 1282–83 with a full-scale war of conquest. After a successful campaign, Edward subjected Wales to English rule, built a series of castles and towns in the countryside and settled them with English people. Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom; the war that followed continued after Edward's death though the English seemed victorious at several points. Edward I found himself at war with France after the French king Philip IV had confiscated the duchy of Aquitaine, which until had been held in personal union with the Kingdom of England.
Although Edward recovered his duchy, this conflict relieved English military pressure against Scotland. At the same time there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition; these crises were averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son Edward II an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political problems. Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks", he was temperamental, this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, he instilled fear in his contemporaries. He held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility.
Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III, establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby a functional system for raising taxes, reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Welsh and Scots, issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England; the Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1657. Edward was born at the Palace of Westminster on the night of 17–18 June 1239, to King Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. Edward is an Anglo-Saxon name, was not given among the aristocracy of England after the Norman conquest, but Henry was devoted to the veneration of Edward the Confessor, decided to name his firstborn son after the saint. Among his childhood friends was his cousin Henry of Almain, son of King Henry's brother Richard of Cornwall.
Henry of Almain would remain a close companion of the prince, both through the civil war that followed, during the crusade. Edward was in the care of Hugh Giffard – father of the future Chancellor Godfrey Giffard – until Bartholomew Pecche took over at Giffard's death in 1246. There were concerns about Edward's health as a child, he fell ill in 1246, 1247, 1251. Nonetheless, he became an imposing man; the historian Michael Prestwich states that his "long arms gave him an advantage as a swordsman, long thighs one as a horseman. In youth, his curly hair was blond, his speech, despite a lisp, was said to be persuasive."In 1254, English fears of a Castilian invasion of the English province of Gascony induced Edward's father to arrange a politically expedient marriage between his fifteen-year-old son and thirteen-year-old Eleanor, the half-sister of King Alfonso X of Castile. Eleanor and Edward were married on 1 November 1254 in the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas in Castile; as part of the marriage agreement, the young prince received grants of land worth 15,000 marks a year.
Although the endowments King Henry made were sizeable, they offered Edwa
Scone is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. The medieval village of Scone, which grew up around the monastery and royal residence, was abandoned in the early 19th century when the residents were removed and a new palace was built on the site by the Earl of Mansfield. Hence the modern village of Scone, the medieval village of Old Scone, can be distinguished. Both sites lie in the historical province of Gowrie, as well as the old county of Perthshire. Old Scone was the historic capital of the Kingdom of Scotland. In the Middle Ages it was an important royal centre, used as a royal residence and as the coronation site of the kingdom's monarchs. Around the royal site grew the Abbey of Scone. In Gaelic poetry Scone's association with kings and king-making gave it various poetic epithets, for instance, Scoine sciath-airde, "Scone of the High Shields", Scoine sciath-bhinne, "Scone of the Noisy Shields". Scotland itself was called or shown on maps as the "Kingdom of Scone", Righe Sgoinde. A comparison would be that Ireland was called the "Kingdom of Tara", like Scone, serving as a ceremonial inauguration site.
Scone was therefore the closest thing the Kingdom of Scotland had in its earliest years to a "capital". In either 1163 or 1164 King Malcolm IV described Scone Abbey as in principali sede regni nostri, "in the principal seat of our kingdom". By this point, the rule of the King of the Scots was not confined to the Kingdom of Scotland, which only referred to Scotland north of the river Forth; the king ruled in Lothian and the Honour of Huntingdon, spent much of his time in these localities too. Moreover, the king was itinerant and had little permanent bureaucracy, so that any idea that Scone was a "capital" in the way the word is used today can make little sense in this period, but in the medieval sense Scone can in many ways be called the "capital of Scotland" and was referred to as "the Royal City of Scone". Many comparisons can be drawn between the "City" of Scone. Both were medieval epicenters of Royal power. Both were located beside crossing points of major rivers - the highways of the medieval period - and in geographic locations central to their respective kingdoms.
The origins of a settlement of any kind at Scone are unknown. The origins could be pre-Roman as there is much evidence of a well-established and sophisticated Iron Age people flourishing in this part of Scotland. Direct evidence however is lacking and so Scone's story is thought to begin in the wake of the Roman exit from Scottish history, thus there may have been a village, a religious centre, or seat of power based at Scone from as early as the 5th century with Scone coming into real and recorded prominence in the 9th century during the amalgamation of the Pictish and Gaelic peoples and kingdoms. Scone at this point played a crucial role in the formation and governance of the ancient Kingdom of Scotland, it was in these years in the 9th century that Kenneth MacAlpin came east to Scone bringing with him a holy relic and coronation stone which being housed at Scone acquired the name, the Stone of Scone over time. In the 12th century, various foreign influences prompted the Scottish kings to transform Scone into a more convincing royal center.
Many historians have argued that the monastery or Priory was founded in 1114 by Alexander I of Scotland. This is speaking correct, however, it seems clear that this charter was a reaffirming of Scone's status, of the religious institutions there, rather than a sudden founding or establishment. There is growing evidence that there had been an early Christian cult called the Culdees based at Scone dating from at least the 9th century and earlier; the Culdees were merged with the Augustinian canons who arrived from Nostell Priory in Yorkshire as part of the 1114 "re-establishment". This "re-establishment" and drive to confirm Scone's status at the heart of the emerging Scottish kingdom and nation continued in 1124 when Alexander I of Scotland wrote to "all merchants of England" promising them safe passage and protection if they are to bring goods to Scone by sea to trade. Scone at this time lay on a navigable part of the river Tay; this advantage was at times a major disadvantage as the Vikings came across the North Sea to launch their lightning raids.
Using the River Tay as a water route into the heart of Scottish held territory throughout the 9th and 10th centuries, the Viking raiders pillaged towns and villages as well as religious houses such as the abbey at Dunkeld. In 904 a battle was fought in the vicinity of Scone referred to as the Battle of Scone, between the Scots led by King Constantine II of Scotland and the Vikings; as time went on for various reasons the river by Scone became less navigable. At the same time medieval ships were developing deeper hulls, it was this combination of factors that encouraged David I of Scotland to establish a new burgh at the nearest suitable location downstream of Scone, namely Perth. Perth lies a mile from the site of medieval Scone, similar to the distance of Westminster Abbey from the City of London – 1.36 miles. King Alexander I, thus "re-established" an Augustinian priory at Scone, sometime between 1114 and 1122. In either 1163 or 1164, in the reign of King Máel Coluim IV, Scone Priory's status was increased and it became an abbey.
The abbey had important royal functions, being next to the coronation site of Scottish kings and housing the coronation stone, the Stone of Scone until it was stolen by King Edward I of England) during the Wars of Scottish Independence in 1295. Like other Sc
A regent is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated. The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency. A regent or regency council may be in accordance with a constitutional rule. "Regent" is sometimes a formal title. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession, the compound term prince regent is used. If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a Regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap. In a monarchy, a regent governs due to one of these reasons, but may be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out; this was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, kings were elective, which led to a long interregnum.
In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic Primate who served as the regent, termed the "interrex". In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually as joint heads of state and of government. Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent George IV of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era and Regency architecture; this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III was insane, though when used as a period label it covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV in 1715 until Louis XV came of age in 1723; the equivalent Greek term is epitropos. As of 2018, Liechtenstein is the only country with an active regency; the term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations as an equivalent of "director", held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive.
Some university managers in North America are called regents and a management board for a college or university may be titled the "Board of Regents". In New York State, all activities related to public and private education and professional licensure are administered by the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York, the appointed members of which are called regents; the term "regent" is used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France and Belgium. In the Dutch Republic, the members of the ruling class, not formally hereditary but forming a de facto patrician class, were informally known collectively as regenten because they held positions as "regent" on the boards of town councils, as well as charitable and civic institutions; the regents group portrait, regentenstuk or regentessenstuk for female boards in Dutch "regents' piece", is a group portrait of the board of trustees, called regents or regentesses, of a charitable organization or guild.
This type of group portrait was popular in Dutch Golden Age painting during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the Dutch East Indies, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized'state' as a regentschap. In the successor state of Indonesia, the term regent is used in English to mean a bupati, the head of a kabupaten. Again in Belgium and France, Regent is the official title of a teacher in a lower secondary school, who does not require a college degree but is trained in a specialized école normale. In the Philippines the University of Santo Tomas, the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest and is also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head, they form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university. In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his Novitiate and Philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to Theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final vows.
List of regents Regency Acts Viceroy, an individual who, in a colony or province, exercised the power of a monarch on his behalf
Barons in Scotland
In Scotland, a Baron is the head of a "feudal" barony. This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on, the "caput", or the essence of the barony a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the "caput" was baroness; the Court of the Lord Lyon issued a new ruling April 2015 that recognises a person possessing the dignity of baron and other feudal titles. Lord Lyon now prefers the approach of recognizing the particular feudal noble dignity as expressed in the Crown Charter that the petitioner presents; these titles are recognised as the status of a minor baron but not a peer. Scottish feudal baronies may be passed to any person, of either sex, by conveyance. Scotland has a distinct legal system within the United Kingdom. In the Kingdom of Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms, as the Sovereign’s Minister in matters armorial, is at once Herald and Judge; the Scottish equivalent of an English baron is a lord of Parliament. Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure was, from 1660 until 2004, the feudal description of the only genuine degree of title of UK nobility capable of being bought and sold, rather than passing by blood inheritance.
Statutes of 1592 and the Baronetcy Warrants of King Charles I show the non-peerage Table of Precedence as: Baronets, Knights and Lairds, Esquire and Gentlemen. A General Register of Sasines was set up by Statute in 1617, with entry in the Register giving the prescriptive right, after so many years, to the "caput" or essence of the Barony; the individual who owned the said piece of land containing the caput was hence the Baron or Baroness. Uncertainty over armorial right was removed by the Lyon Register being set up by Statute in 1672, such that no arms were to be borne in Scotland unless validly entered in Lyon Register. Up until 1874 each new Baron was confirmed in his Barony by the Crown by Charter of Confirmation. Up until 28 November 2004 a Barony was an estate of land held directly of the Crown, or the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, it was an essential element of a barony title that there existed a Crown Charter erecting the land into a Barony, recorded in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland.
The original Charter was lost, however an Official Extract has the same legal status as the original Charter. From the Treaty of Union of 1707 - until 1999 - a unified Parliament of Great Britain, at Westminster, was responsible for passing legislation affecting private law both north and south of the Scottish border. In 1999 the devolved Scottish Parliament was established, Private law measures can now be passed at Holyrood, the seat of the Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh. Using a prescriptive feudal grant allowed developers to impose perpetual conditions affecting the land; the courts became willing to accept the validity of such obligations, which became known as real burdens. In practical and commercial terms, these real burdens were like English leasehold tenure; the first Scottish Executive was committed to abolishing the anachronism of the feudal system. On 28 November 2004 the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000 came into full effect, putting an end to Scotland's feudal system. Under Scots law, a Scottish Prescriptive Barony by Tenure is now "incorporeal feudal heritage", not attached to the land and remains the only genuine, degree of title of UK nobility capable of being bought and sold – since under Section 63 of the Act, the dignity of Baron is preserved after the abolition of the feudal system.
However, the Abolition Act did end the ability to get feudal land privileges by inheriting or acquiring the caput in Scotland. In common law jurisdictions, land may still be owned and inherited through a barony if the land is titled in "the Baron of X" as baron rather than in the individual's name. In America it passes with the barony as a fee simple appurtenance to an otherwise incorporeal hereditament, the barony being treated like a landowning corporation. In Scotland, the practice has not been tested in a Court of Session case since the Act. What is the oldest barony in Scotland, the Barony of the Bachuil, has not depended on land ownership for centuries. Unlike all other barons in Scotland, the lawful possessor of the stick is the Baron of the Bachuil, regardless of landholdings. After 28 November 2004 under Scots law, a Scottish Barony, Scottish heritable property, became incorporeal heritable property. Prior to the Act coming into effect, Scottish Feudal Baronies were the only genuine title of UK nobility capable of being transferred following the sale of land containing a "caput".
Most baronies were created prior to 1745 but one was erected as late as 1824. Since the Abolition of Feudal Tenure etc. Act 2000 came into effect, the Lord Lyon, the Chief Herald of Scotland, has restored a more traditional form to the coat of arms of a Baron. Barons are now identified by the helm befitting their degree. A new policy statement has been made by the Lord Lyon to this effect. Independent Scots legal advice should always be taken before entering into any contract that claims to offer a Baronial title for sale; the holder of the dignity of a Barony may petition the Lord Lyon
Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed. It was settled on the bride by agreement at the time of or as provided by law; the dower grew out of the Germanic practice of bride price, given over to a bride's family well in advance for arranging the marriage, but during the early Middle Ages, was given directly to the bride instead. However, in popular parlance, the term may be used for a life interest in property settled by a husband on his wife at any time, not just at the wedding; the verb to dower is sometimes used. In popular usage, the term dower may be confused with: A dowager is a widow; the term is used of a noble or royal widow who no longer occupies the position she held during the marriage. For example, Queen Elizabeth was technically the dowager queen after the death of George VI, Princess Lilian was the Dowager Duchess of Halland in heraldic parlance; such a dowager will receive the income from her dower property.
Property brought to the marriage by the bride is called a dowry. But the word dower has been used since Chaucer in the sense of dowry, is recognized as a definition of dower in the Oxford English Dictionary. Property made over to the bride's family at the time of the wedding is a bride price; this property does not pass to the bride herself. Being for the widow and being accorded by law, dower differs from a conventional marriage portion such as the English dowry; the bride received a right to certain property from his family. It was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate and in the wife's possession. Dower is the gift given by the groom to the bride, customarily on the morning after the wedding, though all dowerings from the man to his fiancée, either during the betrothal period, or wedding, or afterwards as late as in the testamentary dowering, are understood as dowers if intended for the maintenance of the widow. Dower was a property arrangement for marriage first used in early medieval German cultures, the Catholic Church drove its adoption into other countries, in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit.
The practice of dower was prevalent in those parts of Europe influenced by Germanic Scandinavian culture, such as Sweden, Germany and successor states of the Langobardian kingdom. The husband was prevented from using the wife's dower — as contrasted with her dowry, brought to the marriage by the bride and used by both spouses; this meant that the woman's legal representative a male relative, became guardian or executor of the dower, to ensure that it was not squandered. The wife was free from kin limitations to use her dower to whatever and whomever she pleased, it may have become the property of her next marriage, been given to an ecclesiastical institution, or been inherited by her children from other relationships than that from which she received it. In English legal history, there were five kinds of dower: ad ostium ecclesiae, or at the church porch. Dower ad ostium ecclesiae, was the closest to modern meaning of dower, it was the property secured in bride's name at the church porch. This was optional.
Dower wasn't the same as bride price. Dower de la plus belle was a hereditary conveyance of tenure by knight service, it was abolished by the act which did away with old tenures. Dower ex assensu patris, was the dower given to the bride by the father of the bridegroom; this became obsolete. At common law, dower was of a different nature, it was a legal declaration of a wife's right to property, while the husband lived, which he would manage. A dower at common law was not liable for the husband's debts — which became controversial after many tried to use it to shield their property from the collection of debts; the Dower Acts of 19th century abolished this. Dower by custom was an attempt to recognize the rules of dower customary at each manor and in each region. Customary dowers were abolished in the 19th century, replaced with uniform inheritance laws. Dower is thought to have been suggested by the bride price which Tacitus found to be usual among the Germans; this bride price he terms dos, but contrasts it with the dos of the Roman law, a gift on the part of the wife to the husband, while in Germany the gift was made by the husband to the wife.
There was indeed in the Roman law what was termed donatio propter nuptias, a gift from the family of the husband, but this was only required if the dos were brought on the part of the wife. So too in the special instance of a widow of a husband rich at the time of his death, an ordinance of the Christian Emperor Justinian secured her the right to a part of her husband's property, of which no disposition of his could deprive her; the general establishment of the principle of dower in the customary law of Western Europe, according to Maine, is to be traced t
House of Sverre
The House of Sverre was a royal house or dynasty which ruled, at various times in history, the Kingdom of Norway, hereunder the kingdom's realms, the Kingdom of Scotland. The house was founded with King Sverre Sigurdsson, it provided the rulers of Norway from 1184 to 1319. The house was founded with King Sverre Sigurdsson, who claimed to be an illegitimate son of King Sigurd Munn, when he was made King of Norway. After Sverre's death, his descendants would expand the influence and power of the dynasty. Under his grandson Haakon IV's rule, medieval Norway reached its peak, the civil war era ended, it was the start of a golden age in Norway. Margaret, Maid of Norway was a member of this family; the house replaced the Gille dynasty, was again replaced by the House of Bjelbo, which inherited Norway's throne. They were the last reigning family. See also: Coat of arms of NorwayThe main arms of the kings belonging to the House of Sverre, was a golden crowned lion on a red field; the lion was supplied with a silver axe symbolising Olaf the Holy.
This became the coat of arms of Norway. The rulers within the royal house or dynasty would have a "junior king" along with a "senior king". Here is a list of the rulers when the house held the power in Norway: Margaret, Maid of Norway Ingeborg of Norway List of Norwegian monarchs Norwegian Royal Family Norwegian nobility
Yolande of Dreux, Queen of Scotland
Yolande of Dreux was a sovereign Countess of Montfort from 1311 until 1322. Through her first marriage to Alexander III of Scotland, Yolande became Queen consort of the Kingdom of Scotland. Through her second marriage to Arthur II, Duke of Brittany, she became Duchess Consort of Brittany, she was the daughter of Robert IV, Count of Dreux, Beatrice, Countess of Montfort. Her father was a patrilineal descendant of King Louis VI of France, making her a member of a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty with powerful connections. In 1281, King Alexander III of Scotland lost his son David and two other children in the two following years, leaving his granddaughter, Maid of Norway, as his heir presumptive, he was in need to remarry to have a new heir to the throne. Yolande was the stepdaughter of Jean de Brienne, the second spouse of king Alexander's mother, queen dowager Marie de Coucy, considered a suitable match. Yolande was related to her husband Alexander III, through shared ancestry in the French noble houses of Coucy and Dreux.
In addition to providing an heir for the Kingdom of Scotland, Alexander's marriage to Yolande represented a move to distance Alexander from his neighbour Edward I of England and to emphasize Scottish independence from England. An embassy was sent from Scotland in February 1285 and returned with Yolande in the company of her brother Jean; the marriage was celebrated on 15 October 1285 at Jedburgh Abbey, attended by a great many nobles of France and Scotland. Alexander died on either 18 March or 19 March 1286, after falling from his horse, while riding from his court at Edinburgh to join Yolande at Kinghorn. Following his death, queen dowager Yolande moved to Stirling Castle and declared that she was pregnant; the Guardians of Scotland were elected by a parliament held at Scone and Kinross on 2 April or 28 April 1286 and swore to govern the kingdom until Alexander's declared heir Margaret of Norway arrived to take the throne or Yolande gave birth to a child who would be preferred over Margaret.
It is unclear. However, by one account the Guardians gathered at Clackmannan on Saint Catherine's Day — 25 November 1286 — to witness the birth, but the child was stillborn. Tradition says. After the queen dowager's pregnancy did not result in a living child, the council begun preparations for Margaret of Norway to be taken to Scotland as their new sovereign. Queen dowager Yolande remained in Scotland for a couple of years supported by her dower provisions and living at Stirling Castle: it is known that she was still in Scotland at least as late as in 1288. At some point, she returned to France. In May 1294, she married Arthur Duke of Brittany. Together they had at least six children. Arthur died in 1312, being succeeded by Duke of Brittany. Yolande succeeded her mother as suo jure Countess of Montfort in 1311, she continued to manage her Scottish affairs: as late as shortly before her death, she is noted to have sent a knight to Scotland to see to her dower lands. Yolande died on 2 August 1330, her county of Montfort passed to her son John, who would fight for his claim to his father's duchy in the Breton War of Succession.
Yolande and Arthur had at least six children: John, born c. 1294 Count of Montfort – known as Jean de Montfort Beatrice, born c. 1295, married Guy X of Laval Joan, born c. 1296, married Robert, son of Robert III of Flanders Alice, born c. 1297–1377, married Bouchard VI of Vendôme Blanche, born c. 1300, died young Marie, born c. 1302, entered a convent Duncan, A. A. M; the Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8 Macdougall, Norman, "L'Écosse à la fin du XIIIe sieclè: un royaume menacé" in James Laidlaw The Auld Alliance: France and Scotland over 700 Years. Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, 1999. ISBN 0-9534945-0-0 Marshall, Scottish Queens, 1034-1714 Richard Oram: The Kings and Queens of Scotland Timothy Venning: The Kings and Queens of Scotland Mike Ashley: British Kings and Queens Elizabeth Ewan, Sue Innes and Sian Reynolds: The Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Women Mike Ashley, The Chronicle of Lanercost 1272-1346