Hotchkiss is a statutory town in Delta County, United States. The population was 944 at the 2010 census. A post office called Hotchkiss has been in operation since 1882; the town has the name of a local pioneer. Hotchkiss is located in eastern Delta County at 38°47′57″N 107°43′1″W, on the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River. Colorado State Highway 92 passes through the center of town as Bridge Street, leading west 20 miles to Delta, the county seat, southeast 52 miles to U. S. Route 50 at Blue Mesa Reservoir. Colorado State Highway 133 starts at the east end of town and leads northeast 66 miles over McClure Pass to Carbondale. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town of Hotchkiss has a total area of 0.93 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 968 people, 412 households, 271 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,452.8 people per square mile. There were 451 housing units at an average density of 676.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.18% White, 1.03% Native American, 0.52% Asian, 3.51% from other races, 1.76% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.40% of the population. There were 412 households out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.91. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $28,056, the median income for a family was $31,989. Males had a median income of $31,635 versus $20,469 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,218. About 11.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.5% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over.
Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Delta County, Colorado Town of Hotchkiss official website Town of Hotchkiss contacts The Delta County Independent, local community weekly covering Hotchkiss and the rest of Delta County CDOT map of the Town of Hotchkiss
According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body structure. Disability is thus not just a health problem, it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities, it may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions medicine, view as needing to be fixed. It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.
Physiological functional capacity is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled; the discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits. For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia.
Contemporary understandings of disability derive from concepts that arose during the West's scientific Enlightenment. During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons, they were thought to be part of the natural order during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", "the maimed"; the European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments. Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed.
These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population and find their average, that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire; this idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, the Western European states during this time period, it is tied to the rise of eugenics. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, normalcy came from this; the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person's biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such "deviations" out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, d
The Town of Crawford is a Statutory Town in Delta County, United States. It is seventy highway miles southeast of Grand Junction; this town population was 431 at the 2010 United States Census. Crawford was founded in 1882; the town was named for George A. Crawford, governor-elect of Kansas and a founder of Grand Junction, Colorado. A post office has been in operation at Crawford since 1883. Crawford is located at 38°42′15″N 107°36′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.3 square miles, all of it land. The northern shore of Crawford Reservoir stands about a mile south; as of the census of 2000, there were 366 people, 147 households, 104 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,409.8 people per square mile. There were 179 housing units at an average density of 689.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.72% White, 1.64% from other races, 1.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.19% of the population.
There were 147 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 12.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.6% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $23,281, the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had a median income of $37,917 versus $16,563 for females; the per capita income for the town was $13,284. About 23.5% of families and 29.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 45.8% of those under age 18 and 15.9% of those age 65 or over.
Joe Cocker, singer Jeneve Rose Mitchell, American Idol contestant. Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Delta County, Colorado Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park CDOT map of the Town of Crawford The Delta County Independent, the local community weekly covering Crawford and the rest of Delta County
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing, known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, cardboard boxes. Such settlements are found on the periphery of cities, in public parks, or near railroad tracks, lagoons or city trash dump sites. Sometimes called a squatter, or spontaneous settlement, a typical shanty town lacks adequate infrastructure, including proper sanitation, safe water supply, hygienic streets, or other basic necessities to support human settlements. Shanty towns are found in developing nations, but in some parts of developed nations. Since construction is informal and unguided by urban planning, there is no formal street grid, house numbers, or named streets; such settlements lack some or all basic public services such as a sewage network, safe running water, rain water drainage, garbage removal, access to public transport, or insect and disease control services. If these resources are present, they are to be disorganized and poorly maintained.
Shanty towns tend to lack basic services present in more formally organized settlements, including policing, mail delivery, medical services, fire fighting. Fires are a particular danger for shanty towns not only for the lack of fire fighting stations and the difficulty fire trucks have traversing the settlement in the absence of formal street grids, but because of the high density of buildings and flammability of materials used in construction. A sweeping fire on the hills of Shek Kip Mei, Hong Kong, in late 1953 left 53,000 dwellers homeless, prompting the colonial government to institute a resettlement estate system. Shanty towns have high rates of crime, drug use, disease. However, Swiss journalist Georg Gerster has noted that "squatter settlements, despite their unattractive building materials, may be places of hope, scenes of a counter-culture, with an encouraging potential for change and a strong upward impetus". Stewart Brand has written, more that "squatter cities are Green, they have maximum density—a million people per square mile in Mumbai—and minimum energy and material use.
People get around by foot, rickshaw, or the universal shared taxi... Not everything is efficient in the slums, though. In the Brazilian favelas where electricity is stolen and therefore free, Jan Chipchase from Nokia found that people leave their lights on all day. In most slums recycling is a way of life." Shanty towns are present in a number of countries. The largest shanty town in Asia is Orangi in Pakistan. In francophone countries, shanty towns are referred to as bidonvilles. Other countries with shanty towns include South Africa or Imijondolo, the Philippines, Brazil, West Indies such as Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, Peru. There is a major shanty town population in countries such as Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China. Although shanty towns are less common in developed countries, there are some cities. While shanty towns are less common in Europe, the growing influx of immigrants have fueled shantytowns in cities used as a point of entry into the EU, including Athens and Patras in Greece.
In Madrid, Spain, a low-class neighborhood named Cañada Real has no formal education system, professional nurseries or modern health clinics and is considered the largest slum in Europe. In Portugal, shanty towns known as "barracas" or "bairros de lata" are made up of immigrants from former Portuguese African colonies and Roma from Eastern Europe. Most of them are located in Lisbon Metropolitan Area. In the United States, some cities such as Newark and Oakland have witnessed the creation of tent cities. Other settlements in developed countries that are comparable to shanty towns include the Colonias near the border with Mexico, bidonvilles in France, which may exist in the peripheries of some cities. In some cases, shanty towns can persist in gentrified areas that local governments have yet to redevelop, or in regions of political dispute. Examples of this include the Kowloon Walled City in Hong Kong. While most shanty towns begin as precarious establishments haphazardly thrown together without basic social and civil services, over time, some have undergone a certain amount of development.
The residents themselves are responsible for the major improvements. Community organizations sometimes working alongside NGOs, private companies, the government, set up connections to the municipal water supply, pave roads, build local schools; some of these shanties have become middle class suburbs. One such extreme example is the Los Olivos Neighborhood of Peru. Chameh is, one of Lima's largest, along with gated communities and plastic surgery clinics, are just a few of many developments that have transformed what used to be a decrepit shanty. A few Brazilian favelas have seen improvements in recent years, enough so to attract tourists who flock to catch a glimpse of the colorful lifestyle perched atop Rio de Janeiro's highlands. Development occurs over a long period of time and newer towns still lack basic services. There has been a general trend whereby shanties undergo gradual improvements, rather than
Barbara Jill Walters is an American broadcast journalist and television personality. Walters is known for having hosted a variety of television programs, including Today, The View, 20/20, the ABC Evening News. Since retirement as a full-time host and contributor, she continued to report for ABC News through 2015. Walters first became known as a television personality in the early 1960s, when she was a writer and segment producer of "women's interest stories" on the NBC News morning program The Today Show, where she began work with host Hugh Downs; as a result of her outstanding interviewing ability and her popularity with viewers, she received more airtime on the program. Though her production duties made her a significant contributor to the program, she had no input in choosing a successor for Downs when he left in 1971, Frank McGee was hired. In 1974, at the time of McGee's death, Walters became co-host of the program, the first woman to hold such a title on an American news program. In 1976, continuing as a pioneer for women in broadcasting, she became the first female co-anchor of a network evening news, working with Harry Reasoner on the ABC News flagship program, the ABC Evening News, earning an unprecedented US$1 million per year.
From 1979 to 2004, she worked as co-host and a producer for the ABC newsmagazine 20/20. In 1997, Walters created and debuted as a co-host on The View, a daytime talk show with an all-female panel, she retired as a co-host of The View in 2014 after 16 seasons, but still serves as its executive producer. Since her retirement from The View, she has hosted a number of special reports for 20/20 and ABC News, as well as a documentary series for Investigation Discovery. Additionally, Walters continued to host her annual 10 Most Fascinating People special on ABC, her final on-air appearance for ABC News was in 2015. In 1996, Walters was ranked #34 on the TV Guide "50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time" list, in 2000 she received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. Barbara Walters was born in 1929 in Boston to Louis "Lou" Walters, her parents were both Jewish, descendants of refugees from the former Russian Empire. Walters' paternal grandfather, Abraham Isaac Warmwater, was born in Łódź, emigrated to the United Kingdom, changing his name to Abraham Walters.
Walters' father, was born in London c. 1896 and moved to New York with his father and two brothers, arriving August 28, 1909. His mother and four sisters arrived in 1910. In 1949, her father opened the New York version of the Latin Quarter, he worked as a Broadway producer where he produced the Ziegfeld Follies of 1943. He was the Entertainment Director for the Tropicana Resort and Casino in Las Vegas, where he imported the "Folies Bergère" stage show from Paris to the resort's main showroom. Walters' brother, died in 1944 of pneumonia. Walters' elder sister, was born mentally disabled and died of ovarian cancer in 1985. According to Walters, her father made and lost several fortunes throughout his life in show business, he was a booking agent, unlike her uncles who were in the shoe and dress business, his job was not safe. During the good times, Walters recalls her father taking her to the rehearsals of the night club shows he directed and produced; the actresses and dancers would twirl her around until she was dizzy.
She said her father would take her out for hot dogs, their favorite. According to Walters, being surrounded by celebrities when she was young kept her from being "in awe" of them; when she was a young woman, Walters' father lost his night clubs and the family's penthouse on Central Park West. As Walters recalled, "He had a breakdown, he went down to live in our house in Florida, the government took the house, they took the car, they took the furniture." Of her mother, she said, "My mother should have married the way her friends did, to a man, a doctor or, in the dress business."Walters attended Lawrence School, a public school in Brookline, Massachusetts, to the middle of fifth grade, when her father moved the family to Miami Beach in 1939, where she attended public school. After her father moved the family to New York City, she went to eighth grade at Ethical Culture Fieldston School, after which the family moved back to Miami Beach, she went back to New York City, where she attended Birch Wathen School from which she graduated in 1947.
In 1951 she received a B. A. in English from Sarah Lawrence College and looked for work in New York City. After about a year at a small advertising agency, she began working at the NBC network affiliate in New York City, WNBT-TV, doing publicity and writing press releases, she began producing a 15-minute children's program, Ask the Camera, directed by Roone Arledge in 1953. She began producing for TV host Igor Cassini/Cholly Knickerbocker. However, she left the network after her boss pressured her to marry him and engaged in a fist-fight with a man she preferred to date, she went to WPIX to produce the Eloise McElhone Show. She became a writer on The Morning Show at CBS in 1955. After a few years as a publicist with Tex McCrary Inc. and a job as a writer at Redbook magazine, Walters joined NBC's The Today Show as a writer and researcher in 1961. She moved up to become that show's regular "Today Girl," handling lighter assignments and the weather. In her autobiography, she describes this era before the Women's Movement as a time when it was believed that nobody would take a woman reporti
Marquette University is a private research university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Established by the Society of Jesus as Marquette College on August 28, 1881, it was founded by John Martin Henni, the first Bishop of Milwaukee; the university was named after 17th-century missionary and explorer Father Jacques Marquette, with the intention to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population. An all-male institution, Marquette became the first coed Catholic university in the world in 1909, when it began admitting its first female students. Marquette is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and has a student body of about 12,000. Marquette is one of the largest Jesuit universities in the United States, the largest private university in Wisconsin. Marquette is organized into 11 schools and colleges at its main Milwaukee campus, offering programs in the liberal arts, communications, engineering and various health sciences disciplines.
The university administers classes in suburbs around the Milwaukee area and in Washington, DC. While most students are pursuing undergraduate degrees, the university has over 68 doctoral and masters degree programs, a law school, a dental school, 22 graduate certificate programs; the university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Golden Eagles, are members of the Big East Conference and compete in the NCAA's Division I in all sports. In 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Marquette #89 among national universities. Forbes ranked Marquette #86 among American research universities and #173 on its top colleges list in 2017. Marquette University was founded 138 years ago on August 28, 1881, as Marquette College by John Martin Henni, the first Catholic bishop of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee, with the assistance of funding from Belgian businessman Guillaume Joseph DeBuey; the university was named after explorer Father Jacques Marquette. The highest priority of the newly established college was to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population.
The first five graduates of Marquette College received their bachelor of arts degrees in 1887. Between 1891 and 1906, the college employed one full-time lay professor, with many classes being taught by master's students. By 1906, Marquette had awarded 186 students the Bachelor of Arts, 38 the Master of Arts, one student Bachelor of Science. Marquette College became a university in 1907, after it became affiliated with a local medical school and moved to its present location. Johnston Hall, which now houses the university's College of Communication, was the first building erected on the new campus grounds. Marquette University High School the preparatory department of the university, became a separate institution the same year. In 1908, Marquette opened an engineering college and purchased two law schools, which would become the foundation of its current law program. An all-male institution, Marquette University became the first coed Catholic university in the world, when it admitted its first female students in 1909.
By 1916 its female students had increased to 375. Marquette acquired the Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1913, leading to the formation of the Marquette University School of Medicine. During the 1920s and again during the post-World War II years, Marquette expanded, opening a new library, athletics facilities, classroom buildings, residence halls; the student population increased markedly as well, met by the construction of buildings for the schools of law, business and the liberal arts. Marquette is credited with offering the first degree program specializing in hospital administration in the United States, graduated the first two students in 1927. Despite the promising growth of the university, financial constraints led to the School of Medicine separating from Marquette in 1967 to become the Medical College of Wisconsin. Marquette's Golden Avalanche football team was disbanded in December 1960, basketball became the leading spectator sport at the university. Graduate programs in the liberal arts and sciences, for which planning had begun in the preceding decade, were opened in the 1970s.
In 1977, the university celebrated the victory of their men's basketball team over the University of North Carolina to win the NCAA Championship title. In 1994, then-President Albert J. DiUlio made a controversial decision to discontinue the use of the "Warriors" nickname for the university's sports teams, citing growing pressure on schools to end the use of Native American mascots. Backlash from alumni and students ensued, though the administration and Marquette community settled on the nickname "Golden Eagles." The mascot controversy again boiled over in 2005 when the university's leadership changed the nickname to "the Gold," only to return to the "Golden Eagles" a week later. During the 1990s, the university invested in the neighborhood surrounding Marquette with its $50 million Campus Circle Project, it opened a Washington, D. C.-based study center called the Les Aspin Center for Government, named after the former Secretary of Defense. MBA programs and the College of Professional Studies, with programs aimed at adult education, were founded during the mid-1990s.
In 1996, Robert A. Wild was installed as the university's 22nd president and shortly thereafter began a fundraising campaign that culminated in a major campus beautification effort and the construction of
The Lincoln Tunnel is an 1.5-mile-long tunnel under the Hudson River, connecting Weehawken, New Jersey on the west bank with Midtown Manhattan in New York City on the east bank. It was named after Abraham Lincoln; the tunnel consists of three vehicular tubes of varying lengths, with two traffic lanes in each tube. The center tube contains reversible lanes, while the northern and southern tubes carry westbound and eastbound traffic, respectively; the Lincoln Tunnel was proposed in the late 1920s and early 1930s as the Midtown Hudson Tunnel. The tubes of the Lincoln Tunnel were constructed in stages between 1934 and 1957. Construction of the central tube, which lacked sufficient funding due to the Great Depression, started in 1934 and it opened in 1937; the northern tube started construction in 1936, was delayed due to World War II-related material shortages, opened in 1945. Although the original plans for the Lincoln Tunnel called for two tubes, a third tube to the south of the existing tunnels was planned in 1950 due to high traffic demand on the other two tubes.
The third tube started construction in 1954, with the delay attributed to disputes over tunnel approaches, it opened in 1957. Since the Lincoln Tunnel has undergone a series of gradual improvements, including changes to security and tolling methods; the Lincoln Tunnel is one of two automobile tunnels built under the Hudson River, the other being the Holland Tunnel between Jersey City, New Jersey and Lower Manhattan. The Lincoln Tunnel is one of six tolled crossings in the New York area owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey; the tolls on each crossing are only collected in the eastbound direction. As of 2016, both directions of the tunnel carry a combined average of 112,995 vehicular crossings every day; the tunnel is part of New Jersey Route 495 on the western half of the river, New York State Route 495 on the eastern half of the river. However, the New York state highway designation is not signed, its use is inconsistent in official documents; the three tubes, operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, comprise six traffic lanes in total and carry a combined total of 113,000 vehicles per day as of 2016.
In 2017, there were 19,039,210 tolls collected in the eastbound direction. Although the center tube provides one travel lane in each direction, both of the travel lanes in the tunnel's center tube are reversible and can be configured for peak-hour traffic demand if needed; the northern and southern tubes carry westbound and eastbound traffic exclusively. Only motor traffic uses the tunnel, but every year, a few bicycle tours and foot races pass through by special arrangement; each tube provides 13 feet of vertical clearance. Most vehicles carrying hazmats are not allowed in the tunnel, trucks cannot use the center tube. There is a width limit of 8 feet 6 inches for vehicles entering the tunnel. Although the three portals are side by side in New Jersey, the north tube portal is one block west of the other two tubes' portals in New York City; the north tube's eastern portal is near Eleventh Avenue between 38th and 39th Streets, while the center and south tubes emerge side by side at Tenth Avenue between 38th and 39th Streets.
As a result, the three tubes are of different lengths. The longest tube is the 8,216-foot center tube; the northern tube is 7,482 feet long, this difference arises because the location of its portal in Manhattan is located a block west of the other two tunnels' portals. Emergency services at the Lincoln Tunnel are provided by the Port Authority's Tunnel and Bridge Agents, who are stationed at the Port Authority's crossings, they maintain various apparatus such as fire trucks, rescue trucks, wreckers for serious incidents. Port Authority workers use cameras to monitor the tunnel; the main approach road on the New Jersey side is New Jersey Route 495, a state highway running in a west–east direction within an open cut through Union City. The New Jersey approach roadway, locally known as the "Helix" and as the "Corkscrew", turns in a three-quarters circle before arriving at the tollbooths in front of the tunnel portals; this is because of the steep King's Bluff ledge in Union City, located right above the tunnel portal.
The helix roadway descends over a distance of 4,000 feet. NJ 495 approaches the Helix from the west. To the east of the JFK Boulevard East overpass, the roadway of NJ 495 curves to the south and starts its descent. At this point, the westbound direction has a northbound ramp that diverges to two streets: northbound JFK Boulevard East, northbound Park Avenue. Both directions of NJ 495 continue south onto a rock shelf and onto a viaduct, which descends before turning west and north. While it curves west, the helix crosses JFK Boulevard East again, this time in an east-to-west direction; as the viaduct turns north, Park Avenue begins to follow the viaduct along its west side. The two directions split, the ramp from the center tube to southbound Park Avenue rise between the two directions of traffic; the ramp from northbound Park Avenue to the eastbound tunnel merges to the outside of the viaduct, while the ramp from the westbound tunnel to southbound Park Avenue dips into a short tunnel underneath the avenue.
The avenue itself ascends King's Bluff in a straight line from south to north. As Park Avenue continues to ascend the ledge, the viaduct descends to ground level, where there is a toll