Joan of France, Duchess of Berry
Joan of France, was Queen of France as wife of King Louis XII, in between the death of her brother, King Charles VIII, the annulment of her marriage. After that, she retired to her domain, where she soon founded the monastic Order of the Sisters of the Annunciation of Mary, where she served as abbess. From this Order sprang the religious congregation of the Apostolic Sisters of the Annunciation, founded in 1787 to teach the children of the poor, she was canonized on 28 May 1950 and is known in the Roman Catholic Church as Saint Joan of Valois, O. Ann. M.. Joan was born on 23 April 1464 in the castle of Pierre II de Brézé, a trusted supporter of her grandfather, King Charles VII of France, at Nogent-le-Roi in the County of Dreux, she was the second daughter of King Louis XI of France and of his second wife Charlotte of Savoy. Shortly after her birth, the king signed an agreement to marry her to his second cousin Louis, the Duke of Orléans King Louis XII of France, aged two at the time. Joan was born sickly and deformed.
In Women Saints – Lives of Faith and Courage, Kathleen Jones says that Joan had a hump on her back and walked with a limp, suggesting that she had curvature of the spine. Away on royal duties, King Louis entrusted his daughters and Anne, to the Baron François de Linières and his wife, Anne de Culan; the couple, who were childless, lavished affection on Joan. Taking charge of her education, they had her taught both poetry and mathematics, painting and how to play the lute; the couple were faithful Catholics and instilled in the members of their household a solid grounding in the faith. At a young age, her father asked her to name the confessor, she gave him the only name she knew, that of Friar Jean de La Fontaine, Guardian of the Franciscan friary in Amboise. The king appointed the friar to this post. Despite the distance between them, he would travel to hear the princess's confession. Joan began to develop a strong pleasure in prayer, would pass long periods in the castle chapel; the baron supported her in this and had a path paved between the castle and the chapel built for easier walking in poor weather.
Under the friar's guidance she was admitted into the Third Order of St. Francis. In 1471 King Louis XI ordered the practice of praying the Hail Mary throughout the kingdom for peace. Joan had a strong attachment to this particular prayer, she would write that it was in that same year that she had received a prophecy from the Virgin Mary that some day she would found a religious community in honor of Our Lady. In 1473 King Louis had signed marriage contracts for his daughters. On 8 September 1476, at the age of 12, Joan was married to the young Louis, Duke of Orléans in Montrichard. Louis of Orléans was compelled to be married to his handicapped and sterile cousin Joan. By doing so, Louis XI hoped to extinguish the Orléans cadet branch of the House of Valois. Louis was displeased at the forced marriage, his treatment of his new wife reflected this. King Louis died in 1483 and was succeeded by his son Charles, but as he was still a child, his sister, Anne de Beaujeu, was made Regent of the kingdom.
By 1484, the duke had begun a series of military campaigns against the kingdom. This lasted until 1488. During this period, he fathered an illegitimate son, Michel de Bussy, appointed the Bishop of Bourges. Joan administered his domain during his imprisonment the Italian cities of Milan and Asti. Joan, imagining virtues in her husband that did not exist, exerted herself to mitigate his sufferings and to get him freed. Duke Louis was released in 1491. Within a few years, he accompanied King Charles in his military campaign in Italy; when Louis ascended to the throne in April 1498 after the accidental death of Joan's brother, King Charles VIII, he appealed to the pope to have the marriage annulled in order to marry the late king's widow, Anne of Brittany, in the hope of annexing the Duchy of Brittany to the French Crown. In what has been described as "one of the seamiest lawsuits of the age", Louis did not, as might be expected, argue the marriage to be void due to consanguinity. Louis argued that he had been below the legal age of consent to marry and that the marriage had never been consummated due to her physical deformity, provided a rich variety of detail as to how she was malformed.
Joan, fought this uncertain charge fiercely, producing witnesses to Louis boasting of having "mounted my wife three or four times during the night." Louis claimed that his sexual performance had been inhibited by witchcraft. Joan would have won, for Louis's case was exceedingly weak, however Pope Alexander VI was committed for political reasons to grant the annulment; the commission of investigation appointed by the pope established that the marriage with Joan was invalid for lack of consent and that it never had been consummated. Accordingly, he ruled against the Queen; the annulment was declared on 15 December 1498. Joan stepped aside, she was retired to Bourges, capital of the duchy. Once settled in her new domain, Joan confided to her spiritual director, the Blessed Gabriel Mary, O. F. M, her call to monastic life. He supported her in this venture, she began to make plans for the Order of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a new enclosed
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Alain Chartier was a French poet and political writer. He was born to a family marked by considerable ability, his eldest brother Guillaume became bishop of Paris. Alain studied, his earliest poem is the Livre des quatre dames, written after the battle of Agincourt. This was followed by the Débat du reveille-matin, La Belle Dame sans Mercy, others, he followed the fortunes of the dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, acting in the triple capacity of clerk and financial secretary. In 1422 he wrote the famous Quadrilogue invectif; the interlocutors in this dialogue are the three orders of the state. Chartier lays bare the abuses of the sufferings of the peasants, he rendered an immense service to his country by maintaining that the cause of France, though desperate to all appearance, was not yet lost if the contending factions could lay aside their differences in the face of the common enemy. In 1424 Chartier was sent on an embassy to Germany, three years he accompanied to Scotland the mission sent to negotiate the marriage of James I's daughter, Margaret not four years old, with the dauphin, afterwards Louis XI.
In 1429 he wrote the Livre de l'Espérance, which contains a fierce attack on the nobility and clergy. He was the author of a diatribe on the courtiers of Charles VII. entitled Le Curial, translated into English by William Caxton about 1484. The date of his death is to be placed about 1430. A Latin epitaph, discovered in the 18th century, however, that he was Archdeacon of Paris, declares that he died in the city of Avignon in 1449; this is not authentic, for Alain described himself as a simple clerc and died long before 1449. The story of the famous kiss bestowed by Margaret of Scotland on la précieuse bouche de laquelle sont issus et sortis tant de bons mots et vertueuses paroles is mythical, for Margaret did not come to France till 1436, after the poet's death. Jean de Masies, who annotated a portion of his verse, has recorded how the pages and young gentlemen of that epoch were required daily to learn by heart passages of his Breviaire des nobles. John Lydgate studied him affectionately, his Belle Dame sans mercy was translated into English in the 15th century by Sir Richard Ros, with an introduction of his own.
The English Romantic poet John Keats famously wrote the ballad'La Belle Dame Sans Merci', using the title from Alain Chartier. Discours au roi sur les libertés de l'Église. Alain Chartier, Baudet Herenc and Achille Caulier, Le Cycle de la Belle Dame sans Mercy: une anthologie poétique du XVe siècle, Edition bilingue établie, traduite, présentée et annotée par David F. Hult et Joan E. McRae. Paris: Champion, 2003. Biographical references: https://web.archive.org/web/20120426075432/http://www.forlang.mtsu.edu/alain/bibliography.html
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. A monarch either inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch reigns for life or until abdication. If a young child is crowned the monarch, a regent is appointed to govern until the monarch reaches the requisite adult age to rule. Monarchs' actual powers vary from one monarchy in different eras. A monarch can reign in multiple monarchies simultaneously. For example, the monarchy of Canada and the monarchy of the United Kingdom are separate states, but they share the same monarch through personal union. Monarchs, as such, bear a variety of titles – king or queen, prince or princess, emperor or empress, duke or grand duke, emir or sultan.
Prince is sometimes used as a generic term to refer to any monarch regardless of title in older texts. A king can be a queen's husband and a queen can be a king's wife. If both of the couple reign, neither person is considered to be a consort. Monarchy is political or sociocultural in nature, is associated with hereditary rule. Most monarchs, both and in the present day, have been born and brought up within a royal family and trained for future duties. Different systems of succession have been used, such as proximity of blood, agnatic seniority, Salic law, etc. While traditionally most monarchs have been male, female monarchs have ruled, the term queen regnant refers to a ruling monarch, as distinct from a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king; some monarchies are non-hereditary. In an elective monarchy, the monarch otherwise serves as any other monarch. Historical examples of elective monarchy include the Holy Roman Emperors and the free election of kings of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Modern examples include the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, appointed by the Conference of Rulers every five years or after the king's death, the pope of the Roman Catholic Church, who serves as sovereign of the Vatican City State and is elected to a life term by the College of Cardinals. In recent centuries, many states have become republics. Advocacy of government by a republic is called republicanism, while advocacy of monarchy is called monarchism. A principal advantage of hereditary monarchy is the immediate continuity of national leadership, as illustrated in the classic phrase "The King is dead. Long live the King!". In cases where the monarch serves as a ceremonial figure real leadership does not depend on the monarch. A form of government may in fact be hereditary without being considered monarchy, such as a family dictatorship. Monarchies take a wide variety of forms, such as the two co-princes of Andorra, positions held by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Urgel and the elected President of France.
The Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia is considered a monarch despite only holding the position for five years at a time. Hereditary succession within one patrilineal family has been most common, with preference for children over siblings, sons over daughters. In Europe, some peoples practiced equal division of land and regalian rights among sons or brothers, as in the Germanic states of the Holy Roman Empire, until after the medieval era and sometimes into the 19th century. Other European realms practice one form or another of primogeniture, whereunder a lord was succeeded by his eldest son or, if he had none, by his brother, his daughters or sons of daughters; the system of tanistry was semi-elective and gave weight to ability and merit. The Salic law, practiced in France and in the Italian territories of the House of Savoy, stipulated that only men could inherit the crown. In most fiefs, in the event of the demise of all legitimate male members of the patrilineage, a female of the family could succeed.
In most realms and sisters were eligible to succeed a ruling kinsman before more distant male relatives, but sometimes the husband of the heiress became the ruler, most also received the title, jure uxoris. Spain today continues this model of succession law, in the form of cognatic primogeniture. In more complex medieval cases, the sometimes conflicting principles of proximity and primogeniture battled, outcomes were idiosyncratic; as the average life span increased, an eldest son was more to reach majority age before the death of his father, primogeniture became favoured over proximity, tanistry and election. In 19
A corset is a garment worn to hold and train the torso into a desired shape, traditionally a smaller waist or larger bottom, for aesthetic or medical purposes, to improve posture, or support the breasts. Both men and women are known to wear corsets, though this item was for many years an integral part of women's wardrobes. Since the late 20th century, the fashion industry has borrowed the term "corset" to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of traditional corsets without acting as them. While these modern corsets and corset tops feature lacing or boning, imitate an historical style of corsets, they have little, if any, effect on the shape of the wearer's body. Genuine corsets are made by a corsetmaker and are fitted to the individual wearer; the word corset is derived from the Old French word corps and the diminutive of body, which itself derives from corpus. The craft of corset construction is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them.. Someone who makes corsets is a corsetier or corsetière, or sometimes a corsetmaker.
In 1828, the word corset came into general use in the English language. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine to describe a "quilted waistcoat" that the French called un corset, it was used to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period. The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women, this most emphasizes a curvy figure by reducing the waist and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However, in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular straight-up-and-down shape, which involved minimizing the bust and hips. For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However, there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 – and until the late 1840s in some instances – when a wasp-waisted figure was desirable for men. An "overbust corset" encloses the torso. An "underbust corset" extends down toward the hips. A "longline corset" -- either overbust or underbust -- extends past the hip bone.
A longline corset is ideal for those who want increased stability, have longer torsos, or want to smooth out their hips. A "standard" length corset will stop short of the iliac crest and is ideal for those who want increased flexibility or have a shorter torso; some corsets, in rare instances, reach the knees. A shorter kind of corset that covers the waist area, is called a waist cincher. A corset may include garters to hold up stockings. Traditionally, a corset supports the visible dress and spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the crinoline and bustle. At times, a corset cover is used to protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines of the corset; the original corset cover was worn under the corset to provide a layer between the body. Corsets were not worn next to the skin due to difficulties with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they had steel boning and metal eyelets that would rust; the corset cover was in the form of a light chemise, made from cotton lawn or silk.
Modern corset wearers may wear corset liners for many of the same reasons. Those who lace their corsets use the liners to prevent burn on their skin from the laces. People with spinal problems, such as scoliosis, or with internal injuries, may be fitted with a back brace, similar to a corset. However, a back brace is not the same thing as a corset; this is made of plastic and or metal. A brace is used to push the curves so that they don't progress, sometimes they lower the curves. Braces are used in children and adolescents, as they have a higher chance of the curves getting worse. Artist Andy Warhol was shot in 1968 and never recovered. Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are used in sexual fetishism, most notably in BDSM activities. In BDSM, a submissive may be required to wear a corset, which would be laced tightly and restrict the wearer to some degree. A dominant may wear a corset black, but for different reasons, such as aesthetics. A specially designed corset, in which the breasts and vulva are exposed, can be worn during vanilla sex or BDSM activities.
Corsets are constructed of a flexible material stiffened with boning inserted into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 18th and early 19th century, thin strips of baleen were favoured for the boning. Plastic is now the most used material for lightweight, faux corsets and the majority of poor-quality corsets. Spring and/or spiral steel is preferred for stronger and better quality corsets. Other materials used for boning have included ivory and cane. Corsets are held together by lacing at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset. Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the middle. In the
A favourite or favorite was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In post-classical and early-modern Europe, among other times and places, the term was used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler, it was a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe in Spain, England and Sweden; the term is sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress", "friend", "companion", or "lover". Several favourites had sexual relations with the monarch, but the feelings of the monarch for the favourite ran the gamut from a simple faith in the favourite's abilities to various degrees of emotional affection and dependence, sometimes encompassed sexual infatuation; the term has an inbuilt element of disapproval and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince", citing Shakespeare: "Like favourites/ Made proud by Princes".
Favourites tended to incur the envy and loathing of the rest of the nobility, monarchs were sometimes obliged by political pressure to dismiss or execute them. Too close a relationship between monarch and favourite was seen as a breach of the natural order and hierarchy of society. Since many favourites had flamboyant "over-reaching" personalities, they led the way to their own downfall with their rash behaviour; as the opinions of the gentry and bourgeoisie grew in importance, they too strongly disliked favourites. Dislike from all classes could be intense in the case of favourites who were elevated from humble, or at least minor, backgrounds by royal favour. Titles and estates were given lavishly to favourites, who were compared to mushrooms because they sprang up overnight, from a bed of excrement; the King's favourite Piers Gaveston is a "night-grown mushrump" to his enemies in Christopher Marlowe's Edward II. Their falls could be more sudden, but after about 1650, executions tended to give way to quiet retirement.
Favourites who came from the higher nobility, such as Leicester, Lerma and Oxenstierna, were less resented and lasted longer. Successful minister-favourites usually needed networks of their own favourites and relatives to help them carry out the work of government – Richelieu had his "créatures" and Olivares his "hechuras". Oxenstierna and William Cecil, who both died in office trained their sons to succeed them; the favourite can not be distinguished from the successful royal administrator, who at the top of the tree needed the favour of the monarch, but the term is used of those who first came into contact with the monarch through the social life of the court, rather than the business of politics or administration. Figures like William Cecil and Jean-Baptiste Colbert, whose accelerated rise through the administrative ranks owed much to their personal relations with the monarch, but who did not attempt to behave like grandees of the nobility, were often successful. Elizabeth I had Cecil as Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from the time she ascended the throne in 1558 until his death 40 years later.
She had more colourful relationships with several courtiers. Only in her last decade was the position of the Cecils and son, challenged by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, when he fatally attempted a coup against the younger Cecil. Cardinal Wolsey was one figure who rose through the administrative hierarchy, but lived ostentatiously, before falling from power. In the Middle Ages in particular, many royal favourites were promoted in the church, English examples including Saints Dunstan and Thomas Becket. Cardinal Granvelle, like his father, was a trusted Habsburg minister who lived grandly, but he was not a favourite because most of his career was spent away from the monarch; some favourites came from humble backgrounds: Archibald Armstrong, jester to James I of England infuriated everyone else at court but managed to retire a wealthy man. Olivier le Daim, the barber of Louis XI, acquired a title and important military commands before he was executed on vague charges brought by nobles shortly after his master died, without the knowledge of the new king.
It has been claimed that le Daim's career was the origin of the term, as favori first appeared around the time of his death in 1484. Privado in Spanish was older, but was partly replaced by the term valido; such rises from menial positions became progressively harder.