Duchy of Styria
The Duchy of Styria was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, margrave Ottokar IV thereby became the first Duke of Styria and the last of the ancient Otakar dynasty. Upon his death in 1192, Styria as stipulated fell to the Babenberg duke Leopold V of Austria, the Austrian Babenbergs became extinct in 1246, when Duke Frederick II the Quarrelsome was killed in battle against King Béla IV of Hungary. It passed quickly through the hands of Hungary in 1254, until the Bohemian king Ottokar II Přemysl conquered it, rudolph finally defeated Ottokar at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, seized Austria and Styria and granted them to his sons Albert I and Rudolf II. The House of Habsburg provided Styria with dukes of their lineage ever since, in 1456 they could significantly enlarge the Styrian territory by acquisition of the comital Celje estates in Lower Styria. Both duchies were ruled in personal union, when Leopolds grandson Frederick V inherited Austria in 1457.
In 1496 Fredericks son Maximilian I signed an order expelling all Jews from Styria, in 1512 the duchy joined the Empires Austrian Circle. A second Inner Austrian cadet branch of the Habsburgs ruled over Styria from 1564, the Protestant population was expelled, including the astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1600. Meanwhile, at the time of the Ottoman invasions in the 16th and 17th centuries after the 1526 Battle of Mohács, Styria remained a part of the Habsburg Monarchy and from 1804 belonged to the Austrian Empire. He forwarded the construction of the Semmering railway to Mürzzuschlag and the Austrian Southern Railway line from Vienna to Trieste completed in 1857, history of Styria Map of the Balkans, 1815–59, showing the Duchy of Styria
Henry (VII) of Germany
Henry, a member of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was King of Sicily from 1212 until 1217 and King of Germany from 1220 until 1235, as son and co-ruler of Emperor Frederick II. He was the seventh Henry to rule Germany, but in order to avoid confusion with the Luxembourg emperor Henry VII, Henry was born in Sicily, the only son of King Frederick II and his first wife, Constance of Aragon. His maternal grandparents were Alfonso II of Aragon and Sancha of Castile and he was the elder brother of Conrad IV, who eventually succeeded him as king. For this, the regency of the Sicilian kingdom went to his mother Constance and not to his father. However, after the death of the Pope in 1216, Frederick called his son to Germany, entrusted him with the Duchy of Swabia, Henrys mother remained as regent in Sicily, now on behalf of her husband, until 1220. After the extinction of the Swabian Zähringen line in 1219 Henry received their title of a Rector of Burgundy, though that title disappeared when Henry was elected king.
The election had been a condition to Frederick II redeeming his Crusade promises of 1215, because the succession question, in case of the emperors death on the crusade, was clarified by them. However, Pope Honorius III did not recognize the election and deprived Henry of his rights over the Sicilian kingdom, numerous German princes had rejected the election in the first moment. After Frederick II returned to Italy in 1220, Henry was placed under the tutelage of Archbishop Engelbert I of Cologne, after Engelberts death in 1225, Duke Louis I of Bavaria took over the guardianship. The young King was mostly in the care of imperial ministeriales and they acted as administrators over his Swabian duchy. In the meanwhile, the betrothal between Henry and the Bohemian princess was cancelled, in Nürnberg on 29 November 1225, by order of his father, Henry married Margaret of Babenberg, daughter of Duke Leopold VI of Austria, a woman seven years older than he was. Sixteen months later, on 23 March 1227, she was crowned German queen in Aachen, the marriage produced two sons and Frederick, who both died at a young age.
Henry seems to have been a lively, cultured ruler and kept many Minnesänger at his court and it is possible he wrote some Minnelieder himself. He was physically robust, although lame, and about 1.66 m tall, in 1228, he had a falling-out with Duke Louis of Bavaria, who was suspected of plotting with Pope Gregory IX against Emperor Frederick II. Around Christmas of that year, Henry took over the rule for himself, forced Louis to submit, the emperor was dependent on the support of the princes for his Italian policies against the Pope. In 1232, Frederick came to terms with Pope Gregory, confirmed the Statutum, in the same year, Henry renewed the league between the Hohenstaufen and the French royal Capetian dynasty. In the following year he entered into a conflict with the House of Wittelsbach and subdued Otto II of the Palatinate, fearing the discontent of the German princes, demanded the release of all hostages. In 1233/34, Henry made his father angry again, Pope Gregory IX, who had authorised the crusade, excommunicated Henry
Kingdom of Germany
The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of the eastern half of the former Carolingian Empire. Like Anglo-Saxon England and medieval France, it began as a conglomerate, East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, the formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire. The term rex teutonicorum first came into use in the chancery of Pope Gregory VII during the Investiture Controversy, in the twelfth century, in order to stress the imperial and transnational character of their office, the emperors began to employ the title rex Romanorum on their election. Distinct titulature for Germany and Burgundy, which traditionally had their own courts, there are nevertheless relatively few references to a German realm and an instability in the terms use. The eastern division of the Treaty of Verdun was called the regnum Francorum Orientalium or Francia Orientalis and it was the eastern half of the old Merovingian regnum Austrasiorum.
The east Franks themselves were the people of Franconia, which had settled by Franks. Foreign kings and ecclesiastics continued to refer to the regnum Alemanniae, the term regnum Germaniae begins to appear even in German sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century. Therefore, throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the king of Germany was Emperor of the Romans and his title was royal from his election to his coronation in Rome by the Pope, thereafter, he was emperor. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, the trend toward a clearly conceived German kingdom found no real consolidation. The title of king of the Romans became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome, the reign was dated to begin either on the day of election or the day of the coronation. The election day became the starting date permanently with Sigismund, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in 1508, with papal approval, after his German coronation, his style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator electus semper augustus.
That is, he was emperor elect, a term that did not imply that he was emperor-in-waiting or not yet fully emperor, at the same time, the custom of having the heir-apparent elected as king of the Romans in the emperors lifetime resumed. For this reason, the king of the Romans came to mean heir-apparent. The Archbishop of Mainz was ex officio arch-chancellor of Germany, as his colleagues the Archbishop of Cologne and Archbishop of Trier were, arch-chancellors of Italy and these titles continued in use until the end of the empire, but only the German chancery actually existed. The tripartite division of the Carolingian Empire effected by the Treaty of Verdun was challenged early on with the death of the Emperor Lothair I in 855. He had divided his kingdom of Middle Francia between his three sons and immediately the northernmost of the three divisions, was disputed between the kings of East and West Francia, the war over Lotharingia lasted until 925
The word excommunication means putting a specific individual or group out of communion. In some religions, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group, Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the religion, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. 1 Corinthians 5, 1-8 directs the church at Corinth to excommunicate a man for sexual immorality, in 2 Corinthians 2, 5-11, the man, having repented and suffered the punishment by the majority is restored to the church. In Romans 16,17, Paul writes to mark those who cause divisions contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned and avoid them. Also, in 2 John 1, 10-11, the writer advises believers that whosoever transgresseth and he that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son. If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed, within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
Excommunication can be either latae sententiae or ferendae sententiae, according to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but simply forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities. g. A thus excommunicated bishop cannot validly invest a priest as pastor of a vacant parish and they are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life. These are the effects for those who have incurred a latae sententiae excommunication. Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure, in many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary and these can delegate a priest to act on their behalf.
Such ceremonies are not held today, and instead are simply announced by the bishop, interdict is a censure similar to excommunication. It too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, in the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between minor and major excommunication and those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can even be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there, the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. They are to be removed from participation in the Divine Liturgy, and they are deprived of the right to vote or to be elected. Minor excommunication is roughly equivalent to the interdict in Western law, under current law, an excommunicate is never vitandus.
Persons belonging to an Eastern Catholic Church are never subject to a latae sententiae punishment, according to the Code of Canon Law of 1917, the excommunications reserved to the Apostolic See were grouped in three categories, those reserved 1
King of the Romans
King of the Romans was the title used by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope, the title originally referred to any elected king who had not yet been granted the Imperial Regalia and title of Emperor at the hands of the Pope. Later it came to be used solely for the apparent to the Imperial throne between his election and his succession upon the death of the Emperor. The territory of East Francia was not referred to as the Kingdom of Germany or Regnum Teutonicum by contemporary sources until the 11th century, during this time, the kings claim to coronation was increasingly contested by the papacy culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy. Pope Gregory VII insisted on using the derogatory term Teutonicorum Rex in order to imply that Henrys authority was merely local, Henry continued to regularly use the title Romanorum Rex until he finally was crowned Emperor by Antipope Clement III in 1084.
Henrys successors imitated this practice, and were called Romanorum Rex before, candidates for the kingship were at first the heads of the Germanic stem duchies. As these units broke up, rulers of principalities and even non-Germanic rulers were considered for the position. The only requirements generally observed were that the candidate be a male, a Catholic Christian. The kings were elected by several Imperial Estates, often in the city of Frankfurt after 1147. They were the Prince-Archbishops of Mainz and Cologne as well as the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Saxon duke, after the Investiture Controversy, Charles intended to strengthen the legal status of the Rex Romanorum beyond Papal approbation. Consequently, among his successors only Sigismund and Frederick III were still crowned Emperors in Rome, the Golden Bull remained effective as constitutional law until the Empires dissolution in 1806. After his election, the new king would be crowned as King of the Romans, though the ceremony was no more than a symbolic validation of the election result, it was solemnly celebrated.
The details of Ottos coronation in 936 are described by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey in his Res gestae saxonicae, the kings received the Imperial Crown from at least 1024, at the coronation of Conrad II. In 1198 the Hohenstaufen candidate Philip of Swabia was crowned Rex Romanorum at Mainz Cathedral, at some time after the ceremony, the king would, if possible, cross the Alps, to receive coronation in Pavia or Milan with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy. Finally, he would travel to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope, in such cases, the king might retain the title King of the Romans for his entire reign. At this time Maximilian took the new title King of the Germans or King in Germany, the following were ruling Kings of the Romans, i. e. men who ruled the Kingdom without subordination to another King but who had not yet been crowned Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire was an elective monarchy, no person had a legal right to the succession simply because he was related to the current Emperor.
However, the Emperor could, and often did, have an elected to succeed him after his death
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The title was revived in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne, some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, the office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although frequently controlled by dynasties. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806, after the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by Napoleon, before 1157, the realm was merely referred to as the Roman Empire.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, by the end of the 18th century, the term Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation had fallen out of official use. As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control, by the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel’s son Pepin became King of the Franks, the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768 Pepin’s son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an expansion of the realm. He eventually incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, on Christmas Day of 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor, restoring the title in the west for the first time in over three centuries. After the death of Charles the Fat in 888, the Carolingian Empire broke apart, according to Regino of Prüm, the parts of the realm spewed forth kinglets, and each part elected a kinglet from its own bowels.
After the death of Charles the Fat, those crowned emperor by the pope controlled only territories in Italy, the last such emperor was Berengar I of Italy, who died in 924. Around 900, autonomous stem duchies reemerged in East Francia, on his deathbed, Conrad yielded the crown to his main rival, Henry the Fowler of Saxony, who was elected king at the Diet of Fritzlar in 919. Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade, Henry died in 936, but his descendants, the Liudolfing dynasty, would continue to rule the Eastern kingdom for roughly a century. Upon Henry the Fowlers death, his son and designated successor, was elected King in Aachen in 936 and he overcame a series of revolts from an elder brother and from several dukes. After that, the managed to control the appointment of dukes. In 951, Otto came to the aid of Adelaide, the queen of Italy, defeating her enemies, marrying her. In 955, Otto won a victory over the Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld
Agnes of Bohemia
Agnes of Bohemia, O. S. C. known as Agnes of Prague, was a medieval Bohemian princess who opted for a life of charity, mortification of the flesh and piety over a life of luxury and comfort. Although she was venerated soon after her death, Agnes was not beatified or canonized for over 700 years, Agnes was the daughter of King Ottokar I of Bohemia, making her a descendant of Saint Ludmila and Saint Wenceslaus, patron saints of Bohemia. Agnes mother was Constance of Hungary, who was the sister of King Andrew II of Hungary, when she was three years old, Agnes was entrusted to the care of another aunt, St. Hedwig of Andechs, the wife of Duke Henry I the Bearded of Silesia. Hedwig placed her to be educated by a community of Cistercian nuns in a monastery which she herself had founded in Trzebnica, upon her return to Prague, Agnes was entrusted to a priory of Premonstratensian Canonesses to continue her education. At the age of eight, Agnes was betrothed to Henry, son of the Emperor Frederick II, Henry was ten years old and had just been crowned King of Germany.
According to custom, Agnes should have spent her childhood at her husbands court. Emperor Frederick, King of Sicily, had his court in Palermo, Agnes was sent to the court of Duke Leopold VI of Babenberg. Leopold, wanted the young Henry to marry his own daughter, after being betrothed for six years and Agness betrothal contract was cancelled. Like other noble women of her time, Agnes was a political pawn. In 1226, Agness father Ottokar went to war against the Babenbergs as a result of the cancelled betrothal, Ottokar planned for Agnes to marry Henry III of England, but this was vetoed by the Emperor, who wanted to marry Agnes himself. Agnes refused to play any part in a politically arranged marriage. She decided to devote her life to prayer and spiritual works, through them Agnes learned of Clare of Assisi and her Order of Poor Ladies, the monastic counterpart of the friars. She began a correspondence with Clare, which led to Clares sending five nuns from the monastery in Assisi to Prague to begin a new house of the Order and this was the first Poor Clare community north of the Alps.
Agnes built a monastery and friary complex attached to the hospital and it housed the Franciscan friars and the Poor Clare nuns who worked at the hospital. This religious complex was one of the first Gothic buildings in Prague, in 1235 Agnes gave the property of the Teutonic Knights in Bohemia to the hospital. She herself became a member of the Franciscan Poor Clares in 1236, as a nun, she cooked for and took care of the lepers and paupers personally, even after becoming abbess of the Prague Clares the following year. As can be seen in their correspondence, Clare wrote with deep feelings toward Agnes. That next year, Agnes handed over all authority over the hospital she had founded to these monastic Knights and they were recognized as an Order by Pope Gregory IX in 1252
Ottokar I of Bohemia
He was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty. Ottokars parents were Vladislaus II, Duke of Bohemia, and Judith of Thuringia and his early years were passed amid the anarchy that prevailed everywhere in the country. After several military struggles, he was recognized as ruler of Bohemia by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI in 1192 and he was, soon overthrown for joining a conspiracy of German princes to bring down the Hohenstaufen dynasty. In 1197, Ottokar forced his brother, Duke Vladislaus III Henry, to abandon Bohemia to him, taking advantage of the civil war in Germany between the Hohenstaufen claimant Philip of Swabia and the Welf candidate Otto IV, Ottokar declared himself King of Bohemia. This title was supported by Philip of Swabia, who needed Czech military support against Otto, in 1199, Ottokar divorced his wife Adelheid of Meissen, a member of the Wettin dynasty, in order to marry Constance of Hungary, the young daughter of Hungarian King Béla III. In 1200, with Otto IV in the ascendancy, Ottokar abandoned his pact with Philip of Swabia, both Otto and Pope Innocent III subsequently accepted Ottokar as the hereditary King of Bohemia.
Philips consequent invasion of Bohemia was successful, having been compelled to pay a fine, again ranged himself among Philips partisans and still was among the supporters of the young King Frederick II. In 1212 Frederick granted the Golden Bull of Sicily to Bohemia and this document recognised Ottokar and his heirs as Kings of Bohemia. The king was no subject to appointment by the emperor and was only required to attend Diets close to the Bohemian border. Ottokars reign was notable for the start of German immigration into Bohemia. In 1226, Ottokar went to war against Duke Leopold VI of Austria after the latter wrecked a deal that would have seen Ottokars daughter married to Frederick IIs son Henry II of Sicily. Ottokar planned for the daughter to marry Henry III of England, but this was vetoed by the emperor. The widowed emperor himself wanted to marry Agnes, but by she did not want to play a role in an arranged marriage, with the help of the pope, she entered a convent. Ottokar was married first in 1178 to Adelheid of Meissen, who gave birth to the following children, markéta, married to King Valdemar II of Denmark.
Božislava, married to Count Henry I of Ortenberg, in 1199, he married Constance of Hungary, who gave birth to the following children, Vratislav. Judith, married to Bernhard von Spanheim, Duke of Carinthia, married to Henry II the Pious, Duke of Wrocław. Wenceslaus I of Bohemia, King of Bohemia, Přemyslid, Margrave of Moravia, married to Margaret of Andechs, daughter of Duke Otto I of Merania. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Minnesang was a tradition of lyric and song writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German period. This period of medieval German literature began in the 12th century, people who wrote and performed Minnesang were known as Minnesänger, and a single song was called a Minnelied. The name derives from minne, the Middle High German word for love, the Minnesänger were similar to the Provençal troubadours and northern French trouvères in that they wrote love poetry in the tradition of courtly love in the High Middle Ages. In the absence of reliable information, there has been debate about the social status of the Minnesänger. Some clearly belonged to the higher nobility – the 14th century Codex Manesse includes songs by dukes, kings, some Minnesänger, as indicated by the title Meister, were clearly educated commoners, such as Meister Konrad von Würzburg. It is thought that many were ministeriales, that is, members of a class of lower nobility, broadly speaking, the Minnesänger were writing and performing for their own social class at court, and should be thought of as courtiers rather than professional hired musicians.
Friedrich von Hausen, for example, was part of the entourage of Friedrich Barbarossa, as a reward for his service, Walther von der Vogelweide was given a fief by the Emperor Frederick II. Several of the best known Minnesingers are noted for their poetry, among them Heinrich von Veldeke, Wolfram von Eschenbach. This is referred to as the Danubian tradition, from around 1170, German lyric poets came under the influence of the Provençal troubadours and the Northern French trouvères. For example, Friedrich von Hausens Ich denke underwilen is regarded as a contrafactum of Guiot de Provinss Ma joie premeraine, by around 1190, the German poets began to break free of Franco-Provençal influence. The Minnesang, from around 1230, is marked by a turning away from the refined ethos of classical minnesang. The most notable of these Minnesänger, Neidhart von Reuental introduces characters from lower social classes, additionally, it is often rather difficult to interpret the musical notation used to write them down.
Although the contour of the melody can usually be made out, There are a number of recordings of Minnesang using the original melodies, as well as Rock groups such as Ougenweide performing songs with modern instruments. In the 15th century, Minnesang developed into and gave way to the tradition of the Meistersänger, the two traditions are quite different, Minnesänger were mainly aristocrats, while Meistersänger usually were commoners. At least two operas have been written about the Minnesang tradition, Richard Wagners Tannhäuser and Richard Strauss Guntram, the standard collections are 12th and early 13th Century Minnesang, H. Moser, H. Tervooren, Des Minnesangs Frühling. Vol. Kraus, G. Kornrumpf, Deutsche Liederdichter des 13, 14th and 15th centuries, Thomas Cramer, Die kleineren Liederdichter des 14. Jhs.4 Vols There are separate editions of Walthers works, There are many published selections with Modern German translation. Liederhandschrift Olive Sayce, The medieval German lyric, 1150-1300, the development of its themes and forms in their European context ISBN 0-19-815772-X Ronald J.
Taylor, The Art of the Minnesinger