The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
Boston is a monthly magazine concerning life in the Greater Boston area and has been in publication since the 1960s. The magazine claims a publication of 500,000 issues per month, its percentage of newsstand copies sold is among the highest of any magazine of any kind in the United States, it has been named among the best city magazines in the nation nine times in the last ten years by the City and Regional Magazine Association. "Best of Boston" is an award given by Boston magazine in an annual issue, "the definitive guide to the city’s finest". This award is given in a wide range of categories. Recent awards include best clam chowder, day spa, jewelry store, mojito, pizza topping, teeth whitening, thai food, many more. Many area businesses display these awards proudly, in the form of a certificate or by using the award logo on company materials, store windows, advertising. Along with the annual awards, Boston magazine runs feature articles intended to quantify local resources, such as "Top Schools", "Top Restaurants", "Top Doctors".
Boston magazine produces several ancillary publications: Boston Home is a quarterly publication geared towards readers with an interest in high-end interior design, home decor, architecture. Boston Weddings is a biannual publication for brides-to-be. Boston magazine has been owned by the Philadelphia-based company Metrocorp since 1971. WCVB-TV Channel 5, WBZ NewsRadio, Greater Media, WBUR, Magic 106.7 collaborate and cross-promote with Boston magazine. Boston magazine is a member of the American Society of Magazine Editors. Official website
Chicago Daily News
The Chicago Daily News was an afternoon daily newspaper in the midwestern United States, published between 1876 and 1978 in Chicago, Illinois. The Daily News was founded by Melville E. Stone, Percy Meggy, William Dougherty in 1875 and began publishing early the next year, it strove for mass readership in contrast with its primary competitor, the Chicago Tribune, more influential among the city's elites. Byron Andrews, fresh out of Hobart College, was one of the first reporters. Victor F. Lawson became its business manager. Stone remained involved as an editor and bought back an ownership stake, but Lawson took over full ownership again in 1888. During the longtime tenure of Victor F. Lawson, the Chicago Daily News pioneered certain areas of reporting, opening one of the first foreign bureaus among U. S. newspapers in 1898 and starting one of the first columns devoted to radio in 1922. Lawson introduced many innovations to the business including advancements in newspaper promotion, classified advertising, syndication of news stories and comics.
In 1912, the Daily News was one of a cooperative of four newspapers, including the New York Globe, The Boston Globe, the Philadelphia Bulletin, to form the Associated Newspapers syndicate. The Chicago Daily News became known for its distinctive, aggressive writing style which 1920s editor Henry Justin Smith likened to a daily novel. In its heyday from the 1930s to 1950s it was syndicated and boasted a first-class foreign news service. In 1922, the rival Chicago Tribune began to experiment with radio news at Westinghouse-owned KYW-AM; the Daily News entered into a partnership with The Fair Department Store to launch WGU-AM, which would be renamed WMAQ-AM. The newspaper would take full ownership of the station and absorb shared band rival WQJ-AM, jointly owned by the Calumet Baking Powder Company and the Rainbo Gardens ballroom. WMAQ would pioneer many firsts in radio—one of them the first complete Chicago Cubs season broadcast on radio in 1925, hosted by sportswriter-turned-sportscaster Hal Totten.
In 1930, the station obtained a license for an experimental television station, W9XAP, but had begun transmitting from it just prior to its being granted. Working with Sears Roebuck stores by providing them with the receivers, those present at the stores were able to see Bill Hay, present a variety show from the Daily News building, on August 27, 1930. Ulises Armand Sanabria was the television pioneer behind this and other early Chicago television experiments; the Chicago Tribune, not to be left out of radio, purchased WDAP and WJAZ to form WGN-AM. In 1931 The Daily News sold WMAQ to NBC. In 1929, it moved into a new 26-floor headquarters building at 400 West Madison Street. Designed by architects Holabird & Root, the Art Deco structure became a Chicago landmark, stands today under the name Riverside Plaza, it featured a mural by John W. Norton depicting the newspaper production process. After a long period of ownership by Knight Newspapers, the paper was acquired in 1959 by Field Enterprises, owned by heirs of the former owner of the Marshall Field and Company department store chain.
Field owned the morning Chicago Sun-Times, the Daily News moved into the Sun-Times' building on North Wabash Avenue. A few years Mike Royko became the paper's lead columnist, rose to local and national prominence. However, the Field years were a period of decline for the newspaper due to management decisions but due to demographic changes. In 1977 the Daily News was redesigned and added features intended to increase its appeal to younger readers, but the changes did not reverse the paper's continuing decline in circulation; the Chicago Daily News published its last edition on Saturday, March 4, 1978. There was a subsequent attempt to make it as an afternoon daily, by a Rosemont-based company called CDN Publishing Co. Inc; the paper went back into publication with a weekend edition dated August 4–5, 1979. The publisher of the revival was former Illinois governor Richard B. Ogilvie; this final attempt to gain popularity was not successful and the paper went back out of publication a few months later.
The headquarters of the Daily News and Sun-Times was located at 401 North Wabash before the building was demolished. It is now the site of Tower; the Chicago Daily News was awarded the Pulitzer Prize thirteen times. 1925 Reporting 1929 Correspondence 1933 Correspondence 1938 Editorial Cartooning 1943 Reporting 1947 Editorial Cartooning 1950 Meritorious Public Service 1951 International Reporting 1957 Meritorious Public Service 1963 Meritorious Public Service 1969 Editorial Cartooning 1970 National Reporting 1972 Commentary Abramoske, Donald J. "The Founding of the Chicago Daily News." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society: 341-353. In JSTOR Cole and John Maxwell Hamilton. "A Natural History of Foreign Correspondence: A Study of the Chicago Daily News, 1900-1921." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 84#1 pp: 151-166. Dennis, Charles Henry. Victor Lawson: his time and his work.
People is an American weekly magazine of celebrity and human-interest stories, published by Time Inc. a subsidiary of the Meredith Corporation. With a readership of 46.6 million adults, People has the largest audience of any American magazine. People had $997 million in advertising revenue in 2011, the highest advertising revenue of any American magazine. In 2006, it had revenue expected to top $1.5 billion. It was named "Magazine of the Year" by Advertising Age in October 2005, for excellence in editorial and advertising. People ranked number 6 on Advertising Age's annual "A-list" and number 3 on Adweek's "Brand Blazers" list in October 2006; the magazine runs a 50/50 mix of celebrity and human-interest articles. People's editors claim to refrain from printing pure celebrity gossip, enough to lead celebrity publicists to propose exclusives to the magazine, evidence of what one staffer calls a "publicist-friendly strategy". People's website, People.com, focuses on celebrity news and human interest stories.
In February 2015, the website broke a new record: 72 million unique visitors. People is best known for its yearly special issues naming the "World's Most Beautiful", "Best & Worst Dressed", "Sexiest Man Alive"; the magazine's headquarters are in New York, it maintains editorial bureaus in Los Angeles and in London. For economic reasons, it closed bureaus in Austin and Chicago in 2006; the concept for People has been attributed to Andrew Heiskell, Time Inc.'s chief executive officer at the time and the former publisher of the weekly Life magazine. The founding managing editor of People was Richard B. Stolley, a former assistant managing editor at Life and the journalist who acquired the Zapruder tapes of the John F. Kennedy assassination for Time Inc. in 1963. People's first publisher was another Time Inc. veteran. Stolley characterized the magazine as "getting back to the people who are causing the news and who are caught up in it, or deserve to be in it. Our focus is on people, not issues." Stolley's religious determination to keep the magazine people-focused contributed to its rapid early success.
It is said that although Time Inc. pumped an estimated $40 million into the venture, the magazine only broke 18 months after its debut in March 1974. The magazine was sold on newsstands and in supermarkets. To get the magazine out each week, founding staff members slept on the floor of their offices two or three nights each week and limited all non-essential outside engagements; the premier edition for the week ending March 4, 1974 featured actress Mia Farrow starring in the film The Great Gatsby, on the cover. That issue featured stories on Gloria Vanderbilt, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and the wives of U. S. Vietnam veterans; the magazine was, apart from its cover, printed in black-and-white. The initial cover price was 35 cents; the core of the small founding editorial team included other editors, writers and photo editors from Life magazine, which had ceased publication just 13 months earlier. This group included managing editor Stolley, senior editors Hal Wingo, Sam Angeloff and Robert Emmett Ginna.
Many of the noteworthy Life photographers contributed to the magazine as well, including legends Alfred Eisenstaedt and Gjon Mili and rising stars Co Rentmeester, David Burnett and Bill Eppridge. Other members of the first editorial staff included editors and writers: Ross Drake, Ralph Novak, Bina Bernard, James Jerome, Sally Moore, Mary Vespa, Lee Wohlfert, Joy Wansley, Curt Davis, Clare Crawford-Mason, Jed Horne an editor of The Times-Picayune in New Orleans. In 1996, Time Inc. launched a Spanish-language magazine entitled People en Español. The company has said that the new publication emerged after a 1995 issue of the original magazine was distributed with two distinct covers, one featuring the murdered Tejano singer Selena and the other featuring the hit television series Friends. Although the original idea was that Spanish-language translations of articles from the English magazine would comprise half the content, People en Español over time came to have original content. In 2002, People introduced People Stylewatch, a title focusing on celebrity style and beauty – a newsstand extension of its Stylewatch column.
Due to its success, the frequency of People Stylewatch was increased to 10 times per year in 2007. In spring 2017, People Stylewatch was rebranded as PeopleStyle. In late 2017, it was announced that there would no longer be a print version of PeopleStyle and it would be a digital-only publication. In Australia, the localized version of People is titled Who because of a pre-existing lad's mag published under the title People; the international edition of People has been published in Greece since 2010. On July 26, 2013, Outlook Group announced that it was closing down the Indian edition of People, which began publication in 2008. In September 2016, in collaboration with Entertainment Weekly, People launched the People/Entertainment Weekly Network; the network is "a free, a
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, the most read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news and analysis. It was founded on July 1865, as a successor to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator, it is published by its namesake owner The Nation Company, L. P. at 33 Irving Place, New York City, associated with The Nation Institute. The Nation has news bureaus in Washington, D. C. London, South Africa, with departments covering architecture, corporations, environment, legal affairs, music and disarmament, the United Nations. Circulation peaked at 187,000 in 2006 but by 2010 had dropped to 145,000 in print, although digital subscriptions had risen to over 15,000; the Nation was established in July 1865 at 130 Nassau Street in Manhattan. Its founding publisher was Joseph H. Richards, the editor was Edwin Lawrence Godkin, an immigrant from Ireland who had worked as a correspondent of the London Daily News and The New York Times. Godkin sought to establish what one sympathetic commentator characterized as "an organ of opinion characterized in its utterance by breadth and deliberation, an organ which should identify itself with causes, which should give its support to parties as representative of these causes."In its "founding prospectus" the magazine wrote that the publication would have "seven main objects" with the first being "discussion of the topics of the day, above all, of legal and constitutional questions, with greater accuracy and moderation than are now to be found in the daily press."
The Nation pledged to "not be the organ of any party, sect or body" but rather to "make an earnest effort to bring to discussion of political and social questions a critical spirit, to wage war upon the vices of violence and misrepresentation by which so much of the political writing of the day is marred."In the first year of publication, one of the magazine's regular features was The South As It Is, dispatches from a tour of the war-torn region by John Richard Dennett, a recent Harvard graduate and a veteran of the Port Royal Experiment. Dennett interviewed Confederate veterans, freed slaves, agents of the Freedmen's Bureau, ordinary people he met by the side of the road; the articles, since collected as a book, have been praised by The New York Times as "examples of masterly journalism."Among the causes supported by the publication in its earliest days was civil service reform—moving the basis of government employment from a political patronage system to a professional bureaucracy based upon meritocracy.
The Nation was preoccupied with the reestablishment of a sound national currency in the years after the American Civil War, arguing that a stable currency was necessary to restore the economic stability of the nation. Related to this was the publication's advocacy of the elimination of protective tariffs in favor of lower prices of consumer goods associated with a free trade system. Wendell Phillips Garrison, son of William Lloyd Garrison, was Literary Editor from 1865 to 1906; the magazine would stay at Newspaper Row for 90 years. In 1881, newspaperman-turned-railroad-baron Henry Villard acquired The Nation and converted it into a weekly literary supplement for his daily newspaper the New York Evening Post; the offices of the magazine were moved to the Evening Post's headquarters at 210 Broadway. The New York Evening Post would morph into a tabloid, the New York Post, a left-leaning afternoon tabloid, under owner Dorothy Schiff from 1939 to 1976. Since it has been a conservative tabloid owned by Rupert Murdoch, while The Nation became known for its "far left" ideology.
In 1900, Henry Villard's son, Oswald Garrison Villard, inherited the magazine and the Evening Post, sold off the latter in 1918. Thereafter, he remade The Nation into a current affairs publication and gave it an anti-classical liberal orientation. Oswald Villard welcomed the New Deal and supported the nationalization of industries – thus reversing the meaning of "liberalism" as the founders of The Nation would have understood the term, from a belief in a smaller and more restricted government to a belief in a larger and less restricted government. Villard sold the magazine in 1935. Maurice Wertheim, the new owner, sold it in 1937 to Freda Kirchwey, who served as editor from 1933 to 1955; every editor of The Nation from Villard's time to the 1970s was looked at for "subversive" activities and ties. When Albert Jay Nock, not long afterward, published a column criticizing Samuel Gompers and trade unions for being complicit in the war machine of the First World War, The Nation was suspended from the U.
S. mail. During the 1930s, The Nation showed enthusiastic support for the New Deal; the magazine's financial problems in early 1940s prompted Kirchwey to sell her individual ownership of the magazine in 1943, creating a nonprofit organization, Nation Associates, formed out of the money generated from a recruiting drive of sponsors. This organization was responsible for academic responsibilities, including conducting research and organizing conferences, a part of the early history of the magazine. Nation Associates became responsible for the operation and publication of the magazine on a nonprofit basis, with Kirchwey as both president of Nation Associates and editor of The Nation magazine. Before the attack on Pearl Harbor, The Nation called on the United States to enter World War II to resist fascism, after the US entered the war, the publication supported the American war effort, it supported the use of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. During the late 1940s and again in the early 1950s, a merger was discussed
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC