A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee to pay the lessor for use of an asset. Property and vehicles are common assets that are leased. Industrial or business equipment is leased. Broadly put, a lease agreement is a contract between the lessor and the lessee; the lessor is the legal owner of the asset. The lessee agrees to abide by various conditions regarding their use of the property or equipment. For example, a person leasing a car may agree; the narrower term rental agreement can be used to describe a lease in which the asset is tangible property. Language used is that the user rents goods let out or rented out by the owner; the verb to lease is less precise. Examples of a lease for intangible property are use of a computer program, or use of a radio frequency; the term rental agreement is sometimes used to describe a periodic lease agreement internationally and in some regions of the United States. A lease is a legal contract, thus enforceable by all parties under the contract law of the applicable jurisdiction.
In the United States, since it represents a conveyance of possessory rights to real estate, it is a hybrid sort of contract that involves qualities of a deed. Some specific kinds of leases may have specific clauses required by statute depending upon the property being leased, and/or the jurisdiction in which the agreement was signed or the residence of the parties. Common elements of a lease agreement include: Names of the parties of the agreement; the starting date and duration of the agreement. Identifies the specific object being leased. Provides conditions for renewal or non-renewal. Has a specific consideration for granting the use of this object. Has provisions for a security deposit and terms for its return. May have a specific list of conditions which are therein described as Default Conditions and specific Remedies. May have other specific conditions placed upon the parties such as: Need to provide insurance for loss. Restrictive use. Which party is responsible for maintenance. Termination clause All kinds of personal property or real property may be leased.
As a result of the lease, the owner grants the use of the stated property to the lessee. The narrower term ` tenancy' describes a lease. A premium is an amount paid by the tenant for the lease to be granted or to secure the former tenant's lease in order to secure a low rent, in long leases termed a ground rent. For parts of buildings it is most common for users to pay by collateral contract, or by the same contract, a service charge, an express list of services in a lease to minimize disputes over service charges. A gross lease or tenancy stipulates a rent, for the global amount due including all service charges. A cancelable lease is a lease that may be terminated by the lessee or by the lessor without penalty. A mutually determinable lease can be determined by either. A non-cancelable lease is a lease. “lease” may imply a non-cancelable lease, whereas “rental agreement” may connote a cancelable lease. Influenced by land registration tenancies granted for more than a year are referred to more as leases.
The lease will either provide specific provisions regarding the responsibilities and rights of the lessee and lessor, or there will be automatic provisions as a result of local law. In general, by paying the negotiated fee to the lessor, the lessee has possession and use of the leased property to the exclusion of the lessor and all others except with the invitation of the tenant; the most common form of real property lease is a residential rental agreement between landlord and tenant. As the relationship between the tenant and the landlord is called a tenancy, this term is used for informal and shorter leases; the right to possession by the tenant is sometimes called a leasehold interest. A lease can be for a fixed period of time. A lease may be terminated sooner than its end date by: Break/cancellation A negotiated deed of surrender or yielding-up. Forfeiture By operation of statute A lease should be contrasted with a license, which may entitle a person to use property, but, subject to termination at the will of the owner of the property.
An example of a licensor/licensee relationship is a parking lot owner and a person who parks a vehicle in the parking lot. A license may be seen in the form of a ticket to a baseball game or a verbal permission to sleep a few days on a sofa; the difference is that if there is a term, a degree of privacy suggestive of exclusive possession of a defined part, practised ongoing, recurrent payments, a lack of right to terminate save for misconduct or nonpayment, these factors tend toward a lease.
Helen Herron Taft
Helen Louise Herron "Nellie" Taft was the wife of William Howard Taft and the First Lady of the United States from 1909 to 1913. Born in Cincinnati, Nellie was the fourth of eleven children of Judge John Williamson Herron, a college classmate of Benjamin Harrison and a law partner of Rutherford B. Hayes, her mother, Harriet Collins Herron, was the daughter and the sister of U. S. congressmen. During her childhood she was called Nelli rather than Helen. Nellie Herron was enrolled in private Miss Nourse School, known in Cincinnati as The Nursery, in 1866-1879, took classes from the University of Cincinnati. Starting from 1882, she taught in different schools until her marriage. In 1877, she attended with her parents the twenty-fifth wedding anniversary celebration of President and Mrs. Rutherford B. Hayes and stayed for a week at the White House. In 1879, she met William Howard Taft at a bobsledding party in Cincinnati, he asked her out for the first time in February 1880, but they did not go out until 1882.
He proposed in April 1885, she accepted in May. Taft married Nellie on June 1886, at the home of the bride's parents in Cincinnati; the wedding was performed by the Reverend D. N. A. Hoge of Zanesville, Ohio. Taft's younger brother; the couple honeymooned one day in New York City and four days at Sea Bright, New Jersey, before setting off on a three-month tour of Europe. On their return, they settled in Cincinnati. Nellie Taft encouraged her husband's political career despite his often-stated preference for the judiciary. However, she welcomed each step in his judicial career: state judge, Solicitor General of the United States, federal circuit court judge. In 1900, Taft agreed to take charge of American civil government in the Philippines as Governor-General. Nellie Taft moved with their children to Manila where she tried to reconcile with the local population by showing respect to the culture of the Philippines by learning the language, wearing a native Filipino costume and inviting Filipinos to social events.
Further travel with her husband, who became Secretary of War in 1904, brought a widened interest in world politics and a cosmopolitan circle of friends. The Tafts had a daughter. Robert A. Taft was a politician and statesman, Helen Taft Manning was an educator, Charles Phelps Taft II was a civic leader. Nellie Taft was the first First Lady to ride in her husband’s inauguration parade, which she did despite adverse weather, she started to receive guests three afternoons a week in the Red Room. At times, she attended the cabinet meetings with the President without speaking on the issues, she introduced musical entertainment after state dinners. The Tafts attended symphony and theater performances in Washington D. C.. In May 1909, Nellie Taft suffered a stroke, impairing right arm and leg; the stroke happened at the beginning of her husband's presidential term. Assisted by her four sisters, she continued her functions as White House host until she recovered with the help of her husband; the social highlight of the Taft administration was the Tafts' silver wedding anniversary gala on June 19, 1911 for some 2,000 guests.
In her most lasting contribution as First Lady, Nellie Taft arranged for the planting of the 3,020 Japanese cherry trees around the Tidal Basin and on Capitol grounds. The First Lady notably enjoyed the company of his wife Carrie. In June 1912, she attended both the Republican National Convention that re-nominated her husband and the Democratic National Convention that nominated his opponent Woodrow Wilson, she took a front-row seat at the latter. After losing the election, the Tafts returned to Cincinnati. Nellie Taft wrote her memoir, Recollections of Full Years, published in 1914. During the Great War, she provided support for the American Red Cross. With Taft's appointment to the Supreme Court in 1921, Nellie Taft became the only woman to be both First Lady and wife of a chief justice, she resumed her social activities after returning to Washington D. C. Prohibition was a major political debate at the time. Nellie Taft was a Wet, so White House guests were entertained with alcohol during her time as First Lady.
William Howard Taft opposed Prohibition during his presidency and much of his time as Chief Justice, but was himself a teetotaler and during his last years wrote letters in support of Prohibition's objectives. Nellie Taft was the first First Lady to publish her memoirs, the first First Lady to own and drive a car, the first First Lady to support women's suffrage, the first First Lady to smoke cigarettes, the first First Lady to lobby for safety standards in federal workplaces; the first First Lady to follow her husband in the inauguration parade. Nellie Taft was widowed upon the death of her husband on March 8, 1930, stayed in the city of Washington, she continued to be involved serving as an honorary vice president of the Colonial Dames of America
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance: a play, mime, etc, performed in a theatre, or on radio or television. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes since Aristotle's Poetics —the earliest work of dramatic theory; the term "drama" comes from a Greek word meaning "action", derived from "I do". The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. In English, the word "play" or "game" was the standard term used to describe drama until William Shakespeare's time—just as its creator was a "play-maker" rather than a "dramatist" and the building was a "play-house" rather than a "theatre"; the use of "drama" in a more narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. "Drama" in this sense refers to a play, neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example, Zola's Thérèse Raquin or Chekhov's Ivanov. It is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media.
"Radio drama" has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a live performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception; the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. Mime is a form of drama. Drama can be combined with music: the dramatic text in opera is sung throughout. Musicals include songs. Closet drama describes a form, intended to be read, rather than performed. In improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance. Western drama originates in classical Greece; the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus.
Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists, not least Thespis, credited with the innovation of an actor who speaks and impersonates a character, while interacting with the chorus and its leader, who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry. Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists, has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, the comic writers Aristophanes and, from the late 4th century, Menander. Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama, although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC, he had been writing plays for more than 25 years; the competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy", "middle comedy" and "new comedy". Following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BC, Rome encountered Greek drama. From the years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire, theatre spread west across Europe, around the Mediterranean and reached England. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. From the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments; the first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC. Five years Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived. While both dramatists composed in both genres, Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. By the beginning of the 2nd century BC, drama was established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed.
The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies b
Theophile Papin was a St. Louis, real estate man known as the "squire of debutantes" because of the large number of young women who made their bow into society under his auspices. Papin was the son of Julia Henry of Illinois, he had a brother, Edward V. and two sisters and Mrs. Gerald M. Borden. Papin went to school in France and attended St. Louis University and Washington University, he studied in Marburg and Cassel, Germany. Papin was noted in St. Louis Roman Catholic circles because of his friendship with high dignitaries of the church and the fact that he had been granted private audiences by Popes Leo XIII and Pius X, he went to Vatican City in 1912 to deliver to Pope Pius the testimony taken in connection with the canonization of Rose Philippine Duchesne of the Sacred Heart Convent in St. Charles, Missouri, he booked a ticket on the SS Titanic for his return trip, but canceled at the last moment, thus avoiding the sinking of the liner when it struck an iceberg. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch said of him: "Papin was regarded as one of the best-educated men in St. Louis.
He was a lover of rare books and a collector of valuable paintings. He was known for being recruited by society women to take care of the myriad details of their daughters' "coming out" as debutantes during St. Louis's social season. Marguerite Martyn, "What Is Society: Toto Papin Explains"
A horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. Many different horse breeds and equestrian disciplines hold competitions worldwide, from local to the international levels. Most horse shows run from one to three days, sometimes longer for major, all-breed events or national and international championships in a given discipline or breed. Most shows consist of a series of different performances, called classes, wherein a group of horses with similar training or characteristics compete against one another for awards and prize money. There are ten international disciplines run under rules established by the Fédération équestre internationale: Combined driving Dressage Endurance riding Eventing Horseball Paraequestrianism Reining Show jumping Tent pegging VaultingThe rules of the FEI govern competitions open to riders from all nations, including the Olympic games and the World Equestrian Games. At the other end of the competition spectrum, Pony Club is an international movement that teaches young people riding skills suitable for eventing and other English riding competition.
To help develop positive experience and good sportsmanship, Pony Clubs sponsor horse shows open only to young people under the age of 18 and their horses. Various nations have their own programs for developing young equestrians, such as the 4-H program in the United States. Horse shows in Australia are governed by Equestrian Australia, Show Horse Council of Australia and different breed societies. Much of the development of the show horse discipline was developed over the last 40 years by Fran Cleland through her involvement with the Equestrian Federation of Australia's Victorian branch. Fran Cleland is the wife of Reg Cleland, the longest serving Chairman of the Victorian branch of the EFA, in turn responsible for running The Barastoc Horse of The Year Show the premier horse Show in Australia for over 40 years and under the direction of Fran Cleland introduced Newcomer, Show-hunter, leading rein, first ridden, owner rider and working Hunter classes into the Australian Show Horse scene; the governing body for Equestrian activities in Canada is Equine Canada.
In the United Kingdom there is a distinct difference between "horse competitions" such as dressage or eventing and horse shows. Horse shows provide an opportunity for riders and owners to exhibit their animals without taking part in any of the Olympic disciplines. Classes are divided into ridden and in-hand sections and there are many different classes for different horses and ponies. For example, there are classes for Mountain and moorland pony breeds, show hunters, show hacks and various show pony classes. Many clubs hold riding club classes, where a horse or pony must perform a short "show" and jump a single fence that varies in height from 2 feet to 3 feet 3 inches. Most shows include show jumping and working hunter sections; the British Horse Society oversees many shows at national and local level as does the Pony Club, the British Show Pony Society and the British Show Horse Association. Breed societies those that look after the Welsh pony and the Arabian horse organise their own shows.
At local, unaffiliated level, riding clubs across Britain organise regular shows, which are staffed by volunteers. The newly formed Showing Council is working towards overseeing all horse shows; the Olympic equestrian disciplines are overseen by the British Equestrian Federation. However, there are several subdivisions within the federation. Dressage competitions are held separately from regular horse shows, are overseen by British Dressage. Show jumping competitions are overseen by the British Showjumping Association, while one-day and three-day eventing are overseen by British Eventing; the United States Equestrian Federation is the American national body for equestrian sport and as such is the recognized entity overseeing the Olympic-level United States Equestrian Team. It organizes and sponsors horse shows for many horse breeds who wish to utilize the drug testing, judge certification and standardize rulemaking process of the USEF. In addition, it sanctions events in disciplines and lower-level competitive areas that are not internationally recognized, such as show hunter and equitation.
Other US organizations such as the National Cutting Horse Association, United States Eventing Association and United States Dressage Federation organize competitions for specific disciplines, such as Cutting, some breed organizations such as the American Quarter Horse Association sanction their own breed-specific shows. Horse shows in the United States take several forms: Some are restricted to a particular breed, others are "open" or "all-breed" horse shows, which offer both classes open to all breeds as well as breed-specific classes for many different breeds. In the last few decades, American "open" horse shows have tended to become specialized by discipline into hunter-jumper or "sport horse" shows, dressage shows, shows featuring English or Western riding events. However, there are still some multi-day, all-breed events that feature multiple breeds and disciplines. There are a range of competitive equestrian events available and specific offerings range by nation and by region within a given country.
However, in North America, most horse shows provide the following range of classes: The English riding classes fall into two primary styles, hunt seat and saddle seat. "Hunt type" or sport horse classes include dressage, show jumping and show hunters and English pleasure or Hunter Under Saddle known as
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; as of 2018, the World Series has been contested 114 times, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 48. The 2018 World Series took place between the Los Angeles Dodgers and Boston Red Sox from October 23–28, with the Red Sox winning in five games to earn their ninth title; this was the first World Series meeting between these two teams since 1916. Having lost to the Houston Astros in the 2017 World Series, the Dodgers became the 11th team to lose the World Series in consecutive seasons.
In the American League, the New York Yankees have played in 40 World Series and won 27, the Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics have played in 14 and won 9, the Boston Red Sox have played in 13 and won 9, including the first World Series. In the National League, the St. Louis Cardinals have appeared in 19 and won 11, the New York/San Francisco Giants have played in 19 and won 8, the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have appeared in 20 and won 6, the Cincinnati Reds have appeared in 9 and won 5; as of 2018, no team has won consecutive World Series championships since the New York Yankees in 1998, 1999, 2000—the longest such drought in Major League Baseball history. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States. All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played.
From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion. These series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand; the number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no gover