Keith Ian Carradine is an American actor and songwriter who has had success on stage and television. He is known for his roles as Tom Frank in Robert Altman's Nashville, Wild Bill Hickok in the HBO series Deadwood, FBI agent Frank Lundy in Dexter and US President Conrad Dalton in Madam Secretary. In addition, he is a Golden Globe- and Academy Award-winning songwriter; as a member of the Carradine family, he is part of an acting dynasty that began with his father, John Carradine. Keith Carradine was born in California, he is the son of actress and artist Sonia Sorel, actor John Carradine. His paternal half-brothers are Bruce and David Carradine, his maternal half-brother is Michael Bowen, his full brothers are Christopher and Robert Carradine, all of whom are actors, his maternal great-grandfather was biochemist Max Henius, his maternal great-grandmother was the sister of historian Johan Ludvig Heiberg. Carradine's childhood was difficult, he said that his father drank and his mother "was a manic depressive paranoid schizophrenic catatonic—she had it all."
His parents were divorced in 1957. A bitter custody battle led to his father gaining custody of him and his brothers and Robert, after the children had spent three months in a home for abused children as wards of the court. Keith said. There were bars on the windows, we were only allowed to see our parents through glass doors, it was sad. We would stand there on either side of the glass door crying." He was raised by his maternal grandmother, he saw either of his parents. His mother was not permitted to see him for eight years following the custody settlement. After high school, Carradine entertained the thought of becoming a forest ranger but opted to study drama at Colorado State University, he dropped out after one semester and drifted back to California, moving in with his older half-brother, who encouraged him to pursue an acting career, paid for his acting and vocal lessons, helped him get an agent. As a youth, Carradine had opportunities to appear on stage with his father in the latter's productions of Shakespeare.
Thus, he had some background in theater when he was cast in the original Broadway run of Hair, which launched his acting career. In that production he started out in the chorus and worked his way up to the lead roles playing Woof and Claude, he said of his involvement in Hair, "I didn't plan to audition. I just went along with my brother and his girlfriend at the time, Barbara Hershey, two of their friends. I was going to play the piano for them while they sang, but I'm the one the staff wound up getting interested in."His stage career is further distinguished by his Tony-nominated performance for Best Actor as the title character in the Tony Award-winning musical, The Will Rogers Follies in 1991, for which he received a Drama Desk nomination. He won the Outer Critics Circle Award for Foxfire with Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy, appeared as Lawrence in Dirty Rotten Scoundrels at the Imperial Theater. In 2008, he appeared as Dr. Farquhar Off-Broadway in Mindgame, a thriller by Antony Horowitz, directed by Ken Russell, who made his New York directorial debut with the production.
In March and April 2013, he starred in the Broadway production of Hands on a Hardbody. He was nominated for the Drama Desk Award for his work. Carradine's first notable film appearance was in director Robert Altman's Mrs. Miller, his next film, Emperor of the North Pole, was re-released with a shorter title Emperor of the North. Carradine played a young aspiring hobo; the film was directed by Robert Aldrich and starred Lee Marvin and Ernest Borgnine. Carradine starred in Altman's film Thieves Like Us played a principal character, a callow, womanizing folk singer, Tom Frank, in Altman's critically acclaimed film Nashville, he had difficulty shaking the image of Tom Frank following the popularity of the film. He felt the role gave him the reputation of being "a cad."In 1977 Aldrich said "I think that Keith Carradine, if he's careful - I don't think he is careful - and if he's prudent about the selection of his parts, can be a great big movie star. I think; because I think the guy is gifted, he's talented, he's attractive."In 1977, Carradine starred opposite Harvey Keitel in Ridley Scott's The Duellists.
Pretty Baby followed in 1978. He has acted in several offbeat films of Altman's protege Alan Rudolph, playing a disarmingly candid madman in Choose Me, an incompetent petty criminal in Trouble in Mind, an American artist in 1930s Paris in The Moderns, he appeared with brothers David and Robert as the Younger brothers in Walter Hill's film The Long Riders. Keith played Jim Younger in that film. In 1981, he appeared again under Hill's direction in Southern Comfort. In 1994, he had a cameo role as Will Rogers in Rudolph's film about Dorothy Parker, Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle, he co-starred with Daryl Hannah as homicidal sociopath John Netherwood in the thriller The Tie That Binds. In 2011, he starred in Cowboys and Aliens, an American science fiction western film directed by Jon Favreau starring Daniel Craig, Harrison Ford, Olivia Wilde. Carradine traveled to Tuscany in 2012 to executive produce and star in John Jopson's Edgar Allan Poe inspired film Terroir. In 2013, he starred in Ain't Them Bodies Saints, which won the 2013 Sundance Film Festival award for cinematography.
In 2016 Keith played Edward Dickinson, father of Emily Dickinson, in A Quiet Passion, a biographica
John Stephen Goodman is an American actor. Early in his career, he was known for playing Dan Conner on the ABC TV series Roseanne, for which he won a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in 1993, he is a regular collaborator with the Coen brothers on such films as Raising Arizona, Barton Fink, The Big Lebowski, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Inside Llewyn Davis. Goodman's voice roles in animated films include Pacha in Disney's The Emperor's New Groove and Sulley in Pixar's Monsters, Inc. and Monsters University. His other film performances include lead roles in Always, The Babe, The Flintstones and 10 Cloverfield Lane and supporting roles in Coyote Ugly, The Artist, Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close, Flight, The Hangover Part III, Patriots Day, Kong: Skull Island. On television, he has had regular roles on Amazon Studios's Alpha House and on the first season of HBO's Treme and has been a frequent host of Saturday Night Live, as well as playing guest roles on series such as Community. John Heilpern of Vanity Fair has called him "among our finest actors".
Goodman was born in Missouri. His father, Leslie Francis Goodman, was a postal worker who died of a heart attack when John was two years old. Goodman's mother, Virginia Roos, was a waitress at Jack and Phil's Bar-B-Que, a retail store associate, took in laundry to support the family. Goodman has a sister, a brother, Leslie, he is of English and Welsh ancestry. Goodman went to Affton High School, where he dabbled in theater. After graduating in 1970, he took a gap year, he earned a football scholarship to Missouri State University in Missouri. He pledged to Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, he discovered the drama program and studied there with future Hollywood stars Kathleen Turner and Tess Harper. He remains close to his school friends, he graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1975. After an injury ended his college football career, Goodman decided to become a professional actor and left Missouri for New York City in 1975. With a small bankroll from his brother, Goodman found an apartment in Hell’s Kitchen near the Theater District and unsuccessfully tried to make money as a bartender and waiter.
However, he found modest success in voice-overs and plays. He was the person. Goodman performed off-Broadway and in dinner theaters before landing character roles in film during the early 1980s. In 1982, Goodman made his film debut with a small role in Eddie Macon's Run. During this period he continued to work on the stage, starring as Pap Finn in Big River from 1985 to 1987. For his role, he received a Drama Desk nomination for Best Featured Actor in a Musical. Before landing his big break into movies in 1986 with a significant comedic role in True Stories, he had a brief cameo as Otis in Sweet Dreams. In the former film, his character Louis Fyne says "I'm 6' 3" and maintain a consistent panda bear shape", establishing his trademark size as an important part of many characters he would play on film and stage. Goodman rose to fame in acting by playing the role of Dan Conner on the ABC sitcom Roseanne from 1988 to 1997. Goodman had a long history of appearances on late night comedy shows and was the first guest on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, which won him the series' "First Guest Medal".
Goodman has hosted NBC's Saturday Night Live 13 times, while making seven cameo appearances as Linda Tripp during the Monica Lewinsky scandal and cameoing on the season 28 finale hosted by former SNL cast member Dan Aykroyd. With little to no experience in TV comedy, Goodman auditioned to be a cast member for Jean Doumanian's tumultuous 1980–1981 SNL season and was rejected, along with up-and-coming comedians Jim Carrey, Paul Reubens, Robert Townsend. Goodman first worked with the Coen Brothers on Raising Arizona, he would go on to appear in their films Barton Fink, The Big Lebowski, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Inside Llewyn Davis. Only Steve Buscemi has appeared in more Coen works, though Frances McDormand and Jon Polito have appeared in five of their films. Goodman had guest roles on the Aaron Sorkin television dramas The West Wing and Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip. In the former he appeared in four episodes, playing Speaker of the House and eventual acting president Glen Allen Walken. In the latter, he appeared as Pahrump, Nevada Judge Robert Bebe, earning a 2007 Emmy for Outstanding Guest Actor – Drama Series for his performance.
In addition, Goodman starred as Fred Flintstone in the film adaptation of The Flintstones. He voiced Robot Santa in the character's first appearance on Futurama. Beginning in 2007, Goodman has been the voiceover in Dunkin' Donuts commercials. In 2000, Goodman provided the voice of Pacha in Disney's The Emperor's New Groove and, a year the voice of Sulley in Pixar's Monsters, Inc. In 2009, Goodman voiced "Big Daddy" La Bouff in the Frog. Goodman's voice can be heard on an automated message system at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, he was the original voice of the yellow M&M in 1995 before being replaced by J. K. Simmons the following year. In theater, Goodman played the Ghost of Christmas Present i
Anita Rose Morris was an American actress and dancer. She began her career performing on Broadway musicals, including Jesus Christ Superstar and Nine, for which she received Tony Award nomination. During her career, Morris had starring roles in a number of films, include The Hotel New Hampshire, Absolute Beginners, Ruthless People, Aria, 18 Again!, Bloodhounds of Broadway and A Sinful Life. She had leading roles in two short-lived television series in 1980s: NBC prime time soap opera Berrenger's, Fox sitcom Down and Out in Beverly Hills. Among many roles, Morris' most prominent film role was as Carol Dodsworth, the mistress to Danny DeVito, in Ruthless People and for her sensual performance as Carla in the musical Nine opposite Raul Julia. While nominated for a Best Featured Actress Tony Award as Carla, she lost to Liliane Montevecchi in Nine. 21 years Jane Krakowski won the Tony Award in the same category as Morris, playing Carla in a revival with Antonio Banderas. Her signature number in Nine was "A Call from the Vatican", she sang "Simple", late in act two.
She was scheduled to perform the former at the Tony Awards in 1982, but the television censors found her outfit too revealing. Her stage work began in the American Mime Theatre, carried her to Broadway both for Nine, Jesus Christ Superstar, The Magic Show, Sugar Babies and The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas. Morris portrayed Rob Lowe's lover Rhonda Ray in The Hotel New Hampshire. Other film work included The Happy Hooker, Maria's Lovers, Absolute Beginners with David Bowie, Blue City with Judd Nelson, Ruthless People with Danny DeVito and Bette Midler, 18 Again! with George Burns, Bloodhounds of Broadway with Madonna and Matt Dillon, A Sinful Life, Martians Go Home with Randy Quaid and Running with Cyndi Lauper, Little Miss Millions with Jennifer Love Hewitt, Me and the Kid, Radioland Murders, her final film role. During the 1980s and early 1990s, she played guest roles in sitcoms and dramas, including Miami Vice, Who's the Boss?, She Wrote, Melrose Place, Tales from the Crypt, Murphy Brown and A Different World.
In 1984, Morris appeared in The Rolling Stones' music video "She Was Hot". Morris was born in Durham, North Carolina to Eloise, involved in theater, James Badgett Morris, a doctor, she had a son, James Badge Dale. She developed ovarian cancer in 1980, was given only five years to live, she lived for another 14 years before she died on March 2, 1994 and was buried in Maplewood Cemetery in Durham, North Carolina. Anita Morris on IMDb Anita Morris at the TCM Movie Database Anita Morris at AllMovie Anita Morris at the Internet Broadway Database Anita Morris at Find a Grave
Walter Edward Cox, know professionally Bud Cort, is an American actor and comedian, known for his portrayals of Harold in Hal Ashby's film Harold and Maude and the eponymous hero in Robert Altman's film Brewster McCloud. Cort was born in New Rochelle, New York, grew up in Rye, New York, his father, Joseph Parker Cox, was a bandleader and pianist, as well as a World War II veteran and merchant. His mother, Alma Mary, was a reporter and a merchant, who worked in MGM studios. Cort has four siblings -- one older brother, his parents ran a clothing business in downtown Rye from the 1950s until the mid-1980s. Cort was discovered in a revue by director Robert Altman, who subsequently cast him in two of his movies, MASH and Brewster McCloud, in which he played the title role. Cort next went on to his best-known role in Harold and Maude. Though the film was not successful at the time of its release, it gained international cult status and now is acclaimed as an American film classic. In 1979, Cort nearly died in a car accident on the Hollywood Freeway where he collided with an abandoned car blocking a lane into which he was turning.
He sustained a concussion and a fractured skull. His face was lacerated and his lower lip nearly severed. Years of plastic surgery, substantial hospital bills, a lost court case, the disruption of his career ensued. Cort has since appeared in a number of film, stage and TV roles: Endgame, He Who Gets Slapped, Sledge Hammer!, The Chocolate War, The Big Empty, Theodore Rex, But I'm A Cheerleader, The Twilight Zone, The Secret Diary of Sigmund Freud and The Life Aquatic With Steve Zissou. Cort lent his voice to Edgar the computer in the movie Electric Dreams. Cort voiced Toyman, a Superman villain, over the course of various DCAU series including Superman: The Animated Series, Static Shock, Justice League Unlimited, as well as the character Josiah Wormwood in an episode of the earlier DCAU production Batman: The Animated Series. On the November 8, 2007, episode of Ugly Betty, Cort made a guest appearance as the priest officiating at Wilhelmina Slater's ill-fated wedding. In 2010, he guest-starred on Criminal Minds in the episode "Mosley Lane".
Cort played an elderly pedophile Roger Roycewood, who along with his wife and killed young children. In 2012, he appeared as the artist "Gleeko" in the episode "Exit Wound the Gift Shop" in the second season of Eagleheart. Cort's voice can be heard as The King in the English-language version of The Little Prince; the film premiered out of competition at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival and won the César Award for Best Animated Film in February 2016. It was made available to U. S. audiences through Netflix in 2016. Bud Cort on IMDb Venice Magazine article, May 2005. Bud Cort interview, about his role in The Life Aquatic With Steve Zissou, 2005
The Cannon Group, Inc.
The Cannon Group, Inc. was an American group of companies, including Cannon Films, which produced a distinctive line of low- to medium-budget films from 1967 to 1994. The extensive group owned, amongst others, a large international cinema chain and a video film company that invested in the video market, buying the international video rights to several classic film libraries. Cannon Films was incorporated on October 23, 1967, it was formed by Chris Dewey while they were in their early 20s. They had immediate success producing English-language versions of Swedish soft porn films directed by Joseph W. Sarno: Inga, aka Jag - en oskuld and To Ingrid, My Love, aka Kvinnolek. By 1970, they had produced films on a larger production scale than a lot of major distributors, such as Joe, starring Peter Boyle, they managed this by limiting their budgets to $300,000 per picture—or less, in some cases. However, as the 1970s moved on, a string of unsuccessful films drained Cannon’s capital. This, along with changes to film-production tax laws, led to a drop in Cannon's stock price.
By 1979, Cannon had hit serious financial difficulties, Friedland and Dewey sold Cannon to Israeli cousins Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus for $500,000. The two cousins forged a business model of buying bottom-barrel scripts and putting them into production, they tapped into a ravenous market for action B-pictures in the 1980s. Although they are most remembered for the Death Wish sequels and Chuck Norris action pictures such as The Delta Force and Invasion U. S. A. and igniting a worldwide ninja craze with "The Ninja Trilogy", an anthology series which consisted of Enter the Ninja, Revenge of the Ninja, Ninja III: The Domination all starring Sho Kosugi, as well as producing the first two American Ninja films, the vigilante thriller Exterminator 2, Cannon’s output was far more varied, with musical and comedy films such as Breakin’, Breakin’ 2: Electric Boogaloo, The Last American Virgin, the U. S. release of The Apple. One of Cannon’s biggest hits was the Vietnam action B-movie Missing in Action, with Chuck Norris.
The film, was criticized as being a preemptive cash-in on the Rambo film series. James Cameron's story treatment for Rambo: First Blood Part II was floating around Hollywood in 1983, which Golan and Globus reviewed and were "inspired" by; the writers of MIA gave Cameron credit saying their film was inspired by his script treatment. But Cannon had put the prequel Missing in Action 2: The Beginning into production. Only after the two movies were completed had the company realized that the planned second movie was superior to the first one. So, the first movie produced became an awkward prequel. During these years, Cannon worked with entertainment-advertising company Design Projects, Inc. for most of the one-sheet posters, trade advertising, large billboards prominently displayed at the Cannes Film Festival each year. Substantial pre-sales of the next years' films were made based on the strong salesmanship skills of Globus, the advertising created by Design Projects; the deposits made from these sales financed production of the first film in the production line-up, which—when completed and delivered to theatre owners around the world—generated enough money to make the next film in the line-up.
Slavenburg's bank in the Netherlands provided bridge financing until the pre-sales amounts were collected. The bank was central in the Slavenburg affair, a famous case of company fraud begun in 1983 and ending in 1990 with the conviction of four members of the management team. Slavenburg's bank was discovered to be laundering the profits of organised crime, sex clubs and the underworld, as well as being complicit in financial fraud committed by private individuals. Slavenburg's was bought in 1983 by Crédit Lyonnais. By 1986, output reached an apex with 43 films in one year. Golan remained Chairman of the Board. During this year, Cannon Films released Robotech: The Movie for a limited run in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Cannon was unsatisfied with Carl Macek’s first version of the movie, a straight adaptation of the anime Megazone 23, it was at their insistence that footage from The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Megazone 23 be spliced together to produce a more action-oriented movie.
Macek recalls that although he was unhappy with this revised version, Menahem Golan, after viewing it said: "Now that’s a Cannon movie!" Robotech: The Movie was unsuccessful in its brief Texas run and saw no further release. Carl Macek has gone on record as disowning it. Film critic Roger Ebert said of Golan-Globus in 1987, "no other production organization in the world today—certainly not any of the seven Hollywood'majors'—has taken more chances with serious, marginal films than Cannon." That year, Cannon gained its greatest artistic success: its 1986 Dutch production The Assault won the 1987 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and a Golden Globe Award for B
Nastassja Aglaia Kinski is a German actress and former model who has appeared in more than 60 films in Europe and the United States. Her worldwide breakthrough was with Stay, she came to global prominence with her Golden Globe Award–winning performance as the title character in the Roman Polanski–directed film Tess. Other notable films in which she acted include the erotic horror film Cat People, the Wim Wenders dramas Paris and Faraway, So Close!, the biographical drama film An American Rhapsody. Kinski is fluent in four languages: German, English and Italian. Kinski was born in Berlin as Nastassja Aglaia Nakszynski, she is the daughter of renowned German actor Klaus Kinski and his second wife, actress Ruth Brigitte Tocki. She is for her grandfather Bruno Nakszynski was a Germanized ethnic Pole. Kinski has two half-siblings, her parents divorced in 1968. After the age of 10, Kinski saw her father, her mother struggled financially to support them. In a 1999 interview, Kinski denied that her father had molested her as a child, but said he had abused her "in other ways".
In 2013, when interviewed about the allegations of sexual abuse made by her half-sister Pola Kinski, she confirmed that he attempted with her, but did not succeed. She said: Kinski began working as a model as a teenager in Germany. Actress Lisa Kreuzer of the German New Wave helped get her the role of the mute Mignon in Wim Wenders 1975 film The Wrong Move, in which at the age of 12 she was depicted topless, she played one of the leading roles in Wenders' film Paris and appeared in his Faraway, So Close. In 1976, while still a teenager, Kinski had her first two major roles: in Wolfgang Petersen's feature film-length episode Reifezeugnis of the German TV crime series Tatort. Next, she appeared in the British horror film To the Devil a Daughter, produced by Hammer Film Productions, released in the UK just 40 days after Kinski's fifteenth birthday, making it a virtual certainty she was only fourteen when her scenes were shot. In regards to her early films, Kinski has stated. In an interview with W, she said, "If I had had somebody to protect me or if I had felt more secure about myself, I would not have accepted certain things.
Nudity things. And inside it was just tearing me apart."In 1978, Kinski starred in the Italian romance Stay as You Are with Marcello Mastroianni, gaining her recognition in the United States after New Line Cinema released it there in December 1979. Time wrote that she was "simply ravishing, genuinely sexy and high-spirited without being painfully aggressive about it." The film received a major international release from Columbia Pictures. Kinski met the director Roman Polanski at a party in 1976, he urged her to study method acting with Lee Strasberg in the United States and she was offered the title role in Polanski's upcoming film, Tess. In 1978, Kinski underwent extensive preparation for the portrayal of an English peasant girl, which included acquiring a Dorset accent through elocution studies: The film was nominated for six awards, including Best Picture, at the 53rd Academy Awards, won three. In 1981, Richard Avedon photographed Kinski with a Burmese python coiled around her nude body; the image, which first appeared in the October 1981 issue of US Vogue, was released as a poster and became a best-seller, further confirming her status as a sex symbol.
In 1982, she starred in Francis Ford Coppola's romantic musical One from the Heart, her first film made in the United States. Texas Monthly described her as acting "as a Felliniesque circus performer to represent the twinkling evanescence of Eros." The film was a major loss for Coppola's new Zoetrope Studios. That year, she was in the erotic horror movie Cat People. Dudley Moore's comedy Unfaithfully Yours and an adaptation of John Irving's The Hotel New Hampshire followed in 1984. Kinski reteamed with Texas. One of her most acclaimed films to date, it won the top award at the Cannes Film Festival. Throughout the 1980s, Kinski split her time between Europe and the United States, making Moon in the Gutter and Torrents of Spring in Europe, Exposed, Maria's Lovers and Revolution in the United States. During the 1990s, Kinski appeared in a number of American films, including the action movie Terminal Velocity opposite Charlie Sheen, the Mike Figgis 1997 adultery tale One Night Stand, Your Friends & Neighbors, John Landis' Susan's Plan, The Lost Son.
Her most recent films include Rotimi Rainwater's Sugar. In 2016, she competed in the German Let's Dance show. In 1976, when Kinski was aged 15, she began a romantic relationship with director Roman Polanski, who at the time was 43. In a 1999 interview in The Guardian, she was quoted as saying that there was categorically no affair and that, "There was a flirtation. There could have been a seduction, he had respect for me." In the mid-1980s, Kinski met the Egyptian filmmaker Ibrahim Moussa. They married on 10 September 1984, they have two children together. The marriage was dissolved in 1992. From 1992 until 1995, Kinski lived with musician Quincy Jones, though she kept her own apartment on Hilgard Avenue, near UCLA, at the time. In 1993, they had a daughter, Kenya Julia Niambi Sarah Jones, a model known professionally as Kenya Kinski-Jones. In 20
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per