Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg was Holy Roman Empress, Queen of the Germans, Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, Archduchess consort of Austria etc. as the spouse of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. Wilhelmine Amalia was the youngest daughter of John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Princess Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate, her two surviving sisters were Charlotte Felicitas, who married the Duke of Modena, Henriette Marie, who never married. Wilhelmina was given a Catholic education by her great-aunt Louise Holladine at the convent of Maubuisson, did not return to Hanover until she was 20 years old, in 1693. Early on, the Holy Roman Empress Eleonor Magdalene of the Palatinate-Neuburg decided that Wilhelmina Amalia would be her daughter-in-law. Prince Salm was instrumental in speaking for her candidacy; the adviser of Eleonor, Marco d'Aviano, had convinced her that Wilhelmine Amalia, being pious and older than Joseph, could act as a tempering influence and discontinue his sex life outside of marriage, to Leopold, he claimed that he had a vision that the pair would be happy.
She was subjected to medical examination to establish if she was fertile, though she was senior to Joseph, to her disadvantage, it was decided that her mental maturity would benefit fertilization. As a result, on 24 February 1699, she married Eleonor's son, Archduke Joseph, the heir of Emperor Leopold I. At their wedding, the opera Hercule and Hebe by Reinhard Keiser was performed. Upon Joseph's election as Emperor in 1705, she became Empress of the Holy Roman Empire, she had three children: Archduchess Maria Josepha. Her relationship with her husband was described as happy, but it soon deteriorated. Joseph had a long line of mistresses, both servants and nobles, such as Princess Dorothea Porcia, born Countess von und zu Daun, his hunting companion Count Johann Philip von Lamberg provided him with lovers, he had a long term relationship with Countess Marianne Pálffy, who became his official mistress. This was a scandal, as official mistresses had not been a custom at the Austrian court, both Wilhelmine Amalia and the pope protested.
Her mother-in-law supported her, scolding Joseph and placed his procurers in prison, but after he became emperor, nothing could be done. He had no surviving male heir with his spouse. In 1704, Joseph contracted a venereal disease from the daughter of a gardener, passed the disease to his wife; because of the prudishness of the Austrian court, she did not know what had happened to her and blamed herself for the infection. It has been suggested that this condition was the reason for the failure of the Empress to produce more children after the birth of her second daughter. Without male heirs, a crisis developed in regards to the imperial succession; as empress, Wilhelmine Amalia as well as her successor were described as accomplished in music, discretion and diligence, was regarded to fulfill her representational role as empress well both within the Spanish court protocol of hunting and balls and amateur theater as well as the religious devotion days of pietas austriaca. Joseph did not allow her any political influence what so and kept her outside of state affairs as he did his mother and mistress Marianne Pàlffy, but she was described as intelligent and self-sufficient and she established political connections among the ministers her relative Prince Salm, whom she supported when he promoted the interests of the Holy German Empire against Austria.
She is described as an active participator in dynastic intrigue, assisted in the marriage between her cousin and brother-in-law. She worked with the Hanoverian envoy to benefit interests of her family the Guelphs. In 1711, Wilhelmine Amalia was widowed, her mother-in-law became the interim regent until her brother-in-law, the Archduke Charles, could return from Spain where he was the Austrian nominee for the Spanish throne during the War of the Spanish Succession. At the death of her spouse, the stress caused the venereal disease of Wilhelmine Amalia to return in full force after several years remission; when Charles returned, he was proclaimed as the new Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI. His inability to produce male heirs irked Charles VI and led to the promulgation of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a document which abolished male-only succession and declared his lands indivisible; the new Emperor favoured his own daughters over those of Joseph I and Wilhelmine Amalia, in the succession, ignoring a decree he had signed during the reign of his father, Leopold I.
She as well as her mother-in-law was active in fighting for their daughter's right to the throne. By the secret pactum mutuae successionis of 1703, Leopold had made an agreement with his sons that the daughters of Joseph would be first in the line of succession, followed by those of Charles and Leopold, though none of the empresses knew of the existence of the document, there had been talk of it, Joseph had hinted about it to Wilhelmine Amalia. Baron Seilern showed Wilhelmine Amalia the document before it was presented to the head of her family, the elector of Hanover. In 1712, the elector sent the famous Gottfried Leibniz to her to assist her in defending her daughters rights against Charles, on 21 April 1713, Charles VI presented the Pragmatic Sanction
Archduke was the title borne from 1358 by the Habsburg rulers of the Archduchy of Austria, by all senior members of that dynasty. It denotes a rank within the former Holy Roman Empire, below that of Emperor and King and above that of a Grand Duke and Prince; the territory ruled by an Archduke or Archduchess was called an Archduchy. All remaining Archduchies ceased to exist in 1918; the English word is first recorded in 1530, derived from Middle, via Old, French archeduc, from Merovingian Latin archidux, from Greek arch-, ἀρχι- meaning "authority" or "primary" and dux "duke" "Archduke" is a title distinct from "Grand Duke", a monarchic title borne by the rulers of other European countries. The first known claim to the title of Archduke was by the rulers of Austrasia, one of the Merovingian realms resulting from the complex successions in the house of Clovis comprising Germany and the Low Countries. In the Carolingian Empire, the title Archduke was awarded not as rank of nobility, but as a unique honorary title to the Duke of Lotharingia.
The Lotharingian Duchy could be seen as the successor to the former Carolingian Kingdom of Lotharingia, a realm, of equal stature with West Francia in the dynastic divisions under the early heirs of Charlemagne. Lotharingia was absorbed by East Francia, becoming part of the Holy Roman Empire rather than a independent Kingdom. After the split of the Duchy of Lotharingia in 959 into the Duchies of Upper Lotharingia in the south and Lower Lotharingia in the north, the title Archduke disappeared for 400 years; the extended fragmentation of both territories created two "succeeding" Duchies in the Low Countries and Geldre. Both claimed archducal status but were never recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Archduke of Austria, the only archducal title to re-emerge, was invented in the Privilegium Maius in the 14th century by Duke Rudolf IV of Austria, it was meant to emphasize the claimed precedence of the Duchy of Austria, in an effort to put the Habsburgs on an level with the Prince-Electors of the Holy Roman Empire, as Austria had been passed over when the Golden Bull of 1356 assigned that dignity to the four highest-ranking secular Imperial princes and three Archbishops.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV refused to recognise the title, as did all the other ruling dynasties of the member countries of the Empire. But Duke Ernest the Iron and his descendants unilaterally assumed the title of Archduke; the archducal title was only recognized in 1453 by Emperor Frederick III, when the Habsburgs had solidified their grip on the throne of the de jure elected Holy Roman Emperor, making it de facto hereditary. Despite that imperial authorization of the title, which showed a Holy Roman Emperor from the Habsburg dynasty deciding over a title claim of the Habsburg dynasty, many ruling dynasties of the countries which formed the Empire refused to recognize the title "Archduke". Ladislaus the Posthumous, Duke of Austria, who died in 1457, did never get in his lifetime the imperial authorization to use it, accordingly, neither he nor anyone in his branch of the dynasty used the title. Emperor Frederick III himself used the title "Duke of Austria", never Archduke, until his death in 1493.
The title was first granted to Frederick's younger brother, Albert VI of Austria, who used it at least from 1458. In 1477, Frederick III granted the title of Archduke to his first cousin, Sigismund of Austria, ruler of Further Austria. Frederick's son and heir, the future Emperor Maximilian I, started to use the title, but only after the death of his wife Mary of Burgundy, as Archduke never appears in documents issued jointly by Maximilian and Mary as rulers in the Low Countries; the title appears first in documents issued under the joint rule of Maximilian and his son Philip in the Low Countries. Archduke was borne by those dynasts who ruled a Habsburg territory—i.e. Only by males and their consorts, appanages being distributed to cadets, but these "junior" archdukes did not thereby become sovereign hereditary rulers, since all territories remained vested in the Austrian crown. A territory might be combined with a separate gubernatorial mandate ruled by an archducal cadet. From the 16th century onward, "Archduke" and its female form, "Archduchess", came to be used by all the members of the House of Habsburg.
Upon extinction of the male line of the Habsburgs and the marriage of their heiress, the Holy Roman Empress-consort Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Archduchess of Austria, to Francis Stephen, Duke of Lorraine, elected Holy Roman Emperor, their descendants formed the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire this usage was retained in the Austrian Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the official use of titles of nobility and of all other hereditary ti
Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria
Maximilian III Joseph was a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria from 1745 to 1777. Born in Munich, Maximilian was the eldest son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VII and his wife, Maria Amalia of Austria, daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I. Upon his father's death in January 1745, he inherited a country in the process of being invaded by Austrian armies; the 18-year-old Maximilian Joseph wavered between the Peace-party, led by his mother Maria Amalia of Austria and Army Commander Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff and the War-party, led by Foreign Minister General Ignaz Count of Törring and the French envoy Chavigny. After the decisive defeat in the Battle of Pfaffenhofen on 15 April Maximilian Joseph abandoned his father's imperial pretenses and made peace with Maria Theresa in the Treaty of Füssen, in which he agreed to support her husband, Grand Duke Francis Stephen of Tuscany, in the upcoming imperial election. During the Seven Years' War Bavarian forces fought on the Habsburg side.
Maximilian Joseph's sister Maria Josepha of Bavaria was married in 1765 to Maria Theresa's son Emperor Joseph II. But long-term weakening of Prussia was not in the Bavarian interest, as that country offered the only counterweight to the Habsburg monarchy. Maximilian Joseph tried, as far as possible. Apart from militia troops, he sent only a small force of 4,000 men to join the Austrian army. In 1758/1759, he withdrew Bavarian auxiliary troops from Austrian service. Together with the Wittelsbach Elector Charles Theodore of the Palatinate he enforced the neutrality of the Empire during the conflict. Maximilian Joseph was a progressive and enlightened ruler who did much to improve the development of his country, he encouraged agriculture and exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press. In 1747 the Nymphenburg Porcelain Factory was established, while the Codex Maximilianeus bavaricus civilis was written in 1756. In 1759, he founded the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.
During the severe famine in 1770 Maximilian sold some of the crown jewels to pay for grain imports to relieve hunger. In that year, he issued an edict against the extravagant pomposity of the Church which contributed to the end of the era of Bavarian rococo, he forbade the Oberammergau Passion Play. In 1771 the elector regulated general school attendance. In December 1777 Maximilian Joseph rode in his carriage through Munich. Commenting to the passengers, Max Joseph decided this was an omen, that his years had run out. Within days, he was stricken with a strange disease. None of his 15 doctors could diagnose it, but by Christmas, it had become clear that it was a virulent strain of smallpox, called "purple small pox" at the time. By the last day of the month he was dead without leaving an heir. Maximilian III Joseph is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich; as the last of the junior branch of the Wittelsbach dynasty which derived from Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor and had ruled Bavaria since early 14th century, Maximilian's death led to a succession dispute and the brief War of the Bavarian Succession.
He was succeeded by his distant cousin, the Elector Palatine Charles Theodore from the senior branch of the dynasty. Maximilian's widow Maria Anna Sophia of Saxony and Maximilian's sister Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria as well as Maria Anna of Palatinate-Sulzbach, the widow of the former Bavarian crown prince Duke Clement Francis of Bavaria negotiated with Prussia to secure Bavaria's independence from Austria, which had invaded portions of the duchy after the Elector's death. Maximilian III Joseph ordered in 1751 François de Cuvilliés to construct the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre and in 1755 the Stone Hall of Nymphenburg Palace, he ordered to decorate some rooms of the New Schleissheim Palace in rococo style. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was received by Maximilian III Joseph, like his sister Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria skilled in music and composed, but due to a need for strict frugality no post could be offered. In 1775 La finta giardiniera, an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, received its first performance at the Salvatortheater in Munich.
In 1770 Maximilian III Joseph established the precursor of the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich
Duchess Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Charlotte of Brunswick-Lüneburg was a German noblewoman. She was born into the House of Hanover and married into the House of Este, she was thus the Duchess of Modena by marriage. She died in childbirth; some sources refer to her as Charlotte. Born at Schloss Herrenhausen in Hanover, a palace destroyed in World War II, she was the eldest surviving daughter of John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his wife, Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate, her father had been the ruler of Brunswick-Lüneburg since 1665 and her parents had been married since 1668. Charlotte had two younger sisters: Princess Henrietta and Princess Wilhelmina Amalia, who made a prestigious marriage in 1699 to the Holy Roman Emperor, Joseph I. Charlotte married Rinaldo d'Este in Modena on 11 February 1696; the youngest child of Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena and his third wife Lucrezia Barberini, Rinaldo had been created a cardinal in 1685, but he left the church in 1694 to succeed his nephew Francesco II as Duke of Modena.
Rinaldo wanted to encourage relations between Modena and Brunswick, whose ruling house was the House of Hanover. The marriage was celebrated splendidly despite financial problems in Modena. Charlotte fled Modena for Bologna in 1702 along with the rest of the Modenese royal family in order to avoid French troops in Italy due to the War of the Spanish Succession, her husband was sixteen years older than Charlotte. After her death, her son Francesco, the ducal heir, married in 1721 Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans, the daughter of Philippe d'Orléans, the Régent of France during the childhood of King Louis XV, her second daughter, went on to marry first in 1727 Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma and, after his death in 1731, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. Charlotte died at the Ducal Palace of Modena after giving birth to a daughter in September 1710; the child died. She was buried at the Church of San Vincenzo in Modena, her son succeeded as Duke of Modena in 1737. Benedetta Maria Ernesta d'Este died unmarried.
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony
Frederick Christian was the Prince-Elector of Saxony for fewer than three months in 1763. He was a member of the House of Wettin, he was the third but eldest surviving son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria. A weak child since his birth, he suffered paralysis in one foot and was dependent on wheelchairs early in life. In a well-known portrait, which shows his Wettin and Wittelsbach relatives around him, he appears in his wheelchair. Today, this painting is shown in the Schloss Nymphenburg, his mother tried to induce him to take monastic vows and renounce his succession rights in favour of his younger brothers, but he refused. The early deaths of his two older brothers, Frederick Augustus, stillborn, Joseph Augustus, made him the heir to the throne; when his father died, on 5 October 1763, Frederick Christian succeeded him as Elector. Before, Frederick Christian had written in his diary: "Princes exist for their subjects, not subjects for their princes.
His subjects' wealth, public credit and a well-standing army make up the true happiness of a prince," thereby declaring himself open to the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment. He was known for his considerable musical talent. In Munich on 13 June 1747 and again in Dresden on 20 June 1747, Frederick Christian married his cousin Maria Antonia of Bavaria. Like him, she was exceptionally talented in music and the couple had nine children. One of his first acts as Elector was the dismissal of the unpopular prime minister, the Count Heinrich von Brühl, who had plunged Saxony into crisis, first with his failed economic policy, but by his catastrophic foreign policy, which caused the Electorate to become involved in the Seven Years' War, he began to reconstruct the wrecked finances of his country through his "Rétablissements": reforms of the policies of the electorate states. Through economic reconstruction, he gave new life to the devastated and plundered land which his predecessors had left him. Introduced were measures to pare down the expenses of the court, to simplify administration in accordance with principles of economy.
Most members of his government, such as Thomas von Fritsch of Leipzig, Friedrich Ludwig Wurmb, Christian Gotthelf Gutschmied had middle-class origins. After a reign of only 74 days, Frederick Christian died of smallpox, he was buried in the Hofkirche of Dresden. Because Frederick Christian's eldest son was a minor, his brother Franz Xavier and the Dowager Electress Maria Antonia took the joint regency of the Electorate until the boy's majority. A son Frederick Augustus I of Saxony married Amalie of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, had issue Karl Maximilian Maria Anton Johann Nepomuk Aloys Franz Xavier Januar died unmarried Joseph Maria Ludwig Johann Nepomuck Aloys Gonzaga Franz Xavier Januar Anton de Padua Polycarp died in infancy Anton of Saxony married Maria Carolina of Savoy, no issue. 5 September 1722 – 1 February 1733 His Serene Highness Prince Friedrich Christian of Saxony 1 February 1733 – 5 October 1763 His Serene Highness The Electoral Prince of Saxony 5 October 1763 – 17 December 1763 His Serene Highness The Elector of Saxony History of Saxony Rulers of Saxony Dresden Castle – Residence of Frederick Christian Media related to Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony at Wikimedia Commons