2007 Military World Games
The 2007 Military World Games were held at the twin-cities Hyderabad - Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India from October 14–21, 2007. Some parts of games were held in Mumbai. According to press release by the organizers nearly 5000 athletes from 101 countries participated; the motto of the games was Friendship Through Sport. Russia emerged on top of the medal tally with 29 silver and 29 bronze medals; the People's Republic of China, second with 38 gold, 22 silver and 13 bronze while Germany came a distant third with 7 gold, 10 silver and 13 bronze. The Military Games torch began its journey from Leh to Kanya Kumari on August 4, 2007 and reached New Delhi on August 5, 2007; the blasts in August 2007 at two locations in the venue city of the games created doubt as to whether the games would be held, but the organizers confirmed the event would be on schedule and as planned. It was known that the terror cell that carried the blasts in the city planned to attack the military games; the opening ceremony of the games was held at Hyderabad.
President of India Pratibha Patil declared the games open. Games ended on 21 October; the Defence Minister of India, Shri A. K. Antony declared the games closed at the G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium A total of fourteen sports were contested at the Games. * Host nation Archived version of official website CISM website Media related to 2007 Military World Games at Wikimedia Commons
The Universiade is an international multi-sport event, organized for university athletes by the International University Sports Federation. The name is a combination of the words "University" and "olympiad"; the Universiade is referred to in English as the World University Games or World Student Games. The most recent games were in 2017: the Winter Universiade was in Almaty, while the Summer Universiade was held in Taipei, Taiwan; the 2019 Winter Universiade took place in Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation, between 2 and 12 March 2019, the 2019 Summer Universiade will be held in Naples, Italy between 3 and 14 July. The idea of a global international sports competition between student-athletes pre-dates the 1949 formation of the International University Sports Federation, which now hosts the Universiade. English peace campaigner Hodgson Pratt was an early advocate of such an event, proposing a motion at the 1891 Universal Peace Congress in Rome to create a series of international student conferences in rotating host capital cities, with activities including art and sport.
This did not come to pass, but a similar event was created in Germany in 1909 in the form of the Academic Olympia. Five editions were held from 1909 to 1913, all of which were hosted in Germany following the cancellation of an Italy-based event. At the start of the 20th century, Jean Petitjean of France began attempting to organise a "University Olympic Games". After discussion with Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Petitjean was convinced not to use the word "Olympic" in the tournament's name. Petitjean, the Confederation Internationale des Etudiants, was the first to build a series of international events, beginning with the 1923 International Universities Championships; this was followed by the renamed 1924 Summer Student World Championships a year and two further editions were held in 1927 and 1928. Another name change resulted in the 1930 International University Games; the CIE's International University Games was held four more times in the 1930s before having its final edition in 1947.
A separate group organised an alternative university games in 1939 in Vienna, in post-Anschluss Germany. The onset of World War II ceased all major international student sport activities and the aftermath led to division among the movement, as the CIE was disbanded and rival organisations emerged; the Union Internationale des Étudiants incorporated a university sports games into the World Festival of Youth and Students from 1947–1962, including one separate, unofficial games in 1954. This event principally catered for Eastern European countries. After the closure of the CIE and the creation of the first UIE-organised games, FISU came into being in 1949 and held its own first major student sport event the same year in the form of the 1949 Summer International University Sports Week; the Sports Week was held biennially until 1955. Like the CIE's games before it, the FISU events were Western-led sports competitions. Division between the Western European FISU and Eastern European UIE began to dissipate among broadened participation at the 1957 World University Games.
This event was not directly organised by either group, instead being organised by Jean Petitjean in France, but all respective nations from the groups took part. The FISU-organised Universiade became the direct successor to this competition, maintaining the biennial format into the inaugural 1959 Universiade, it was not until the 1957 World University Games that the Soviet Union began to compete in FISU events. That same year, what had been a European competition became a global one, with the inclusion of Brazil and the United States among the competing nations; the increased participation led to the establishment of the Universiade as the primary global student sport championship. 1 The Republic of China is recognised as Chinese Taipei by FISU and the majority of international organisations it participates in due to political considerations and Cross-Strait relations with the People's Republic of China. World University Championships International University Sports Federation International Children's Games Official website of the International University Sports Federation Official website of the German University Sports Federation Official report of the Winter Universiade Innsbruck / Seefeld 2005 Yahoo News: 2017 Taipei Universiade, 87% box-office success as the highest ever
2005 European Athletics Junior Championships
The 2005 European Athletics Junior Championships was the 18th edition of the biennial athletics competition for European under-20 athletes, held in Kaunas, Lithuania on 21–24 July. Results at site European Athletics European Junior Championships 2005. World Junior Athletics History. Retrieved on 2013-05-12
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
The Mediterranean Games are a multi-sport games held every four years, between nations around or close to the Mediterranean Sea, where Europe and Asia meet. The games are under the auspices of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games; the idea was proposed at the 1948 Summer Olympics by Muhammed Taher Pasha, chairman of the Egyptian Olympic Committee and vice-president of the International Olympic Committee, assisted by the Greek member of the I. O. C. Ioannis Ketseas. In 1949 an unofficial event was held in Istanbul, Turkey but the first official Mediterranean Games were held in Egypt in 1951; the Games were inaugurated in October 1951, in Alexandria, Egypt, in honour of Muhammed Taher Pasha, with contests being held in 13 sports along with the participation of 734 athletes from 10 countries. In 1955, in Barcelona, during the II Games, the set up was decided of a Supervisory and Controlling Body for the Games, a kind of Executive Committee; the decisions were materialized on 16 June 1961, the said Body was named, upon a Greek notion, ICMG.
Twelve countries were hosted for Mediterranean Games - four from Africa: Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The first 11 games took place always one year preceding the Summer Olympic Games. However, from 1993 on, they were held the year following the Olympic games; this transition meant that the only time the Mediterranean Games were not held four years after the previous Games was in 1993, when Languedoc-Roussillon in France hosted the Games just two years after Athens. The Mediterranean Games, in terms of the preparation and composition of the National Delegation, are held under the auspices of the International Olympic Committee and the Hellenic Olympic Committee. However, their establishment too must be credited to the HOC, for it held a leading part in their being founded despite all difficulties. Athens is the permanent seat of the ICMG and the Committee’s General Secretary is Greek; this comes as a further tribute to Greece, highlighting its leading role with regard to the function and strengthening of the institution.
Except that Greece bailed out of its 2013 Mediterranean Games commitment when the two cities of Volos and Larissa were supposed to host the 2013 edition of the Games. But because of Greece's financial troubles, they had to give that up and the 2013 honors went instead to Turkey, with the city of Mersin rescuing the 2013 edition of the Games instead; the logo of the games referred to as the "Mediterranean Olympics", is composed of three white rings symbolically representing Africa and Europe — the three continents that border the Mediterranean Sea. This logo has been used since the Split games in 1979, for which it was devised and afterwards accepted for the whole Games. During the closing ceremony, the flag of the games is transferred to the country of the city chosen for the organization of the next Mediterranean Games. At present, 26 countries participate in the games: Africa: Algeria, Libya and Tunisia Asia: Lebanon and Syria. Europe: Albania, Andorra and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Monaco, North Macedonia, San Marino, Slovenia and Turkey.
Kosovo was accepted as a member of the International Committee of Mediterranean Games in October 2015 and participated for the first time in the 2018 Mediterranean Games in Tarragona, Spain. Of all the National Olympic Committees within the Olympic Movement bordering the Mediterranean Sea and Palestine have not participated in the games, nor has Great Britain who represents the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. In the case of Israel, Allen Guttman in The Games Must Go On argued that Israel's exclusion is both antisemitic and politically motivated due to antagonism towards Israel by the participating Arab nations; the IOC's Avery Brundage was not supportive of Israel's desire to compete, saying: "I cannot understand why anyone wants to go where he is not wanted". The International Amateur Athletics Federation pushed the issue at the 1959 Mediterranean Games in Beirut by refusing to grant permission to hold an athletics competition unless Israel were allowed to compete. Lebanese games organizer Gabriel Gemayel conceded to this, but sidestepped the ruling by holding a parallel Lebanese Games comprising athletics events between the present nations alongside the official Mediterranean Games competitions.
There are countries not bordering the Mediterranean Sea which nonetheless participate: Portugal, Kosovo, San Marino and North Macedonia. The Hellenic Olympic Committee has suggested that nine more countries that do not satisfy geographic criteria could be allowed to participate, such as Bulgaria, some Arab countries such as Jordan and Iraq. Portugal competed in the 2018 Mediterranean Games after a decision which approved Portugal as effective National Olympic Committee; the symbol of the Mediterranean Games consists of three rings representing Asia and Europe, the three continents involved in this competition. The rings dissolve in a wavy line in their lower part, as if they were immersed in the Mediterranean Sea. During the closing ceremony, the flag is transferred to the country of the city chosen to host the next Mediterranean Games. No inland city has hosted the games. All but one of the host cities to date have been situated on the Mediterranean coast; the International Mediterranean Games Committee held a
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep; the city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand, has a population of over eight million, or 12.6 percent of the country's population. Over fourteen million people lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok the nation's primate city dwarfing Thailand's other urban centres in terms of importance. Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West; the city was at the centre of Thailand's political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, underwent numerous coups and several uprisings.
The city grew during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand's politics, education and modern society. The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok; the city is now a regional force in business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, has emerged as a centre for the arts and entertainment; the city is known for cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world's top tourist destinations, has been named the world's most visited city in several rankings. Bangkok's rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. An inadequate road network, despite an extensive expressway network, together with substantial private car usage, have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s.
The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem. Five rapid transit lines are now in operation, with more systems under construction or planned by the national government and the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration; the history of Bangkok dates at least back to the early 15th century, when it was a village on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, under the rule of Ayutthaya. Because of its strategic location near the mouth of the river, the town increased in importance. Bangkok served as a customs outpost with forts on both sides of the river, was the site of a siege in 1688 in which the French were expelled from Siam. After the fall of Ayutthaya to the Burmese Empire in 1767, the newly crowned King Taksin established his capital at the town, which became the base of the Thonburi Kingdom. In 1782, King Phutthayotfa Chulalok succeeded Taksin, moved the capital to the eastern bank's Rattanakosin Island, thus founding the Rattanakosin Kingdom; the City Pillar was erected on 21 April 1782, regarded as the date of foundation of the present city.
Bangkok's economy expanded through international trade, first with China with Western merchants returning in the early to-mid 19th century. As the capital, Bangkok was the centre of Siam's modernization as it faced pressure from Western powers in the late-19th century; the reigns of Kings Mongkut and Chulalongkorn saw the introduction of the steam engine, printing press, rail transport and utilities infrastructure in the city, as well as formal education and healthcare. Bangkok became the centre stage for power struggles between the military and political elite as the country abolished absolute monarchy in 1932. Allied with Japan in World War II, it was subjected to Allied bombing, but grew in the post-war period as a result of US aid and government-sponsored investment. Bangkok's role as a US military R&R destination boosted its tourism industry as well as establishing it as a sex tourism destination. Disproportionate urban development led to increasing income inequalities and migration from rural areas into Bangkok.
Following the US withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973, Japanese businesses took over as leaders in investment, the expansion of export-oriented manufacturing led to growth of the financial market in Bangkok. Rapid growth of the city continued through the 1980s and early 1990s, until it was stalled by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. By many public and social issues had emerged, among them the strain on infrastructure reflected in the city's notorious traffic jams. Bangkok's role as the nation's political stage continues to be seen in strings of popular protests, from the student uprisings in 1973 and 1976, anti-military demonstrations in 1992, successive anti-government demonstrations by opposing groups from 2008 on. Administration of the city was first formalized by King Chulalongkorn in 1906, with the establishment of Monthon Krung Thep Phra Maha Nakhon as a national subdivision. In 1915 the monthon was split into several provinces, the administrative boundaries of which have since further changed.
The city in its current form was created in 1972 with the formation of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, following the merger of Phra Nakhon Province on the eastern bank of the Chao Phraya and Thonburi Province on the west during the previous year. The origin of th
Sprinting is running over a short distance in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running as a way of reaching a target or goal, or avoiding or catching an opponent. Human physiology dictates that a runner's near-top speed cannot be maintained for more than 30–35 seconds due to the depletion of phosphocreatine stores in muscles, secondarily to excessive metabolic acidosis as a result of anaerobic glycolysis. In athletics and track and field, sprints are races over short distances, they are among the oldest running competitions, being recorded at the Ancient Olympic Games. Three sprints are held at the modern Summer Olympics and outdoor World Championships: the 100 metres, 200 metres, 400 metres. At the professional level, sprinters begin the race by assuming a crouching position in the starting blocks before leaning forward and moving into an upright position as the race progresses and momentum is gained; the set position differs depending on the start. Body alignment is of key importance in producing the optimal amount of force.
Ideally the athlete should begin in a 4-point stance and push off using both legs for maximum force production. Athletes remain in the same lane on the running track throughout all sprinting events, with the sole exception of the 400 m indoors. Races up to 100 m are focused upon acceleration to an athlete's maximum speed. All sprints beyond this distance incorporate an element of endurance; the first 13 editions of the Ancient Olympic Games featured only one event—the stadion race, a spriting race from one end of the stadium to the other. The Diaulos was a double-stadion race, c. 400 metres, introduced in the 14th Olympiad of the ancient Olympic Games. The modern sprinting events have their roots in races of imperial measurements which were altered to metric: the 100 m evolved from the 100-yard dash, the 200 m distance came from the furlong, the 400 m was the successor to the 440-yard dash or quarter-mile race. Biological factors that determine a sprinter's potential include: The 60 metres is run indoors, on a straight section of an indoor athletic track.
Since races at this distance can last around six or seven seconds, having good reflexes and thus getting off to a quick start is more vital in this race than any other. This is the distance required for a human to reach maximum speed and can be run with one breath, it is popular for testing in other sports. The world record in this event is held by American sprinter Christian Coleman with a time of 6.34 seconds. 60-metres is used as an outdoor distance by younger athletes. Note: Indoor distances are less standardized as many facilities run shorter or longer distances depending on available space. 60m is the championship distance. The 100 metres sprint takes place on one length of the home straight of a standard outdoor 400 m track; the world-record holder in this race is considered "the world's fastest man/woman." The current world record of 9.58 seconds is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica and was set on 16 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The women's world record was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner.
World class male sprinters need 41 to 50 strides to cover the whole 100 metres distances. The 200 metres begins on the curve of a standard track, ends on the home straight; the ability to "run a good bend" is key at the distance, as a well conditioned runner will be able to run 200 m in an average speed higher than their 100 m speed. Usain Bolt, ran 200 m in the world-record time of 19.19 sec, an average speed of 10.422 m/s, whereas he ran 100 m in the world-record time of 9.58 sec, an average speed of 10.438 m/s. Indoors, the race is run as one lap of the track, with only slower times than outdoors. A shorter race, the stadion, was the first recorded event at the ancient Olympic Games and the oldest known formal sports event in history; the world record in this event is 19.19 seconds, held by Usain Bolt and was set on 20 August 2009, at the 2009 World Athletics Championships. The 400 metres is one lap around the track on the inside lane. Runners are staggered in their starting positions to ensure.
While this event is classified as a sprint, there is more scope to use tactics in the race. The world record is held by Wayde van Niekerk with a time of 43.03 seconds in Rio Olympic 2016 in 400m final The 4×100 metres relay is another prestigious event, with an average speed, quicker than the 100 m, as the runners can start moving before they receive the baton. The world record in this event is 36.84 seconds, held by the Jamaican team as set 11 August 2012 at the Games of the XXX Olympiad held in London. The 4x400 metres relay is held at track and field meetings, is by tradition the final event at major championships; the event was a common event for most American students, because it was one of the standardized test events as part of the President's Award on Physical Fitness. The 50 metres is an uncommon alternative to the 60 metres. Donovan Bailey holds the men's world record with a time of 5.56 seconds and Irina Privalova holds the women's world record with a time of 5.96 seconds. A run sprinting event, once more commonplace.
The world record