Electorate of Cologne
The Electorate of Cologne, sometimes referred to as Electoral Cologne, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the 10th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the Hochstift — the temporal possessions — of the Archbishop of Cologne and ruled by him in his capacity as prince-elector. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Mainz and the Electorate of Trier; the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne was Arch-chancellor of Italy and, as such, ranked second among all ecclesiastical and secular princes of the Empire, after the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz, before that of Trier. The capital of the electorate was Cologne. Conflicts with the citizens of Cologne caused the Elector to move to Bonn; the Free Imperial City of Cologne was recognized after 1475, thus removing it from the nominal secular authority of the Elector. Cologne and Bonn were occupied by France in 1794; the right bank territories of the Electorate were secularized in 1803 during the German mediatization.
The Electorate should not be confused with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne, larger and included suffragant bishoprics such as Liège and Münster over which the Elector-Archbishop exercised only spiritual authority. Cologne was the ancient Roman city of Colonia Agrippina in the province of Germania Inferior, has been a bishop's see since Roman times. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when Bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Emperor Otto I. To weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors in the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes; this was the beginning of the electoral state of Cologne. It was formed from the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Besides being prince-elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. In the Battle of Worringen, the archbishop was captured by soldiers of the city, was forced to grant the city near-complete autonomy; the archbishop moved to Bonn to escape jurisdiction conflicts with the city government. In 1475, Cologne became a Free Imperial City, independent from the archbishop; the first pogrom against the Jews was in 1349, when they were used as scapegoats for the Black Death, therefore burnt in an auto-da-fé. Political tensions arose from issues of taxation, public spending, regulation of business, market supervision, as well as the limits of corporate autonomy. Long-distance trade in the Baltic grew, as the major trading towns came together in the Hanseatic League, under the leadership of Lübeck, it was a business alliance of trading cities and their guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe and flourished from the 1200 to 1500, continued with lesser importance after that.
The chief cities were Cologne on the Rhine River and Bremen on the North Sea, Lübeck on the Baltic. The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were based on the city's major harbor, its location as a transport hub and its entrepreneurial merchants who built ties with merchants in other Hanseatic cities. During the 16th century, two Archbishops of Cologne converted to Protestantism; the first, Hermann von Wied, resigned the archbishopric on converting, but Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, who converted to Calvinism in 1582, attempted to secularize the archbishopric. His marriage the following February, his refusal to relinquish the territory, resulted in the election of a competing archbishop and prince-elector, Ernst of Bavaria, brother of the Wittelsbach Duke of Bavaria. In the Cologne War that followed, the pope funded Italian and Spanish mercenaries and the Catholic Bavarians sent an army to support Ernst, while the Protestant Netherlands supported von Waldburg; the war ruined most of the Electoral economy, many villages and towns were besieged and destroyed.
The Siege of Godesberg in November–December 1583 ended with the destruction of Godesberg Castle and the slaughter of most of its inhabitants. After several more sieges, von Waldburg gave up his claim to the see and retired to Strasbourg with his wife. Ernst became archbishop–the first major success of the Counter-Reformation in Germany. Under Ernst's direction, Jesuits supervised the reintroduction of Catholicism in the Electorate. From 1583 to 1761, the archbishopric was a secundogeniture of the Bavarian branch of the House of Wittelsbach; as the archbishop in this period also held the Bishopric of Münster, he was one of the most important princes of northwestern Germany. From 1597 until 1794, Bonn was the residence the Elector, the capital of the Electorate. After 1795, the electorate's territories on the left bank of the Rhine were occupied by France, were formally annexed in 1801. Cologne was part of the département of Roer; the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803 secularized the rest of the archbishopric, giving the Duchy of Westphalia to the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt and Vest Recklinghausen to the Duke of Arenberg.
Cologne was, reestablished as the seat of a Catholic archbishop in 1824, is an archdiocese to the present day. Media related to Electorate of Co
Electorate of Trier
The Electorate of Trier, traditionally known in English by its French name of Trèves, was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire that existed from the end of the 9th to the early 19th century. It consisted of the temporal possessions of the prince-archbishop of Trier prince-elector of the empire. There were only two other ecclesiastical prince-electors in the Empire: the Electorate of Cologne and the Electorate of Mainz, among which Mainz ranked first; the capital of the electorate was Trier, with the main residence of the Elector being Koblenz from the 16th century onward. The electorate was secularized in 1803 during Napoleonic rule; the Elector of Trier, in his capacity as archbishop administered the archdiocese of Trier, whose territory did not correspond to the electorate. Trier, as the important Roman provincial capital of Augusta Treverorum, had been the seat of a bishop since Roman times, it was raised to archiepiscopal status during the reign of Charlemagne, whose will mentions the bishoprics of Metz and Verdun as its suffragans.
The bishops of Trier were virtually independent territorial magnates during the Merovingian dynasty. In 772 Charlemagne granted Bishop Wiomad complete immunity from the jurisdiction of the ruling count for all the churches and monasteries, as well as villages and castles that belonged to the Church of St. Peter at Trier. In 816 Louis the Pious confirmed to Archbishop Hetto the privileges of protection and immunity granted by his father. At the partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, Trier was given to Lothair. In 898 Archbishop Radbod received complete immunity from all taxes for the entire episcopal territory, granted by Zwentibold, the natural son of Emperor Arnulf of Carinthia, who reigned as King of Lotharingia, he was under great pressure from his independent nobles and needed a powerful ally. The gift cemented the position of the archbishops as territorial lords in their own right. Following Zwentibold's assassination in 900, the handlers of the child-king Louis courted Radbod in their turn, granting him the district and city of Trier outright, permission to impose customs duties and the right to a mint.
From the court of Charles the Simple, he obtained the final right of election of the Bishop of Trier by the chapter, free of Imperial interference. In early modern times, the Electorate of Trier still encompassed territory along the Moselle River between Trier, near the French border, Koblenz on the Rhine. From the early 13th century the Archbishop of Trier, as holder of an imperial office was traditionally an Imperial Elector of the German king; the purely honorary office of Arch-chancellor of Gaul arose in the 13th century. In this context, taken to mean the Kingdom of Arles, or Burgundy, technically from 1242 and permanently from 1263, nominally until 1803. Arles along with Germany and the medieval Kingdom of Italy was one of the three component kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1473, Emperor Frederick III and Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy held a meeting in Trier. In this same year, the University of Trier was founded in the city. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz.
A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. With the Thirty Years' War, more than two centuries of warfare began for Trier, it was occupied several times by French troops. They besieged and occupied Trier in 1632, 1645, 1673. In 1684, with the War of the Reunions, an era of French expansion began. Trier was again captured in 1684. After Trier and its associated electorate were yet again taken during the War of Palatinate Succession in 1688, many cities in the electorate were systematically destroyed in 1689 by the French Army. Nearly all castles were blown up and the only bridge across the Moselle in Trier was burnt. King Louis XIV of France issued the order for these acts of destruction; as the French Army retreated in 1698, it left a starving city without walls and only 2,500 inhabitants. During the War of the Spanish Succession in 1702, Trier was occupied again by a French army. In 1704–05 an allied Anglo-Dutch army commanded by the Duke of Marlborough passed Trier on its way to France.
When the campaign failed, the French came back to Trier in 1705 and stayed until 1714. After a short period of peace, the War of the Polish Succession started in 1734; the last Prince-Elector, Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony, relocated to Koblenz in 1786. In August 1794, French Republican troops took Trier; this date marked the end of the era of the old electorate. Churches and clerical possessions were sold or the buildings put to secular use, such as stables; the last elector, Clemens Wenceslaus, resided in Koblenz after 1786. From 1795, the territories of the Electorate on the left bank of the Rhine were under French occupation. In 1803, the French diocese assumed control of the whole diocese and what was left of the electoral territory on the eastern bank of the Rhine was secu
Beethoven Monument (Bonn)
The Beethoven Monument is a large bronze statue of Ludwig van Beethoven that stands on the Münsterplatz in Bonn, Beethoven's birthplace. It was unveiled on 12 August 1845, in honour of the 75th anniversary of the composer's birth. Carl Heinrich Breidenstein was Germany's first professor of musicology, he had held a post at Bonn University since 1823. In 1828 he had first expressed the idea of a monument to Beethoven in his native town. In 1832 he wrote an article suggesting the idea, "or better, a living memorial, one dedicated to art, education, etc." Up to that time it had not been German or Austrian practice to erect statues of great cultural figures. Friedrich Schiller had to wait until 1839. On 17 December 1835, the "Bonn Association for the Beethoven Monument", headed by the famous translator of Shakespeare, August Wilhelm Schlegel, issued a call for a permanent memorial to Beethoven, sent to all the principal musical publications in Germany and England. King Ludwig I of Bavaria was enthusiastic, but the response was otherwise not promising: in Paris, Luigi Cherubini promised a special fund-raising concert but changed his mind.
Franz Liszt involved himself in the project in October 1839 when it became clear it was in danger of foundering through lack of financial support. Till the French contributions had totalled less than 425 francs, he contributed his advocacy and his personal energies in concerts and recitals, the proceeds of which went towards the construction fund. One such concert was his last public appearance with Frédéric Chopin, a pair of piano duo concerts held at the Salle Pleyel and the Conservatoire de Paris on 25 and 26 April 1841; the sole condition of Liszt's involvement was that the sculptor of the statue of Beethoven should be the Italian, Lorenzo Bartolini. In the event, the contract was awarded to Ernst Julius Hähnel; the casting was done by Jakob Daniel Burgschmiet of Nuremberg. Liszt returned to the concert stage for this purpose, he wrote a special work for occasion of the unveiling, Festival Cantata for the Inauguration of the Beethoven Monument in Bonn, S.67. Other musicians had been involved earlier: Robert Schumann offered to write a "Grande Sonate", have it published with gold trim and black binding, use the proceeds of the sale for the building fund.
His Obolen auf Beethovens Monument: Ruinen, Trophäen, Palmen: grosse Sonate für das Pianoforte für Beethovens Denkmal, von Florestan und Eusebius underwent some name changes. His publishers did not accept it in 1836, so he revised it and had it published in 1839 as his Fantasie in C, Op. 17, with a dedication to Liszt. In the first movement, Schumann alludes to a theme from Beethoven's song cycle An die ferne Geliebte which if true, was an allusion to his own "distant beloved", Clara Wieck, separated from him in Paris, by order of her father Friedrich Wieck. In 1841 Felix Mendelssohn wrote his Variations sérieuses in D minor for the project; the unveiling was scheduled for 6 August 1843, but was postponed to 12 August 1845. On 12 May 1845, Schlegel died, his place as head of the organising committee was taken by the instigator of the idea, Heinrich Breidenstein. The official unveiling of the Beethoven Monument was to be the high point of a 3-day Beethoven Festival. A month before the festival was due to commence, there was not a suitable venue to hold the expected 3,000 attendees.
At Liszt's urgings, only after he offered to bear the full cost himself, the committee engaged an architect and builders to construct the Beethoven Hall. By the time they started, they had less than two weeks to do this, had to work around the clock to finish it on time. A little more attention had been paid to the musicians who were to perform the music; the orchestra was made up of players from provincial orchestras from the area. The double basses included the world famous Domenico Dragonetti, who had known Beethoven and was 82, but was still an able performer, he was dead within less than a year. The Beethovenfest started on Sunday 10 August 1845. Louis Spohr, who had known Beethoven, conducted the Missa solemnis and the 9th Symphony that evening. On the morning of the unveiling, Tuesday 12 August, the Mass in C major was performed in the Cathedral; the official unveiling was held. It was attended by a large number of prominent figures: King Frederick William IV of Prussia and his consort. Robert Schumann and Felix Mendelssohn, who had both written major works for the piano to raise funds for the monument, were unable to be present.
Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies
The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies serves as a museum, research center, host of lectures and performances devoted to the life and works of Ludwig van Beethoven, it is the only institution of its kind in North America and holds the largest collection of Beethoven works and memorabilia outside Europe. The center is operated by the American Beethoven Society, it is located on the fifth floor of the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library, located on the San Jose State campus in downtown San Jose, California; the center was established in 1983 when Ira F. Brilliant, an Arizona real estate developer, donated his collection of Beethoven memorabilia to San Jose State University with the understanding that the material would be used to start a center devoted to Beethoven's life and works. Including 75 first editions, Brilliant's was considered the finest private collection of Beethoven memorabilia in the United States; the center opened to the public in 1985. San Jose State University and the American Beethoven Society share the duties of running the center.
San Jose State runs the center as a special collection of its library, providing staff. The American Beethoven Society funds many of the center's activities, such as the publication of the semiannual Beethoven Journal and the acquisition of new materials; the center has expanded its holdings over the years through donations and acquisitions, notably the 1987 purchase of the collection of Beethoven scholar William S. Newman and emeritus professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the center holds over 4,000 books and publications about Beethoven - including a rare 1783 issue of Cramer's Magazin der Musik, the first mention of Beethoven in print - and photocopies of over 8,000 articles concerning him. There is a large microfiche collection, including microfiche of all Beethoven manuscripts held by the Berlin State Library; the center's collection of Beethoven first editions has grown to 300, the largest collection in North America. This includes first editions of most of the piano sonatas.
There are over 2,200 "early editions", published during Beethoven's lifetime or in the 19th century. There is a listening/viewing area to sample the center's library of audio recordings and performance videos; the center holds various items in his handwriting, a copy of his death mask. Of the holdings of the center, the most well-known is a lock of Beethoven's hair known as the Guevara Lock; the lock was cut on March 27, 1827, one day after Beethoven's death, by Ferdinand Hiller, a German composer and conductor who had traveled to Vienna to spend time with Beethoven before he died. Hiller made the lock a gift to his son Paul, who explained its history on the back of a locket containing the hair. After that, the ownership of the lock is uncertain, until it resurfaced in 1943 as payment to a Danish doctor named Kay Alexander Fremming for medical treatment given to Jews escaping Nazism. In 1994, the Fremming estate auctioned the lock at Sotheby's in London for £3,600 to four members of the American Beethoven Society: Dr. Alfredo Guevara, Ira Brilliant, Dr. Thomas Wendel, Caroline Crummey.
The lock was named in honor of Dr. Guevara, the principal investor, who kept a small portion of the hair and donated the rest to the Center for Beethoven Studies; the remaining investors donated their entire portions to the center. The original lock consisted of 582 brown and grey hairs, from three to six inches in length; the Center for Beethoven Studies has 422 of those hairs, along with the original locket used by Hiller. In 1996, Brilliant and Guevara contacted the Health Research Institute - Pfeiffer Treatment Center in Naperville, Illinois to perform tests on some of the hairs from Dr. Guevara's share. Dr. William Walsh headed the project, his report revealed concentrations of lead 100 times the norm in Beethoven's hair, leading many to theorize that lead poisoning contributed to his poor health and his death; the history of the lock and the clues it yielded on Beethoven's health have been chronicled in the nonfiction book "Beethoven’s Hair", by Russell Martin. There was a documentary of the same name made for Canadian television.
In 2005, the documentary won several Gemini Awards, including Best Writing in a Documentary Program or Series and Best Direction in a Performing Arts Program or Series. The center has several musical instruments on display: an original 1827 Viennese fortepiano, a reproduction of a 1795 Dulcken fortepiano, a clavichord, a harpsichord; the Dulcken fortepiano, which has a range of 5 octaves over 66 keys, is a copy of an original held by the Smithsonian Institution. Visitors are allowed to play the Dulcken fortepiano and harpsichord. List of music museums Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies - official site
Beethoven and Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had a powerful influence on the work of Ludwig van Beethoven. They are said to have met in Vienna in 1787, Beethoven is said to have had a few lessons from Mozart. However, this is uncertain, as there is only one account of a meeting, it is not contemporary. Beethoven knew much of Mozart's work; some of his themes recall Mozart's, he modeled a number of his compositions on those of the older composer. Beethoven was born in Bonn in 1770, about 14 years after Mozart. In 1781, during Beethoven's childhood, Mozart had moved from Salzburg to Vienna, the Austrian imperial capital, to pursue his career. While Bonn was politically and culturally affiliated to Vienna, Vienna was geographically more remote than Salzburg, lying around 900km distant on the opposite side of German-speaking Europe. During his youth and musical training in Bonn, Beethoven had extensive, intimate exposure to Mozart's music, he performed in Mozart's operas. Indeed, Lewis Lockwood writes, "Just as Mozart had once told his father that he was'soaked in music', so Beethoven was soaked in Mozart."
In Beethoven's early efforts to compose, he was so inspired by Mozart that once he worried that he had plagiarized him by mistake. Lockwood writes: On a sketch leaf from about October 1790 Beethoven wrote down a brief C-minor passage in 6/8 meter, in two-staff piano score, wrote down these words, between the staves, about the little phrase:'This entire passage has been stolen from the Mozart Symphony in C, where the Andante in six-eight from the...'. Beethoven writes the passage again just below and a little differently, on the same sketch page, signs it'Beethoven himself'; the passage he thought he was quoting can not be traced to any Mozart symphony. Beethoven visited Vienna early in 1787. Cooper states that he left about three weeks later. Haberl says that he arrived in January 1787 and departed in March or April, remaining in the city for up to 10½ weeks. There is evidence for this in the Regensburgische Diarium. Beethoven's return to Bonn was prompted at least in part by his mother's medical condition.
His father was nearly incapacitated by alcoholism, Beethoven had two younger brothers, so he may have needed to go home to help support his family. Written documentation of Beethoven's visit is thin; the two composers may have met. There are various views as to; the 19th-century biographer Otto Jahn gives the following anecdote: Beethoven made his appearance in Vienna as a youthful musician of promise in the spring of 1787, but was only able to remain there a short time. Mozart, considering the piece he performed to be a studied show-piece, was somewhat cold in his expressions of admiration. Beethoven, noticing this, begged for a theme for improvisation, inspired by the presence of the master he revered so played in such a manner as to engross Mozart's whole attention. Jahn does not say where he got this from, mentioning only that "it was communicated to me in Vienna on good authority". No contemporary document corroborates the story, contemporary scholarship seems reluctant to propagate it; the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians does not mention it.
In the absence of documents, much remains uncertain about the precise aims of the journey and the extent to which they were realized. Maynard Solomon, who has written biographies of both Mozart and Beethoven, does not mention Jahn's tale, puts forward the possibility that Mozart might have given Beethoven an audition and rejected him: In Bonn Beethoven was being groomed to be Mozart's successor by, who sent him to Vienna... to advance that purpose. The sixteen-year-old Beethoven, was not yet ready to be on his own. At his father's urging, the young virtuoso left Vienna... and returned home in a state of despondency over his mother's consumptive condition – and over a rejection by Mozart, preoccupied with his own affairs, including his worrisome financial condition, may not have been able to consider taking on another pupil one of great talent and backed by eminent patrons. Solomon goes on to enumerate other matters that kept Mozart preoccupied at the time: his father's declining health, a visit to Prague, the beginnings of work on Don Giovanni, the writing of "a vast amount of other music".
Moreover, Mozart had a pupil living in his home, the nine-year-old Johann Nepomuk Hummel. A hypothesis compatible with all the documentary evidence except Jahn's unsourced report is that Mozart and Beethoven never met. While it cannot be determined whether Beethoven met Mozart, it does seem that he heard Mozart play. Beethoven's student Karl Czerny told Otto Jahn that Beethoven had told him that Mozart "had a fine but choppy way of playing, no ligato."Regardless of whether Beethoven met Mozart in Vienna, his 1787 visit there seems to have been t
Johann van Beethoven
Johann van Beethoven was a German musician and singer who sang in the chapel of the Archbishop of Cologne, whose court was at Bonn. He is best known as the father of the celebrated composer Ludwig van Beethoven. Johann was an alcoholic and an abusive father who beat Ludwig. At 18, Ludwig had to obtain an order to force Johann to support his family. Johann died. Johann van Beethoven was the son of Maria Josepha Ball and Lodewijk or Ludwig van Beethoven, born in or near the city of Mechelen, in the Habsburg Netherlands, had served as a musician in several communities in and around Mechelen before establishing himself in Bonn in 1733, where he served as a musician at the court of Prince-Archbishop-Elector of Cologne Clemens August of Bavaria, rising to the post of Kapellmeister in 1761. Johann van Beethoven showed musical talent, joined the court as a singer, in 1764. In addition to singing, he played the violin and zither, played and taught keyboard instruments of the day, including the harpsichord and the clavichord.
He met his future wife, Maria Magdalena Keverich, on a trip to Ehrenbreitstein. She was the daughter of the head chef to Johann IX Philipp von Walderdorff, Archbishop-Elector of Trier, whose court was there, she had family connections in the court orchestra at Bonn. Keverich was widowed at the age of nineteen, she and Johann were married on 12 November 1767 in the Catholic Church of Bonn. They had seven children, three of whom lived into adulthood: Ludwig Maria van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven Kaspar Anton Karl van Beethoven Nikolaus Johann van Beethoven Anna Maria Franziska van Beethoven Franz Georg van Beethoven Maria Margarete Josepha van Beethoven Johann realized Ludwig's talent and became his first teacher, he was, however, an abusive father according to a number of witnesses. "There were few days when was not beaten in order to compel him to set himself at the piano," related one childhood friend of Ludwig. A court councillor reported that Johann locked Ludwig in a cellar. Whenever Ludwig played poorly, Johann would exclaim.
Johann was an alcoholic, a situation that worsened when Maria died in 1787, after which time the family was dependent on young Ludwig for support. In 1789 the 18-year-old Ludwig obtained an order resulting in one half of Johann's pay being turned over to him for support of the family. Johann died in 1792, his employer the Elector wrote sardonically to a friend, "The revenues from the liquor excise have suffered a loss in the death of Beethoven." Johann van Beethoven was only one half Flemish. Most of his most recent family came from the German-speaking Rhineland region and the Electorate of the Palatinate of the Holy Roman Empire; the Nazis were interested in Ludwig van Beethoven's family background: "After making sure that Beethoven had no suspicious racial or national tinge of the non-Germanic in his background, the masters of the Nazi propaganda and cultural machinery promoted his works as the essence of Germanic and Aryan strength". Johann's famous son Ludwig van Beethoven had no children and was never married, but his second son, did have children.
However, none of Karl's living descendants now bears the name of Beethoven, the last to do so, Karl Julius Maria van Beethoven, having died without a son in 1917. MacArdle, Donald W; the Family van Beethoven. The Musical Quarterly 35:528–550. "The'Van' of Beethoven" by Herbert Antcliffe in The Musical Times, Vol. 77, No. 1117, pp. 254–255 – Article explains how "A certain Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Mechelen as the son of Michiel and the grandson of Cornelius and of Catherina Leempoels..."
Copying Beethoven is a 2006 dramatic film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and directed by Agnieszka Holland which gives a fictional take on the triumphs and heartaches of Ludwig van Beethoven's last years. It is set in 1824, he is plagued by deafness and personal trauma. A fictional character, a new copyist, Anna Holtz is engaged to help the composer finish preparing the score for the first performance. Anna is aspiring composer, her understanding of his work is such that she corrects mistakes he has made, while her personality opens a door into his private world. Beethoven is skeptical, but he comes to trust Anna's assistance and grows to view her with respect, with admiration. Anna Holtz is sent to be his copyist, but due to her gender, is thought less of, is mistaken for a serving girl and prostitute. Pushing past, though quite unhappily, from these assumptions, Anna proves herself to Beethoven, not only as a copyist, but as his friend, something of his protégé and heir as far as he is concerned.
He gains much admiration of her, after she assists him by directing him, hidden among his musicians, as he copies her movements to direct the orchestra during what would turn out to be one of his final performances. Though Anna agreed to her romantic interest, Martin Bauer, that she would help him complete his symphony, immediately leave after showing him her work, she instead continues to assist him as his copyist. After seeing the admiration she has gained from Beethoven, Anna proceeds to show him a piece of music that she composed. Beethoven unknowingly insults her. Anna, more than ready not to return, continues to stay with her great aunt and the nuns at the convent. Anna is surprised when Beethoven, desperate to keep Anna in his employment and under his tutelage, bursts into the convent and begs Anna, on his knees, to come back and work as his equal on both of their music, he begins to teach her about Romanticism and how to allow her artistic side freedom. Continuing his infuriating behavior, Beethoven smashes Martin's bridge he built for an engineer's competition, thereby ruining Martin as well.
Anna, confronts Beethoven, asking him if he had considered that she loved Martin. Beethoven replies, "You don't love him." Upon hearing this, Anna angrily asks. Beethoven again replies, "No. You want to be me." From here, Anna agrees that Beethoven did the right thing, continues to work with him, pushing him past his hardships and failures, staying by his bedside until he died. The movie ends though, with Anna embracing herself as an artist, unique from all other composers, including Beethoven, readying herself for a promising future. Though the film is directed abstractly, leaving room for the audience to view Anna and Beethoven's relationship as that of a chaste romance, the characters remain platonic, could much more be viewed as a strong and close friendship, bordering on Beethoven being viewed as a father figure of Anna's. Ed Harris as Ludwig van Beethoven Diane Kruger as Anna Holtz Matthew Goode as Martin Bauer Phyllida Law as Mother Canisius Joe Anderson as Karl van Beethoven Ralph Riach as Wenzel Schlemmer Bill Stewart as Rudy The working manuscript of the score is attributed to two copyists, both of whom were male, not a single female as depicted in the film.
The character of Anna Holtz might be based on a violinist friend and copyist of Beethoven named Karl Holtz, said to influence the composer's decisions on pieces like the Grosse FugueGroße Fuge. The film received a score of 59 and negative reviews of 28% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 80 reviews. Symphony No. 9 Große Fuge Copying Beethoven on IMDb Copying Beethoven at Rotten Tomatoes Copying Beethoven at Metacritic.com