Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Wilhelm Adalbert Hosenfeld a school teacher, was a German Army officer who by the end of the Second World War had risen to the rank of Hauptmann. He helped to hide or rescue several Polish people, including Jews, in Nazi-occupied Poland, helped Polish-Jewish pianist and composer Władysław Szpilman to survive, hidden, in the ruins of Warsaw during the last months of 1944, an act, portrayed in the 2002 film The Pianist, he was taken prisoner by the Red Army and died in Soviet captivity in 1952. In October 2007, Hosenfeld was posthumously honoured by the president of Poland Lech Kaczyński with a Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. In June 2009, Hosenfeld was posthumously recognized in Yad Vashem as one of the Righteous Among the Nations. Hosenfeld was born into the family of a pious Roman Catholic schoolmaster living near Fulda, his family life had a Catholic character, Christian charitable work was emphasized during his education. He was influenced by the Catholic Action and Church-inspired social work, but by Prussian obedience, by German patriotism, during his marriage, by the increasing pacifism of his wife, Annemarie.
He was influenced by the Wandervogel movement and its adherents. From 1914, he saw active service in the First World War, after being wounded in 1917 received the Iron Cross Second Class. Hosenfeld was drafted into the Wehrmacht in August 1939 and was stationed in Poland from mid-September 1939 until his capture by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945, his first destination was Pabianice, where he was involved in the building and running of a POW camp. Next, he was stationed in Węgrów in December 1939, where he remained until his battalion was moved another 30 km away to Jadów at the end of May 1940, he was transferred to Warsaw in July 1940, where he spent the rest of the war, for the most part attached to Wach-Bataillon 660, part of the Wach-Regiment Warschau in which he served as a staff officer and as the battalion sports officer. A member of the Nazi Party since 1935, as time passed Hosenfeld grew disillusioned with the party and its policies as he saw how Poles, Jews, were treated, he and several fellow German Army officers felt sympathy for all peoples of occupied Poland.
Ashamed of what some of their countrymen were doing, they offered help to those they could whenever possible. Hosenfeld befriended numerous Poles and made an effort to learn their language, he attended Mass, received Holy Communion, went to confession in Polish churches though this was forbidden. His actions on behalf of Poles began as early as autumn 1939, when against regulations he allowed Polish prisoners of war access to their families and pushed for the early release of at least one. During his time in Warsaw, Hosenfeld used his position to give refuge to people, regardless of their background, including at least one politically persecuted anti-Nazi ethnic German, who were in danger of persecution arrest by the Gestapo, sometimes by getting them the papers they needed and jobs at the sports stadium, under his oversight. Hosenfeld surrendered to the Soviets at Błonie, a small Polish city about 30 km west of Warsaw, with the men of a Wehrmacht company he was leading, he was sentenced to 25 years of hard labor for alleged war crimes, on account of his unit affiliation, was tortured by the Soviet secret services, as they believed Hosenfeld had been active in the German Abwehr or the Sicherheitsdienst.
In a 1946 letter to his wife in West Germany, Hosenfeld named the Jews whom he had saved and begged her to contact them and ask them to arrange his release. In 1950, Szpilman learned the name of the German officer. After much soul searching, Szpilman sought the intercession of a man whom he considered "a bastard", Jakub Berman, the head of the Polish secret police. Several days Berman paid a visit to the Szpilman's home and said that there was nothing he could do, he added, "If your German were still in Poland we could get him out. But our comrades in the Soviet Union won't let him go, they say your officer belonged to a detachment involved in spying – so there is nothing we can do about it as Poles, I am powerless". Szpilman never believed Berman's claims of powerlessness. In an interview with Wolf Biermann, Szpilman described Berman as "all powerful by the grace of Stalin," and lamented, "So I approached the worst rogue of the lot, it did no good." Hosenfeld died in a Soviet prison camp on 13 August 1952, shortly before 10:00 in the evening, from a rupture of the thoracic aorta sustained during torture.
Szpilman's son, Andrzej Szpilman, had long called for Yad Vashem to recognize Wilm Hosenfeld as a Righteous Among the Nations, non-Jews who risked their lives to rescue Jews. Along with him, the Szpilman family and thousands of others asked that Hosenfeld be honoured in this way for his acts of kindness throughout the war. In 2002, The Pianist, a film based on Szpilman's memoirs of the same name, portrayed Hosenfeld's rescue of Władysław Szpilman. Hosenfeld was played by Thomas Kretschmann. In October 2007, Hosenfeld was posthumously honoured by the president of Poland Lech Kaczyński with a Commander’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta. On 16 February 2009, Yad Vashem announced that Hosenfeld would be posthumously recognized as Righteous Among the Nations. On 19 June 2009, Israeli diplomats presented Hosenfeld's son, with the award, in Berlin. On December 4, 2011, a commemorative plaque in Polish and English was unveil
Ángel Sanz Briz
Ángel Sanz Briz was a Spanish diplomat who served under Francoist Spain during World War II. He saved the lives of some five thousand Hungarian Jews from deportation to Auschwitz. Sanz Briz is sometimes referred to as "the angel of Budapest". Sanz Briz was born on September 1910 in Zaragoza, he earned a degree in law at the Central University of Madrid, in 1933 entered the diplomatic School in Madrid. At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War he volunteered to join the Nationalist side of the struggle, serving as a truck driver in the Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí, a unit of Francisco Franco's army created in 1937 and commanded by General Juan Yagüe. After completing his studies in Madrid, his first diplomatic posting was to Cairo, he was sent to Budapest in 1942. Between June and December 1944, he and his assistants issued fake Spanish papers to 5,200 Jews, saving them from deportation to concentration camps, he received authorization to provide papers to 200 Jews, continued to enlarge this amount until he reached 5,200.
In some cases, he acquired houses in Budapest at his own cost in order to provide shelter for the refugees, which made the difference between life and death for those Jews. He convinced the Hungarian authorities that Spain, under the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera had given Spanish citizenship to descendants of Sephardic Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. Primo de Rivera had issued such a decree on December 20, 1924 but it had been cancelled in 1930, a fact the Hungarian authorities were not aware of. Sanz Briz dutifully informed the Spanish Foreign Ministry of his actions, which were neither forbidden nor encouraged by Madrid. In 1944, as the Red Army approached Budapest, he followed government orders to leave for Switzerland, he was replaced by the Italian Giorgio Perlasca, who pretended to be a Spanish consul and continued to issue Spanish visas and to patrol the safehouse system for Jews set up by Sanz Briz. After these events, Sanz Briz continued his diplomatic career: he was posted to San Francisco and Washington, D.
C. Ambassador to Lima, Bayonne, The Hague and China. In 1976 he was sent to Rome as Ambassador of Spain to the Holy See, where he died on June 11, 1980. Sanz Briz himself tells how he was able to save the lives of so many Jews, in Federico Ysart's book Los judíos en España, he is the subject of the 2011 Spanish television series El ángel de Budapest, based on Diego Carcedo’s book Un español frente al Holocausto. In 1942 he married Adela Quijano y Secades, with whom he had four children: Adela, Paloma, Ángeles, Juan Carlos. Sanz Briz died June 1980 in Rome. In 1991, he was recognized by the Holocaust Museum Yad Vashem of the State of Israel, who gave his family the title of Righteous Among the Nations. In 1994 the Government of Hungary gave him the Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary. In 2015, a Budapest street was renamed as Angel Sanz Briz Avenue. Gilberto Bosques Saldívar The angel of Budapest - Angel Sanz Briz, by Salvo Haim Alhadeffas in the European Sephardic Institute Ángel Sanz Briz: International Raoul Wallenberg foundation Angel Sanz Briz
Chiune Sugihara was a Japanese government official who served as vice consul for the Japanese Empire in Kaunas, Lithuania. During the Second World War, Sugihara helped some six thousand Jews flee Europe by issuing transit visas to them so that they could travel through Japanese territory, risking his job and his family's lives; the fleeing Jews were refugees from German-occupied Western Poland and Soviet-occupied Eastern Poland, as well as residents of Lithuania. A few decades after the war, in 1985, the State of Israel honored Sugihara as one of the Righteous Among the Nations for his actions, he is the only Japanese national to have been so honored. Sugihara told the refugees to call him "Sempo" – the Sino-Japanese reading of the Japanese characters of his given name – as it was easier for non-Japanese persons to pronounce. Chiune Sugihara was born on 1 January 1900,in the Kitayama district of the village of Yaotsu, Gifu prefecture, to a middle-class father, Yoshimi Sugihara, an upper-middle class mother, Yatsu Sugihara.
When he was born, his father worked at a tax office in Kozuchi-town and his family lived in a borrowed temple, with the Buddhist temple Kyōsen-ji where he was born nearby. He was the second son among one girl, his father and family moved into the tax office within the branch of the Nagoya Tax Administration Office one after another. In 1903 his family moved to Asahi Village in Fukui Prefecture. In 1904 they moved to Yokkaichi city Mie Prefecture. On 25 October 1905, they moved to Nakatsu Ena-gun, Gifu Prefecture. In 1906 on 2 April, Chiune entered Nakatsu Town Municipal Elementary School. On 31 March 1907, he transferred to Kuwana Municipal Kuwana Elementary School in Mie Prefecture. In December of that same year, he transferred to Nagoya Municipal Furuwatari Elementary School. In 1912, he graduated with top honors from Furuwatari Elementary School and entered Aichi prefectural 5th secondary school, a combined junior and senior high school, his father wanted him to become a physician, but Chiune deliberately failed the entrance exam by writing only his name on the exam papers.
Instead, he majored in English language. At that time, he entered Yuai Gakusha, the Christian fraternity, founded by Baptist pastor Harry Baxter Benninhof, to improve his English. In 1919, he passed the Foreign Ministry Scholarship exam. From 1920 to 1922, Sugihara served in the Imperial Army as a second lieutenant with the 79th Infantry, stationed in Korea a Japanese colony, he resigned his commission in November 1922 and took the Foreign Ministry's language qualifying exams the following year, passing the Russian exam with distinction. The Japanese Foreign Ministry recruited him and assigned him to Harbin, where he studied the Russian and German languages and became an expert on Russian affairs; when Sugihara served in the Manchurian Foreign Office, he took part in the negotiations with the Soviet Union concerning the Northern Manchurian Railroad. During his time in Harbin, Sugihara married Klaudia Semionovna Apollonova and converted to Christianity for the wedding, using the baptismal name Sergei Pavelovich.
In 1935, Sugihara quit his post as Deputy Foreign Minister in Manchuria in protest over Japanese mistreatment of the local Chinese. Sugihara and his wife divorced in 1935, before he returned to Japan, where he married Yukiko Kikuchi, who became Yukiko Sugihara after the marriage; as of 2010, Nobuki represents the Chiune Sugihara family. Chiune Sugihara served in the Information Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as a translator for the Japanese delegation in Helsinki, Finland. In 1939, Sugihara became a vice-consul of the Japanese Consulate in Lithuania, his duties included reporting on Soviet and German troop movements, to find out if Germany planned an attack on the Soviets and, if so, to report the details of this attack to his superiors in Berlin and Tokyo. Sugihara had cooperated with Polish intelligence as part of a bigger Japanese–Polish cooperative plan; as the Soviet Union occupied sovereign Lithuania in 1940, many Jewish refugees from Poland as well as Lithuanian Jews tried to acquire exit visas.
Without the visas, it was dangerous to travel, yet it was impossible to find countries willing to issue them. Hundreds of refugees came to the Japanese consulate in Kaunas. At the time, on the brink of the war, Lithuanian Jews made up one third of Lithuania's urban population and half of the residents of every town as well. In the period 16 July - 3 August 1940 the Dutch Honorary Consul Jan Zwartendijk provided over 2,200 Jews with an official third destination to Curaçao, a Caribbean island and Dutch colony that required no entry visa, or Surinam. At the time, the Japanese government required that visas be issued only to those who had gone through appropriate immigration procedures and had enough funds. Most of the refugees did not fulfill these criteria. Sugihara dutifully contacted the Japanese Foreign Ministry three times for instructions; each time, the Ministry responded that anybody granted a visa should have a visa to a third destination to exit Japan, with no exce
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Seven Laws of Noah
The Seven Laws of Noah referred to as the Noahide Laws or the Noachide Laws, are a set of imperatives which, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah" – that is, all of humanity. According to Jewish tradition, non-Jews who adhere to these laws because they were given by Moses are said to be followers of Noahidism and regarded as righteous gentiles, who are assured of a place in Olam Haba, the final reward of the righteous; the Seven Laws of Noah include prohibitions against worshipping idols, cursing God, murder and sexual immorality, eating flesh torn from a living animal, as well as the obligation to establish courts of justice. According to the Genesis flood narrative, a deluge covered the whole world, killing every surface-dwelling creature except Noah, his wife, his sons and their wives, the animals taken aboard Noah's Ark. According to this, all modern humans are descendants of Noah, thus the name Noahide Laws is referred to the laws that apply to all of humanity.
After the flood, God sealed a covenant with Noah with the following admonitions: Flesh of a living animal: "However, flesh with its life-blood, you shall not eat." Murder and courts: "Furthermore, I will demand your blood, for your lives, I shall demand it from any wild animal. From man too, I will demand of each person's brother the blood of man, he who spills the blood of man, by man his blood shall be spilt. The Book of Jubilees dated to the 2nd century BCE, may include an early reference to Noahide Law at verses 7:20–28: And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordinances and commandments, all the judgments that he knew, he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, to cover the shame of their flesh, to bless their Creator, honour father and mother, love their neighbour, guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. For owing to these three things came the flood upon the earth... For whoso sheddeth man's blood, whoso eateth the blood of any flesh, shall all be destroyed from the earth.
The Jewish Encyclopedia article on Saul of Tarsus states: According to Acts, Paul began working along the traditional Jewish line of proselytizing in the various synagogues where the proselytes of the gate and the Jews met. The article "New Testament" states: For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws—namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal—should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. David Novak presents a range of theories regarding the origin of the Noachide laws, including the Bible, Hittite law, the Maccabean period, the Roman period; the seven Noahide laws as traditionally enumerated are the following: Not to worship idols. Not to curse God. To establish courts of justice.
Not to commit murder. Not to commit adultery or sexual immorality. Not to steal. Not to eat flesh torn from a living animal. According to the Talmud, the rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis, with the seventh being the establishing of courts; the earliest complete rabbinic version of the seven laws can be found in the Tosefta where they are listed as follows. Seven commandments were commanded of the sons of Noah: concerning adjudication concerning idolatry concerning blasphemy concerning sexual immorality concerning blood-shed concerning robbery concerning a limb torn from a living animal According to the Talmud, the Noahide Laws apply to all humanity. In Judaism, בני נח B'nei Noah refers to all of humankind; the Talmud states: "Righteous people of all nations have a share in the world to come". Any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as one of "the righteous among the gentiles".
The rabbis agree. However, they disagree on which laws were given to Adam and Eve. Six of the seven laws are exegetically derived from passages in Genesis; the Talmud adds extra laws beyond the seven listed in the Tosefta which are attributed to different rabbis, such as the grafting of trees and sorcery among others, Ulla going so far as to make a list of 30 laws. The Talmud expands the scope of the seven laws to cover about 100 of the 613 mitzvoth. In practice Jewish law makes it difficult to apply the death penalty. No record exists of a gentile having been put to death for violating the seven laws; some of the categories of capital punishment recorded in the Talmud are recorded as having never been carried out. It is thought that the rabbis included discussion of them in anticipation of the coming messianic age; the Talmud lists the punishment for bl
Jane Mathison Haining was a Scottish missionary for the Church of Scotland in Budapest, recognized in 1997 by Yad Vashem in Israel as Righteous Among the Nations for having risked her life to help Jews during the Holocaust. Haining worked in Budapest, from June 1932, as matron of a boarding house for Jewish and Christian girls in a school run by the Scottish Mission to the Jews. In or around 1940, after World War II had broken out in 1939, the Church of Scotland advised Haining to return to the UK, but she decided to stay in Hungary; when Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, the SS began arranging the deportation of the country's Jews to Auschwitz II-Birkenau, the German extermination camp in occupied Poland. Arrested by the Gestapo in April 1944 on a variety of charges after a dispute with the mission's cook, Haining was herself deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in May, where she died three months probably as a result of starvation and the camp's catastrophic living conditions. Little is known about death in Auschwitz.
In 1949 a Scottish minister, the Reverend David McDougall, editor of the Jewish Mission Quarterly, published a 21-page booklet about her, Jane Haining of Budapest. According to Jennifer Robertson, writing in 2014 for PRISM: An Interdisciplinary Journal for Holocaust Educators all subsequent publications about Haining depend on McDougall's booklet. Born at Lochenhead Farm in Dunscore, Scotland, Haining was the fifth child of Jane Mathison and her husband, Thomas John Haining, a farmer, who had married in 1890. Mathison, herself from a farming family, died in 1902 while giving birth to the couple's sixth child, when Haining was about five. Haining's father died that June. Toward the end of the year, his second wife, Robertina Maxwell, gave birth to a daughter, Agnes. Haining grew up as a member of the evangelical Craig Church in Dunscore, part of the United Free Church of Scotland. Educated at Dunscore village school, she won a scholarship to Dumfries Academy in 1909, as her older sisters Alison and Margaret had done, where she lived as a boarder in the Moat Hostel for Girls.
She graduated as the school dux, one of 41 school prizes she was awarded, left with Highers in English, German and Mathematics. After graduating, Haining trained at the Athenaeum Commercial College in Glasgow, from 1917 until 1927 worked in Paisley for J. and P Coats Ltd, a thread manufacturer, first as a clerk as secretary to the private secretary. During this period, she lived at 50 Forth Street, Pollokshields and attended the nearby Queen's Park West United Free Church, where she taught Sunday School. According to Nan Potter, who attended the classes, Haining would buy the children cream buns for tuppence ha'penny, it was around this time. In 1927 she attended a meeting in Glasgow of the Jewish Mission Committee and heard Rev. Dr. George Mackenzie, chair of the committee, discuss his missionary work, she told a friend "I have found my lifework!"Her manager at work was ill at the time, so Haining stayed with Coats for another five months another year while he trained her replacement. There followed a one-year diploma course at the Glasgow College of Domestic Science, which gave her a qualification in domestic science and housekeeping.
She took a temporary post in Glasgow in Manchester as a matron. In or around 1932 she responded to an ad in the Church of Scotland magazine Life and Work, looking for a matron for the girls' hostel attached to its Jewish mission school in Budapest; the Jewish mission ran a school for both Jewish and Christian girls in its mission building at 51 Vörösmarty Street. The Church of Scotland had established the mission known as St. Columba's Church, in 1841 to evangelize to Hungarian Jews; the founding ministers, Drs. Alexander Black and Alexander Keith, along with Andrew Bonar and Robert Murray M'Cheyne, had been making their way to Jerusalem to spread Christianity, when Black is reported to have injured himself falling from his camel, as a result of which he and Keith decided to return to Scotland, they did so via Budapest. The Archduchess Dorothea of Austria befriended them there, the upshot was that the men were persuaded to establish a Scottish mission in that city; the Jewish mission committee sent Haining for further training at St Colm's Women's Missionary College in Edinburgh.
Her dedication service took place at St Stephen's Church, Edinburgh, on 19 June 1932, during a service presided over by the chair of the Jewish mission committee, Dr. Stewart Thompson. Haining left for Budapest the next day, seven months before Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933; the girls' home was on the third floor of the Vörösmarty Street mission building, consisted of two bedrooms with about 16 girls in each room, as of 1932. Most of the students were Jews. McDougall wrote in 1949: "Not all the girls were Jewesses however, for it was considered wise to have a proportion of Christian girls among them."Haining wrote that the school had 400 pupils ranging from six to 16. These were the girls for. Although Hungarian law did not allow religious conversion before the age of 18, she wrote, the school aimed to prepare its Jewish students for conversion to Christianity; the daily Bible lesson for all pupils included study of the New Testament. Haining made efforts to have part of the building converted to club rooms, so that the evangelical work could continue for girls who had left the school, as most did when they were 14 or 15.
When World War II br