London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Helena Sofia Schjerfbeck was a Finnish painter. She is most known for her realist works and self-portraits, less well known for her landscapes and still lifes. Throughout her long life, her work changed dramatically, her work starts with a dazzlingly skilled, somewhat melancholic version of late-19th-century academic realism…it ends with distilled, nearly abstract images in which pure paint and cryptic description are held in perfect balance. Helena Sofia Schjerfbeck was born on July 10, 1862, in Helsinki, Finland, to Svante Schjerfbeck and Olga Johanna; when she was four she suffered a hip injury. She showed talent at an early age, by the time she was eleven she was enrolled at the Finnish Art Society drawing school, where her fees were paid by Adolf von Becker, who saw promise in her. At this school Schjerfbeck met Helena Westermarck; when Schjerfbeck's father died of tuberculosis on February 2, 1876, Schjerfbeck's mother took in boarders so that they could get by. A little over a year after her father's death, Schjerfbeck graduated from the Finnish Art Society drawing school.
She continued her education, with Westermarck, at a private academy run by Adolf von Becker, which utilised the University of Helsinki drawing studio. Professor G. Asp paid for her tuition to Becker's private academy. There, Becker himself taught her French oil painting techniques. In 1879, at the age of 17, Schjerfbeck won third prize in a competition organised by the Finnish Art Society, in 1880 her work was displayed in an annual Finnish Art Society exhibition; that summer Schjerfbeck spent time at a manor owned by her aunt on her mother's side, Selma Printz, Selma's husband Thomas Adlercreutz. There she spent time painting her cousins. Schjerfbeck became close to her cousin Selma Adlercreutz, her age, she set off to Paris that year after receiving a travel grant from the Imperial Russian Senate. In Paris, Schjerfbeck painted with Helena Westermarck left to study with Léon Bonnat at Mme Trélat de Vigny's studio. In 1881 she moved to the Académie Colarossi; the Imperial Senate gave her another scholarship, which she used to spend a couple of months in Meudon, a few more months in Concarneau, Brittany.
She went back to the Académie Colarossi before returning to the Adlercreutz family manor in Finland. Schjerfbeck continued to move around painting and studying with various people. Schjerfbeck made money by continuing to put her paintings in the Art Society's exhibitions, she did illustrations for books. In 1884 she was back in Paris at the Académie Colarossi with Westermarck, but this time they were working there, she was given more money to travel by a man from the Finnish Art Society and in 1887 she traveled to St Ives, Cornwall, in Britain. There she painted The Convalescent; the painting was bought by the Finnish Art Society. During this period Schjerfbeck was painting in a naturalistic plein-air style. In the 1890s Schjerfbeck started teaching in Finland at the Art Society drawing school, but in 1901 she became too ill to teach and in 1902 she resigned her post, she moved all while taking care of her mother who lived with her. While living in Hyvinkää, she continued to exhibit. "Schjerfbeck’s sole contact with the art world was through magazines sent by friends."
Since she did not have art, Schjerfbeck took up hobbies like embroidery. During this time Schjerbeck produced still lifes and landscapes, as well as portraits, such as that of her mother, local school girls and women workers, self-portraits, she became a modernist painter, her work has been compared to that of artists such as James McNeill Whistler and Edvard Munch, but from 1905 her paintings took on a character, hers alone. She continued experimenting with various techniques such as using different types of underpainting. In 1913 Schjerfbeck met the art-dealer Gösta Stenman, with whose encouragement she exhibited at Malmö in 1914, Stockholm in 1916 and St Petersburg in 1917. In 1917 Stenman organised her first solo exhibition and in that year Einar Reuter published the first Schjerfbeck monograph, she exhibited at Copenhagen and Stockholm. In 1937 Stenman organised another solo exhibition for her in Stockholm, in 1938 he began paying her a monthly stipend; as the years passed, Schjerfbeck travelled less.
When a family matter arose, such as a death, she would travel back to her home city of Helsinki and she spent most of 1920 in Ekenäs, but by 1921 she was back living in Hyvinkää. For about a year, Schjerfbeck moved to a farm in Tenala to get away from the Winter War, but went back to Ekenäs in the middle of 1940, she moved into a nursing home, where she resided for less than a year before moving to the Luontola sanatorium. In 1944 she moved into the Saltsjöbaden spa hotel in Sweden, where she continued to paint even during her last years, she was buried at the Hietaniemi Cemetery in Helsinki. Dancing Shoes is one of Schjerfbeck's most enduringly popular paintings; the subject was so popular that Schjerfbeck returned to the theme three times as well as executing a lithograph of it, the latter catapulting the painting to international fame. It depicts her cousin Esther Lupander. Esther had long legs and for that
The Skagen Painters were a group of Scandinavian artists who gathered in the village of Skagen, the northernmost part of Denmark, from the late 1870s until the turn of the century. Skagen was a summer destination whose scenery and quality of light attracted northern artists to paint en plein air, emulating the French Impressionists—though members of the Skagen colony were influenced by Realist movements such as the Barbizon school, they broke away from the rather rigid traditions of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts, espousing the latest trends that they had learned in Paris. Among the group were Anna and Michael Ancher, Peder Severin Krøyer, Holger Drachmann, Karl Madsen, Laurits Tuxen, Marie Krøyer, Carl Locher, Viggo Johansen and Thorvald Niss from Denmark, Oscar Björck and Johan Krouthén from Sweden, Christian Krohg and Eilif Peterssen from Norway; the group gathered together at the Brøndums Inn. Skagen, in the north of Jutland, was the largest fishing community in Denmark, with more than half of its population so engaged.
Among the locals, fishermen were by far the most common subject for the Skagen painters. Skagen's long beaches were exploited in the group's landscapes. S. Krøyer, one of the best-known of the Skagen painters, was inspired by the light of the evening "Blue hour", which made the water and sky seem to optically merge; this is captured in one of his most famous paintings, Summer Evening at Skagen Beach – The Artist and his Wife. Although the painters had their own individual styles without any requirement to adhere to a common approach or manifest, one of their common interests was to paint scenes of their own social gatherings, playing cards, celebrating or eating together. Michael Ancher drew attention to the attractions of the area when his Will He Round the Point? was purchased by King Christian IX. He married Anna Brøndum, the only member of the group from Skagen, who became a pioneering female artist at a time when women were not permitted to study at Denmark's Royal Academy. Today the Skagens Museum, founded in the dining room at Brøndum's Hotel in October 1908, hosts many of their works of art, some 1,800 pieces in total.
Many of the paintings are accessible online. Related exhibitions continue to be held. C. presented "A World Apart: Anna Ancher and the Skagen Art Colony". The first notable artist to paint in Skagen was Martinus Rørbye, one of the central figures of the Golden Age of Danish Painting, his first visit was in 1833 but he returned towards the end of his life in 1847 and 1848. He is remembered in particular for his Men of Skagen on a Summer Evening in Fair Weather painted in 1848. Another marine painter, Vilhelm Melbye, visited Skagen in 1848. According to Karl Madsen, the painter Peter Raadsig visited the town on several occasions between 1862 and 1870, painting the dunes and the fishermen. Christian Blache, another marine painter, first visited Skagen in 1869 when he painted his Grey Lighthouse, it was as a result of his influence that the poet and dramatist Holger Drachmann first visited the town in 1871. In the 1860s and 1870s, despite evolving trends in Europe in Paris, embracing Realism and Impressionism, the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and the Royal Swedish Academy of Arts refused to change their approach, insisting their students should continue to paint in the preferred styles of Historicism and Neoclassicism.
Among those who were frustrated by this approach were Michael Ancher, Karl Madsen and Viggo Johansen who in the early 1870s were studying at the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen. Madsen, who had visited Skagen in 1871 while staying with his uncle in nearby Frederikshavn, invited Ancher to join him there in 1874, to paint the local fishermen, he became a friend of the Brøndum family who had a shop with a bar, soon extended to become Brøndums Gastgiveri, a guest house. He was invited to their 15-year-old daughter Anna's confirmation and showed an immediate interest in her; the following year, he returned to Skagen with both Madsen and Viggo Johansen, influenced by French Impressionism. In particular, Johansen began to paint open-air scenes combining Impressionism with Realism. In 1876 and in 1877, several other artists spent the summer in Skagen, using the Brøndums' house for accommodation and their frequent gatherings. Michael Ancher made Skagen his new home, he became engaged to Anna Brøndum in 1878 and married her in 1880.
Their home became a focal point for the artists after King Christian IX bought Ancher's painting Will He Round the Point?. Anna Ancher first took a serious interest in painting after the artists began to stay in her family's inn, leaving their paintings to dry in their rooms when they left for the day, she studied them and in 1875 attended Vilhelm Kyhn's art school in Copenhagen. She was influenced by Christian Krohg who taught her the art of painting people in their everyday lives and making full use of colour. Krohg first came to Skagen in the summer of 1878, encouraged by Georg Brandes whom he had met in Berlin, he brought many of the latest international art trends with him, influencing the other members of the group. His encounters with the local population exerted a strong influence on his own work. In 1882, the Anchers travelled abroad. While they were in Vienna, they met P. S. Krøyer who informed them he would be going to Skagen that year, despite the fact that Ancher
Death and the Maiden (motif)
Death and the Maiden was a common motif in Renaissance art painting and prints in Germany. The usual form shows just two figures, with a young woman being seized by a personification of Death shown as a skeleton. Variants may include other figures, it developed from the Danse Macabre with an added erotic subtext. The German artist Hans Baldung depicted it several times; the motif was revived during the romantic era in the arts, a notable example being Franz Schubert's song "Der Tod und das Mädchen", setting a poem by the German poet Matthias Claudius. Part of the piano part was re-used in Schubert's famous String Quartet No. 14, therefore known by this title, in either English or German. Painting: Death and the Maiden by Niklaus Manuel Deutsch I Painting: Death and the Maiden by Hans Baldung Grien Engraving: Death and the Maiden by Edvard Munch Painting: Death and the Maiden by Adolf Hering - the painting is part of a private collection, the location is unknown. Painting: Death and the Maiden by Marianne Stokes Painting: Death and the Maiden by Egon Schiele Drawing: Death and the Maiden by Clara Siewert Drawing: Death and the Maiden by Joseph Beuys Death and the Maiden @ La Mort dans l'Art
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The three founders were joined by William Michael Rossetti, James Collinson, Frederic George Stephens and Thomas Woolner to form the seven-member "brotherhood", their principles were shared by other artists, including Ford Madox Brown, Arthur Hughes and Marie Spartali Stillman. A medievalising strain inspired by Rossetti included Edward Burne-Jones and extended into the twentieth century with artists such as John William Waterhouse; the group's intention was to reform art by rejecting what it considered the mechanistic approach first adopted by Mannerist artists who succeeded Raphael and Michelangelo. Its members believed the Classical poses and elegant compositions of Raphael in particular had been a corrupting influence on the academic teaching of art, hence the name "Pre-Raphaelite". In particular, the group objected to the influence of Sir Joshua Reynolds, founder of the English Royal Academy of Arts, whom they called "Sir Sloshua".
To the Pre-Raphaelites, according to William Michael Rossetti, "sloshy" meant "anything lax or scamped in the process of painting... and hence... any thing or person of a commonplace or conventional kind". The brotherhood sought a return to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of Quattrocento Italian art; the group associated their work with John Ruskin, an English critic whose influences were driven by his religious background. The group continued to accept the concepts of history painting and mimesis, imitation of nature, as central to the purpose of art; the Pre-Raphaelites defined themselves as a reform movement, created a distinct name for their form of art, published a periodical, The Germ, to promote their ideas. The group's debates were recorded in the Pre-Raphaelite Journal; the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street, London in 1848. At the first meeting, the painters John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt were present.
Hunt and Millais were students at the Royal Academy of Arts and had met in another loose association, the Cyclographic Club, a sketching society. At his own request Rossetti became a pupil of Ford Madox Brown in 1848. At that date and Hunt shared lodgings in Cleveland Street, Central London. Hunt had started painting The Eve of St. Agnes based on Keats's poem of the same name, but it was not completed until 1867; as an aspiring poet, Rossetti wished to develop the links between Romantic art. By autumn, four more members, painters James Collinson and Frederic George Stephens, Rossetti's brother and critic William Michael Rossetti, sculptor Thomas Woolner, had joined to form a seven-member-strong brotherhood. Ford Madox Brown was invited to join, but the more senior artist remained independent but supported the group throughout the PRB period of Pre-Raphaelitism and contributed to The Germ. Other young painters and sculptors became close associates, including Charles Allston Collins, Alexander Munro.
The PRB intended to keep the existence of the brotherhood secret from members of the Royal Academy. The brotherhood's early doctrines, as defined by William Michael Rossetti, were expressed in four declarations: to have genuine ideas to express; the principles were deliberately non-dogmatic, since the brotherhood wished to emphasise the personal responsibility of individual artists to determine their own ideas and methods of depiction. Influenced by Romanticism, the members thought responsibility were inseparable, they were fascinated by medieval culture, believing it to possess a spiritual and creative integrity, lost in eras. The emphasis on medieval culture clashed with principles of realism which stress the independent observation of nature. In its early stages, the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood believed its two interests were consistent with one another, but in years the movement divided and moved in two directions; the realists were led by Hunt and Millais, while the medievalists were led by Rossetti and his followers, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris.
The split was never absolute, since both factions believed that art was spiritual in character, opposing their idealism to the materialist realism associated with Courbet and Impressionism. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was influenced by nature and its members used great detail to show the natural world using bright and sharp focus techniques on a white canvas. In attempts to revive the brilliance of colour found in Quattrocento art and Millais developed a technique of painting in thin glazes of pigment over a wet white ground in the hope that the colours would retain jewel-like transparency and clarity, their emphasis on brilliance of colour was a reaction to the excessive use of bitumen by earlier British artists, such as Reynolds, David Wilkie and Benjamin Robert Haydon. Bitumen produces unstable areas of an effect the Pre-Raphaelites despised. In 1848, Rossetti and Hunt made a list of "Immortals", artistic heroes whom they admired from literature, some of whose work would form subjects for PRB paintings, notably including Keats and Tennyson.
The first exhibitions of Pre-Raphaelite work occurred in 1849. Both Millais's Isabella and Holman Hunt's Rienzi were exhibited at
World's Columbian Exposition
The World's Columbian Exposition was a world's fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World in 1492. The centerpiece of the Fair, the large water pool, represented the long voyage Columbus took to the New World. Chicago bested New York City, Washington, D. C. and St. Louis for the honor of hosting the fair; the Exposition was an influential social and cultural event and had a profound effect on architecture, the arts, Chicago's self-image, American industrial optimism. The layout of the Chicago Columbian Exposition was, in large part, designed by John Wellborn Root, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmsted and Charles B. Atwood, it was the prototype of what his colleagues thought a city should be. It was designed to follow Beaux Arts principles of design, namely French neoclassical architecture principles based on symmetry and splendor; the color of the material used to cover the buildings façades gave the fairgrounds its nickname, the White City.
Many prominent architects designed its 14 "great buildings". Artists and musicians were featured in exhibits and many made depictions and works of art inspired by the exposition; the exposition covered 690 acres, featuring nearly 200 new buildings of predominantly neoclassical architecture and lagoons, people and cultures from 46 countries. More than 27 million people attended the exposition during its six-month run, its scale and grandeur far exceeded the other world's fairs, it became a symbol of the emerging American Exceptionalism, much in the same way that the Great Exhibition became a symbol of the Victorian era United Kingdom. Dedication ceremonies for the fair were held on October 21, 1892, but the fairgrounds were not opened to the public until May 1, 1893; the fair continued until October 30, 1893. In addition to recognizing the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the New World by Europeans, the fair served to show the world that Chicago had risen from the ashes of the Great Chicago Fire, which had destroyed much of the city in 1871.
On October 9, 1893, the day designated as Chicago Day, the fair set a world record for outdoor event attendance, drawing 751,026 people. The debt for the fair was soon paid off with a check for $1.5 million. Chicago has commemorated the fair with one of the stars on its municipal flag. Many prominent civic and commercial leaders from around the United States participated in the financing and management of the Fair, including Chicago shoe company owner Charles H. Schwab, Chicago railroad and manufacturing magnate John Whitfield Bunn, Connecticut banking and iron products magnate Milo Barnum Richardson, among many others; the fair was planned in the early 1890s during the Gilded Age of rapid industrial growth and class tension. World's fairs, such as London's 1851 Crystal Palace Exhibition, had been successful in Europe as a way to bring together societies fragmented along class lines; the first American attempt at a world's fair in Philadelphia in 1876, drew crowds but was a financial failure.
Nonetheless, ideas about distinguishing the 400th anniversary of Columbus' landing started in the late 1880s. Civic leaders in St. Louis, New York City, Washington DC and Chicago expressed an interest in hosting a fair to generate profits, boost real estate values, promote their cities. Congress was called on to decide the location. New York's financiers J. P. Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, William Waldorf Astor, among others, pledged $15 million to finance the fair if Congress awarded it to New York, while Chicagoans Charles T. Yerkes, Marshall Field, Philip Armour, Gustavus Swift, Cyrus McCormick, offered to finance a Chicago fair. What persuaded Congress was Chicago banker Lyman Gage, who raised several million additional dollars in a 24-hour period and above New York's final offer. Chicago representatives not only fought for the world's fair on monetary reasons, but on practicality reasons. On a Senate hearing held in January 1890, representative Thomas B. Bryan argued that the most important qualities for a world's fair were'abundant supplies of good air and pure water... ample space and transportation for all exhibits and visitors...
" He argued that New York had too many obstructions, Chicago would be able to use large amounts of land around the city where there was "not a house to buy and not a rock to blast.." and that it would be so located that "the artisan and the farmer and the shopkeeper and the man of humble means" would be able to access the fair. Bryan continued to say that the fair was of'vital interest' to the West, that the West wanted the location to be Chicago; the city spokesmen would continue to stress the essentials of a successful Exposition and that only Chicago was fitted to fill these exposition requirements. The exposition corporation and national exposition commission settled on Jackson Park and an area around it as the fair site. Daniel H. Burnham was selected as director of works, George R. Davis as director-general. Burnham emphasized architecture and sculpture as central to the fair and assembled the period's top talent to design the buildings and grounds including Frederick Law Olmsted for the grounds.
The temporary buildings were designed in an ornate Neoclassical style and painted white, resulting in the fair site being referred to as the "White City". The Exposition's offices set up shop in the upper floors of the Rand McNally Building on Adams Street, the world's first all-steel-fram