Downtown Fall River Historic District
Downtown Fall River Historic District is a historic district on North and South Main, Granite, Bank and Elm Streets in Fall River, Massachusetts. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983; the Downtown Fall River Historic District contains many historic banks and other commercial properties along North Main Street. This area was impacted by the Great Fire of 1928, which destroyed many buildings located in what is now the historic district; as a result, many of the buildings date from about 1928 or 1929, having been rebuilt shortly after the fire. The area was greatly impacted in the 1960s with the construction of Interstate-195 through the center of downtown, which resulted in the demolition of the Old City Hall, the Second Granite Block and several other 19th century commercial blocks. United States Post Office, Bedford Street State Armory, Bank Street Public Library, North Main Street Bank Five, North Main Street Masonic Temple, North Main Street Police Athletic League Hall, Franklin Street National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts
Academy Building (Fall River, Massachusetts)
Academy Building is a historic building on South Main Street in Fall River, Massachusetts. The building was constructed in 1875 as a memorial to Nathaniel Briggs Borden by his family, it opened its doors on January 6, 1876. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973; the building is located on land once owned by Nathaniel Briggs Borden, an early Fall River businessman and politician who died in 1865. The building was designed as a memorial to him by his widow Lydia and his three adult children, Nathaniel, Jr. and Louisa Borden Aldrich. The family obtained the services of noted Boston architects H. W. Hartwell and A. E. Swasey, who had designed several notable buildings in Fall River, including the Central Congregational Church on Rock Street and Simeon's mansion on Highland Avenue. Like these other structures, the Borden Block was designed in the Ruskinian Gothic Revival style, featuring polychrome brick and carved stone details; the four story building was constructed by the Hull Brothers of Providence.
Their initial cost estimate was $260,000. However, the cost of the building escalated during construction attributed to foundation problems. Large mortgages were obtained by the Borden family from local banks. Shares in the building were sold to several local businessmen. By July 1882, the three Borden siblings no longer owned the building. At the time of its 1876 opening, the building's theatre boasted the second largest theatre in Massachusetts; the first program, on January 6, 1876, featured the Theodore Thomas Orchestra. The theatre hosted the Boston Symphony Orchestra numerous times during the 1880s; the theatre hosted various drama and comedy stage acts from the time that it opened well into the early 20th century, the motion pictures began to be shown. The building was used for grand balls, political rallies and other events. In addition to the theatre, the building's original design included commercial shops at street level and numerous offices in its upper levels; the Borden Block contained the city's first telephone exchange from 1879 to 1890, when it was relocated to its own building.
In 1910, William J. Dunn became the sole owner of the building. In 1946, the Dunn heirs leased the building to Zeitz Theatre Company, it reopened in November 1946 after extensive renovations. During the 1960s and 1970s, the building fell into disrepair, it was acquired by the Fall River Redevelopment Authority in 1973, which had planned to demolish the building. In 1979, the Academy Building was photographed as part of the Historic American Buildings Survey. During the 1980s, the building was restored; the theatre portion of the building was removed. Today the building is occupied by senior apartments, with retail spaces at street level along South Main Street. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts Massasoit Fire House No. 5 Pocasset Firehouse No. 7 HABS Listing Historic Structures
American Federation of Labor
The American Federation of Labor was a national federation of labor unions in the United States founded in Columbus, Ohio, in December 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor union. Samuel Gompers of the Cigar Makers' International Union was elected president at its founding convention and reelected every year, except one, until his death in 1924; the A. F. of L was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the 20th century after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations by unions which were expelled by the AFL in 1935 over its opposition to industrial unionism. The Federation was founded and dominated by craft unions throughout its first fifty years, after which many craft union affiliates turned to organizing on an industrial union basis to meet the challenge from the Congress of Industrial Organizations in the 1940s. In 1955, the AFL merged with the CIO to create the AFL-CIO, which has comprised the longest lasting and most influential labor federation in the United States to this day.
The American Federation of Labor was organized as an association of trade unions in 1886. The organization emerged from a dispute with the Knights of Labor organization, in which the leadership of that organization solicited locals of various craft unions to withdraw from their International organizations and to affiliate with the K of L directly, an action which would have taken funds from the various unions and enriched the K of L's coffers; the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions merged into what would become the American Federation of Labor. One of the organizations embroiled in this controversy was the Cigar Makers' International Union, a group subject to competition from a dual union, a rival "Progressive Cigarmakers' Union," organized by members suspended or expelled by the CMIU; the two cigar unions competed with one another in signing contracts with various cigar manufacturers, who were at this same time combining themselves into manufacturers' associations of their own in New York City, Cincinnati and Milwaukee.
In January 1886, the Cigar Manufacturers' Association of New York City attempted to flex its muscle by announcing a 20 percent wage cut in factories around the city. The Cigar Makers' International Union refused to accept the cut and 6,000 of its members in 19 factories were locked out by the owners. A strike lasting four weeks ensued. Just when it appeared that the strike might be won, the New York District Assembly of the Knights of Labor leaped into the breach, offering to settle with the 19 factories at a lower wage scale than that proposed by the CMIU, so long as only the Progressive Cigarmakers' Union was employed; the leadership of the CMIU was enraged and demanded that the New York District Assembly be investigated and punished by the national officials of the Knights of Labor. The committee of investigation was controlled by individuals friendly to the New York District Assembly and the latter was exonerated; the American Federation of Labor was thus formed as an alliance of craft unions outside the Knights of Labor as a means of defending themselves against this and similar incursions.
On April 25, 1886, a circular letter was issued by Adolph Strasser of the Cigar Makers and P. J. McGuire of the Carpenters, addressed to all national trade unions and calling for their attendance of a conference in Philadelphia on May 18; the call stated that an element of the Knights of Labor was doing "malicious work" and causing "incalculable mischief by arousing antagonisms and dissensions in the labor movement." The call was signed by Strasser and McGuire, along with representatives of the Granite Cutters, the Iron Molders, the secretary of the Federation of Trades of North America, a forerunner of the AFL founded in 1881. Forty-three invitations were mailed, which drew the attendance of 20 delegates and letters of approval from 12 other unions. At this preliminary gathering, held in Donaldson Hall on the corner of Broad and Filbert Streets, the K of L was charged with conspiring with anti-union bosses to provide labor at below going union rates and with making use of individuals who had crossed picket lines or defaulted on payment of union dues.
The body authored a "treaty" to be presented to the forthcoming May 24, 1886, convention of the Knights of Labor, which demanded that the K of L cease attempting to organize members of International Unions into its own assemblies without permission of the unions involved and that K of L organizers violating this provision should suffer immediate suspension. For its part, the Knights of Labor considered the demand for the parcelling of the labor movement into narrow craft-based fiefdoms to be anathema, a violation of the principle of solidarity of all workers across craft lines. Negotiations with the dissident craft unions were nipped in the bud by the governing General Assembly of the K of L, with the organization's Grand Master Workman, Terence V. Powderly refusing to enter into serious discussions on the matter; the actions of the New York District Assembly of the K of L were upheld. Convinced that no accommodation with the leadership of the Knights of Labor was possible, the heads of the five labor organizations which issued the call for the April 1886 conference issued a new call for a convention to be held December 8, 1886 in Columbus, Ohio in order to construct "an American federation of alliance of all national and international trade unions."
Forty-two delegates representing 13 national unions and various other local labor organizations responded to the call, agreeing to form themselves into an American Federation of Labor. Revenue for the new organization was to be raised on the basis of a "per-capita tax" of its member organizations, se
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
Slade's Ferry Bridge
The Slade's Ferry Bridge was a steel swing double layered truss bridge that spanned the Taunton River between Somerset and Fall River, Massachusetts. It included a swing span to allow river traffic through, it was built in 1875 and removed in 1970. The alignment of the bridge carried it from Remington Street in Fall River to the junction of Riverside Avenue, Brayton Avenue and Wilbur Avenue in Somerset. Route 103 continued across the river to the junction of Davol Street and Brownell Avenue, where it terminated at Route 138 and Route 6. Today Route 103 continues north up Riverside Avenue. There is a house located on the footing of the bridge on the Somerset side today. List of crossings of the Taunton River
History of Fall River, Massachusetts
For much of its history, the city of Fall River, Massachusetts has been defined by the rise and fall of its cotton textile industry. From its beginnings as a rural outpost of the Plymouth Colony, the city grew to become the largest textile producing center in the United States during the 19th century, with over one hundred mills in operation by 1920. With the demise of local textile productions during the 20th century, there remains a lasting legacy of its impact on the city. At the time of the establishment of the Plymouth Colony in 1620, the area that became the city of Fall River was inhabited by the Pokanoket Wampanoag tribe, headquartered at Mount Hope in what is now Bristol, Rhode Island; the "falling" river that the name Fall River refers to is the Quequechan River. Quequechan is a Wampanoag word believed to mean "Falling River" or "Leaping/Falling Waters." In 1653, Massachusetts was settled at Assonet Bay by members of the Plymouth Colony, as part of Freeman's Purchase, which included the northern part of what is now Fall River.
In 1683 Freetown was incorporated as a town within the colony. The southern part of what is now Fall River was incorporated as the town of Tiverton, as part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1694, a few years after the merger with the Plymouth Colony. In 1746, in the settlement of a long colonial boundary dispute between Rhode Island and Massachusetts, Tiverton was annexed to Rhode Island, along with Little Compton and what is now Bristol County, Rhode Island; the state boundary was placed at what is now Columbia Street. In 1703, Benjamin Church, a prominent veteran of King Philip's War, established a sawmill, a gristmill and a fulling mill on the Quequechan River. In 1714, Church sold his land, including the water rights, to Richard Borden of Tiverton and his brother Joseph. Native settlement during this time was confined to a reservation near what is now Notre Dame Cemetery; the reservation was shifted to the eastern shore of Watauppa Pond. The reservation fell apart in the early 20th century.
By the mid-18th century, Thomas Borden operated a sawmill and a gristmill on the south bank of the Quequechan River, while Joseph Borden ran a fulling mill further upstream. Steven Borden operated a sawmill on the north bank of the river. During this time, settlement occurred in the northern part of modern-day Fall River, along what is now North Main Street; the oldest remaining house in Fall River, located on French Street, was built in 1750. On May 25, 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Freetown was fought when about 150 English soldiers, under the command of Major Ayers, sailed up Mount Hope Bay in the night and landed near the mouth of the Quequechan River. Spotted by a sentinel, the ship was fired upon by several local minutemen, their gunfire returned by cannon fire. Several British soldiers disembarked to lay siege on the village, burning the house and sawmill of Thomas Borden, taking his aged father, prisoner, burning his house as well; the prisoner was released after several days, the British retreated from Freetown altogether.
The Freetown minutemen were aided by a colonist militia from the Tiverton outpost led by Captain Joseph Durfee, a war veteran returned from a battle at White Plains and son of Thomas Durfee Esq. of Freetown. The British suffered two casualties as a result of the light fighting; the colonists suffered no losses. In 1788 during the Revolutionary War, the area was visited by the Marquis de Lafayette, the famed French war hero, a guest of Joseph Durfee's father Thomas Durfee; the 1750s-vintage house is now located at 94 Cherry Street in Fall River, is open to the public for tours. Today, Lafayette Park in the city's East End is named for the French war hero. On February 26, 1803 "Fallriver", Massachusetts was incorporated as a town. A year on June 1, 1804, Fallriver changed its name to "Troy"; the name "Troy" was used for 30 years and was changed to the separated "Fall River" on February 12, 1834. The early town consisted of about two dozen families, including Richard Borden and his father Thomas; the other notable family names included Durfee, Buffington and Cook.
The First Congregational Church in Fall River was organized in 1816. The church began with five members, their first meeting house was dedicated in 1823. Some years they sold it to the Unitarian Society; that society sold it to the city, which made a schoolhouse of it. It was burned in the great fire of July 1843. Other early churches established in Fall River include the First Baptist Church, Methodist Church, Unitarian Society, the Episcopal Church of the Ascension. Irish Catholics had been established in a small house by 1836, with their first church, St. John the Baptist, dedicated in 1840. During this time, the southern part of what is now Fall River remained part of Tiverton, Rhode Island. In 1856, the town of Tiverton voted to split off its industrial northern section as Fall River, Rhode Island. In 1861, after decades of dispute, the United States Supreme Court moved the boundary to what is now State Avenue, thereby creating a City of Fall River within Massachusetts. By 1843, the town of Fall River
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –